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Author: John M. Sharp; Category: Electronics; Length: Pages; Year: The Complete Guide to WIRING - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. The Complete Guide to WIRING. TLC recommends that you download and save this pdf document and . procedure or electrical safety textbook or a comprehensive source book on electrical .. a means of connecting apparatus that utilize electricity to the wiring system.
The cover on the elbow fitting can be removed to make it easier to extend a fish tape and pull wires. Leave at least 2 ft. Remove the cover on an elbow fitting when extending the fish tape around tight corners. Use extreme care when using a metal fish tape inside a circuit breaker panel. And After the boxes that house the switches and receptacles tend to be very shallow and more difficult to work with than ordinary boxes.
Before Surface-mounted wiring circuits are networks of cable channels and electrical boxes that allow you to run new wiring without cutting into walls.
If you are tying into a standard switch box for power.
Surface-Mounted Wiring S urface-mounted wiring is a network of electrical circuits that run through small. But more often.
They are not allowed for some specific applications damp areas such as bathrooms. If you have a room with too much demand on a single receptacle inset. The main advantage to a surface-mounted wiring system is that you can add a new fixture onto a circuit without cutting into your walls.
The systems include matching elbows.
The tracks house THNN wires that run from the new box to new receptacles and light switches. For home wiring. Both systems include box extenders for tying in to a receptacle C.
Lighter-duty plastic raceways A. Remove the receptacle from the box by unscrewing the two long screws that hold it to the box.
Remove the cover plate from the receptacle by unscrewing the screw that holds the plate to the electrical box. If the sensor does not beep or light up.
If your existing receptacle is not a tamper-resistant model replace it with one see page Once the screws are out. Depending on how your receptacle has been wired. download a surface-mounted starter box. Set the screws and the plate aside. If the sensor beeps or lights up. Measure from the power source to the new receptacle or switch.
With the cover plate off. download enough raceway to cover this distance plus about 10 percent extra. Detach these wires and set the receptacle aside. Often the prepunched knockouts have two profile options—make sure the knockout you remove matches the profile of your track. Pull all the wires you just disconnected through the opening. Screw the mounting plate to the existing receptacle box with the included mounting screws. Drive the mounting screws through the holes in the box and into the threaded openings in the mounting plate.
Secure the track or conduit in a vise or clamping work support. If the plate is not located over a wall stud. Position the mounting plate for the receptacle box up against the reference line and secure it with screws driven through the mounting plate holes.
Some work better than others. Mark screw locations on the wall. For best results. Of course. For this. At the new receptacle location.
The common tapered plastic sleeves that are driven into guide holes will work for lighter duty. Once the cut is made. Ideally anything you attach to a drywall wall should be anchored at a wall stud location. Use a stud finder to locate and mark all of the wall framing members between the old receptacle and the new one.
Drive the anchor into the guide holes until the flange is flush with the wall surface. Snap the raceway into the clip below the knockout. Install the mounting plates directly below the pieces of track entering the receptacle boxes.
Repeat this same procedure at the new receptacle box. The clips should line up with the knockouts. The elbow piece will have two parts. Corners are available for inside or outside corners and consist of a mounting plate and a cap piece. Measure the distance between the ends of the horizontal parts of the elbows. Line up one end of the track with the end of an elbow and tap the track with a rubber mallet until it is snapped into all of the clips.
Use corner pieces to guide around corners. Be sure to measure all the way to the base of the clip. Snap the long piece of track into the mounting clips. There should be about 3" of wire coming out at each box.
Snake the end of each wire into the starter box. Now you can wire the receptacles. Wrap the end of the black wire around the bottom gold screw on the side of the receptacle. Begin at the new receptacle location. Make sure all of the wire fits completely within the cover pieces.
Then snake the wire all the way through the long piece of track so about 12 to 16" comes out on each end. You may need to rap the plate with a rubber mallet to get enough force to snap it on.
You can use straight connector pieces to join two lengths of track.
Cut black. Much like an elbow piece. Attach the cover plate. Tighten the screw. Connect the green wire to the green-colored screw on the bottom of the receptacle.
Wrap the end of the white wire around the silver screw opposite the gold one you just used. First make sure the power is still off with your touchless circuit tester. Use a screwdriver to drive the two long mounting screws that hold the receptacle to the box. Wrap the end of the black wire around the top gold screw on the side of the receptacle. Install the cover plate. You can now restore the power and test your new receptacle. Join one end of the pigtail with the ends of the bare and green wires in the box using a wire connector.
Wrap the other end of the pigtail around the green screw on the receptacle. Take the black wire that goes into the raceway and wrap the end of the wire around the bottom gold screw on the side of the receptacle. The smallest common boxes. It is typically rectangular. Electrical panels function like other electrical boxes insofar as they house connections. Be sure to refer to a box fill chart see page 60 to learn which size and shape box is required for your job.
But they are not one-size fits all. Subpanels are smaller electrical panels that perform the same function but are supplied by the main service panel so they can distribute power into multiple circuits in a remote spot.
The box may be as simple as a small handy box for making a splice or as complex as a amp main service panel. Installing a box that is too small is an extremely common wiring mistake that is easy to understand: In addition to the maximum box fill allowed by the chart. Electrical boxes come in several shapes. Replace an undersized box with a larger box using the Electrical Box Fill Chart right as a guide.
Octagonal electrical boxes contain wire connections for ceiling fixtures. This is an important fire safety rule. Do not overfill the box inset. Electrical Boxes T he National Electrical Code requires that wire connections and cable splices be contained inside an approved metal or plastic box. A box must be deep enough so a switch or receptacle can be removed or installed easily without crimping and damaging the circuit wires.
The box shields framing members and other flammable materials from electrical sparks and protects people from being shocked. A properly installed octagonal box can support a ceiling fixture weighing up to 35 pounds. Any box must be covered with a tightly fitting cover plate. Rectangular and square boxes are used for switches and receptacles. The box must also be large enough to safely dissipate the heat from wires.
Because the ceiling fixture attaches directly to the box. The NEC also says that all electrical boxes must remain accessible. Electrical boxes are available in different depths.
Never cover an electrical box with drywall. Rectangular boxes are used with wall switches and duplex receptacles. Single-size rectangular boxes shown above may have detachable sides that allow them to be ganged together to form double-size boxes. They are used for cable splices and ganged receptacles or switches. To install one switch or receptacle in a square box, use an adapter cover. Braced octagonal boxes fit between ceiling joists. The metal braces extend to fit any joist spacing and are nailed or screwed to framing members.
Old work boxes can be installed to upgrade older boxes or to allow you to add new additional receptacles and switches. One type above has built-in clamps that tighten against the inside of a wall and hold the box in place. Plastic boxes are common in new construction. The box may include preattached nails for anchoring it to framing members. Wall switches must have grounding screws if installed in plastic boxes. Outdoor boxes have sealed seams and foam gaskets to guard a switch or receptacle against moisture.
Corrosion-resistant coatings protect all metal parts. Code compliant models include a watertight hood that protects even when the outlet is in use. Common styles include single-gang A , double-gang B , and triple-gang C.
Double-gang and triple-gang boxes require internal cable clamps. Metal boxes should be used for exposed indoor wiring, such as conduit installations in an unfinished basement. Metal boxes also can be used for wiring that will be covered by finished walls. Plastic retrofit boxes are used when a new switch or receptacle must fit inside a finished wall. Use internal cable clamps.
Additional electrical boxes include, cast aluminum box A for use with outdoor fixtures, including receptacles that are wired through metal conduit these must have in-use covers if they house receptacles ; old work ceiling box B used for light fixtures; light-duty ceiling fan box C with brace that spans ceiling joists; heavy-duty retrofit ceiling fan box D designed for retrofit; PVC box E for use with PVC conduit in indoor or outdoor setting; vapor-proof ceiling box with foam gasket F.
A variety of adapter plates are available, including junction box cover plate A , single-gang B , double-gang C , and light fixture D.
Adapter plates come in several thicknesses to match different wall constructions. After installing cables in the box, tighten the cable clamps over the cables so they are gripped firmly, but not so tightly that the cable sheathing is crushed.
Metal boxes must be bonded to the circuit grounding system. Connect the circuit grounding wires to the box with a green insulated pigtail wire and wire connector as shown or with a grounding clip page Cables entering a metal box must be clamped.
A variety of clamps are available, including plastic clamps A, C and threaded metal clamps B. Most are sold prefitted with installation hardware—from metal wings to 10d common nails attached at the perfect angle for a nail-in box. The bulk of the nonmetallic boxes sold today are inexpensive blue PVC.
You can also download heavier-duty fiberglass or thermoset plastic models that provide a nonmetallic option for installing heavier fixtures such as ceiling fans and chandeliers.
In addition to cost and availability, nonmetallic boxes hold a big advantage over metal boxes in that their resistance to conducting electricity will prevent a sparking short circuit if a hot wire contacts the box. Nonmetallic boxes generally are not approved for exposed areas, where they may be susceptible to damage. Their lack of rigidity also allows them to compress or distort, which can reduce the interior capacity beyond code minimums or make outlets difficult to attach.
Low cost is the primary reason that blue PVC nail-in boxes are so popular. Not only are they inexpensive, they also feature built-in cable clamps so you may not need to download extra hardware to install them.
The standard PVC nail-in box is prefitted with a pair of 10d common nails for attaching to exposed wall studs. These boxes, often called handy boxes, are too small to be of much use see fill chart, page Nonmetallic boxes for home use include: Single-gang, double-gang, triple gang, and quad boxes A ; thermoset and fiberglass boxes for heavier duty B ; and round fixture boxes C for ceiling installation nail-in and with integral metal bracket. Do not break off the tabs that cover cable entry holes in plastic boxes.
These are not knockouts as you would find in metal boxes. In single-gang boxes right , the pressure from the tab is sufficient to secure the cable as long as it enters with sheathing intact and is stapled no more than 8" from the box.
On larger boxes left , you will find traditional knockouts intended to be used with plastic cable clamps that resemble metal cable clamps. Use these for heavier gauge cable and cable with more than three wires. Nail-in boxes A are prefitted with 10d nails that are attached perpendicular to the face of single-gang boxes and at an inward angle for better gripping power on larger boxes.
Side-mount boxes B feature a nailing plate that is attached to the front of the stud to automatically create the correct setback; adjustable side-mount boxes C are installed the same way but can be moved on the bracket.
Distortion can occur in nonmetallic boxes when nails or other fasteners are overdriven or installed at improper angles, or when the semiflexible boxes are compressed into improperly sized or shaped openings. This can reduce the box capacity and prevent devices and faceplates from fitting.
Integral ribs cast into many nonmetallic boxes are used to register the box against the wall studs so the front edges of the box will be flush with the wall surface after drywall is installed. Otherwise, use a piece of the wallcovering material as a reference. Use your wiring plan as a guide, and follow electrical code height and spacing guidelines when laying out box positions.
Always use the deepest electrical boxes that are practical for your installation. Using deep boxes ensures that you will meet code regulations regarding box volume and makes it easier to make the wire connections. Some electrical fixtures, such as recessed light fixtures, electric heaters, and exhaust fans, have built-in wire connection boxes. Install the frames for these fixtures at the same time you are installing the other electrical boxes.
The box heights recommended on the following pages are for most situations. Boxes heights for handicap accessible situations are different. Electrical boxes in adjacent rooms should be positioned close together when they share a common wall and are controlled by the same circuit.
This simplifies the cable installations and also reduces the amount of cable needed. Recessed fixtures that fit inside wall cavities have built-in wire connection boxes and require no additional electrical boxes. Common recessed fixtures include electric blower-heaters left , bathroom vent fans right , and recessed light fixtures. Install the frames for these fixtures at the same time you are installing the other electrical boxes along the circuit.
Surface-mounted fixtures such as electric baseboard heaters pages to and under-cabinet fluorescent lights pages to also have built-in wire connection boxes.
These fixtures are not installed until it is time to make the final hookups. Anchor the box by driving the mounting nails into the stud.
GFCI receptacle boxes in a bathroom should be mounted so they will be about 10" above the finished countertop. Standard receptacle boxes should be centered 12" above floor level. Open one knockout for each cable that will enter the box using a hammer and screwdriver. Always introduce the new cable through the knockout that is farthest way from the wall stud. Use adapter plates that match the thickness of the finished wall. Break off any sharp edges that might damage vinyl cable sheathing by rotating a screwdriver in the knockout.
Position each box against a framing member so the front face will be flush with the finished wall or ceiling. Use internal cable clamps when using a box with a brace bar. To install a switch box between studs. Place the box for a ceiling light fixture in the center of the room.
Position each box against the side of a stud so the front face will be flush with the finished wall. Slide the box along the brace bar to the desired position.
Position the box on the cross block so the front face will be flush with the finished wall. Nail the ends of the brace bar to joists so the face of the box will be flush with the finished ceiling surface.
To position a light fixture between joists. The box for a thermostat is mounted at 48" to 60". With ceramic tile and wall board B. All boxes for wall switches also are installed at this height. The center of the box for the microwave receptacle is 72" off the floor. In the kitchen shown here. Code requires that the front face of boxes be flush with the finished wall surface.
The centers of the boxes for the range and food disposer receptacles are 12" off the floor. Disconnect the illegally spliced wires. If the ceiling is insulated.
Any unopened knockouts should remain sealed. Test for power. A remodeling brace such as the one seen here is designed to install through a small cutout in the ceiling inset photo. Carefully remove any tape or wire connectors from the exposed slice. A heavy-duty brace is required for anchoring boxes that will support heavy chandeliers and ceiling fans. The easiest way to install one is by nailing the brace to open ceiling joists from above.
Pigtail the copper grounding wires to the green grounding screw in the back of the box. See if there is any slack in the cables so you can gain a little extra cable to work with. Carefully tuck the wires into the box. Turn on the power to the circuit at the main service panel. Tighten the clamp with a screwdriver.
Use wire connectors to reconnect the wires. Make sure the box remains accessible and is not concealed by finished walls or ceilings. Bind the cable ends together and attach string in case they fall into the wall cavity when the old box is removed. Identify the location of nails holding the box to the framing member and cut the nails with a hacksaw or reciprocating saw with a metal blade inserted between the box and the stud.
A pop-in box typically has wings. You also may find that an older switch or receptacle box is too shallow to accommodate a new dimmer or GFCI safely. Disconnect the cable clamps and slide the old box out. The task becomes complicated. Shut off power and remove the old switch or receptacle.
For walls. Install a new pop-in box see next page. It can be made either of metal or plastic. For ceilings. Feed cable into the new box and secure it in the opening after clamping the cables. If no template is provided. Tighten the screws that cause the flip-out wings to pivot right until the box is held firmly in place. With this pop-in box. Connect the switch or receptacle that the box will house. Flip-out wings Bracket arms Inside tab Bracket arms Back of wall Insert the box into the cutout so the tabs are flush against the wall surface.
Electrical Panels E very home has a main panel that distributes electrical current to the individual circuits. Garages and basements that have been updated often have their own subpanels.
Regardless of age.
New homes can have up to amp service with 30 or more circuits. Never remove the protective cover on the panel. The main panel may be found in the basement. In addition to the main panel. If your home has subpanels.
The subpanel resembles the main service panel but is usually smaller. Before making any repair to your electrical system. Many homebuilders are installing dual amp panels to deliver amps to larger houses.
A subpanel has its own circuit breakers or fuses. As our demand for household energy has increased. It may be located near the main panel. After turning off a circuit to make electrical repairs.
Very old wiring may operate on amp service that has only two circuits. A pair of amp panels is much cheaper than one amp panel.
Every circuit in every panel should be labeled see page 22 so circuits can be identified easily. Find the size of the service by reading the amperage rating printed on the main fuse block or main circuit breakers. When handling fuses or circuit breakers.
Panels vary in appearance. These systems usually have two main circuit breakers in the main panel and at least one subpanel. It usually is housed in a gray metal cabinet that contains four individual plug fuses. Insurance companies and mortgage lenders may require a complete electrical system upgrade before issuing a homeowner insurance policy or approving mortgage financing. To shut off power to the entire house. Main fuse block Some older homes may still have a amp fuse panel.
It is adequate for a medium-sized house with no more than three major electric appliances. Plug fuse To shut off power to a circuit. Shut off the appliance circuit by pulling out this fuse block. Major appliance circuits are controlled with another cartridge fuse block.
A circuit breaker panel is housed in a gray metal cabinet that contains two rows of individual circuit breakers. To shut off the power to the entire house. Panel index Circuit breaker amp Fuse Panel To shut off power to individual circuits in a circuit breaker panel.
The system should be upgraded for both convenience and safety. You can determine service size by reading the amperage rating of the main circuit breakers. In systems rated amps and below. A amp service panel is now the minimum standard for all new housing. A amp panel is considered undersized by current standards. Subpanel feeder breaker is a double-pole breaker. These wires are always HOT. Each branch circuit is protected by a circuit breaker that protects the wires from dangerous current overloads.
It divides the current into branch circuits that are carried throughout the house. Neutral bus bar has setscrew terminals for linking all neutral circuit wires to the neutral service wire.
If unsure of your own skills. If you have an older electrical service with fuses instead of circuit breakers. Grounding conductor leads to metal grounding rods driven into the earth or to other grounding electrodes. When installing new circuits. Each carries volts.
Neutral service wire carries current back to the power source after it has passed through the home. Never touch the service wire lugs. Grounding bus bar has terminals for linking grounding wires to the main grounding conductor. Two hot bus bars run through the center of the panel. Follow basic safety procedures and always shut off the main circuit breaker and test for power before touching any parts inside the panel. Main circuit breaker protects the panelboard from overloads and disconnects power to all circuits in the panel.
It is bonded to the neutral bus bar. A amp. Double-pole breaker wired for volts transfers power from both hot bus bars to white and black hot wires in a two-wire cable. A volt circuit has no neutral wire connection. Neutral bus bar has setscrew termi nals for linking neutral circuit wires to the neutral feed wire. Each carries volts of power.
Two hot feeder wires supply volts of power to the two hot bus bars. Grounding bus bar has setscrew terminals for connecting circuit grounding wires. If your service does not provide enough current. Single-pole circuit breaker transfers volts of power from one hot bus bar to the black hot wire in a two-wire cable. Two hot bus bars pass through the center of the service panel. Circuit breaker subpanel can be installed when the main circuit breaker panel does not have enough space to hold circuit breakers for new circuits you want to install.
In a circuit breaker subpanel. Never begin work in a circuit breaker panel until you understand its layout and can identify the parts. Before installing any new wiring. Circuit breaker panels differ in appearance. In most service panels installed after Inside each fuse is a current-carrying metal alloy ribbon. Arc-fault circuit interrupter AFCI breakers provide protection from fire-causing arcs for the entire circuit. Move some of the plug-in appliances to another circuit.
If the fuse blows or the breaker trips again immediately. Double-pole breakers rated for 20 to 60 amps control volt circuits. Amperage ratings for circuit breakers range from 15 to amps.
Single-pole breakers control volt circuits. When a fuse blows or a circuit breaker trips. Be sure to screw the fuse into the adapter first. Plug fuses usually control volt circuits rated for Call a licensed electrician if you suspect a short circuit. Time-delay fuses absorb temporary heavy power loads without blowing. Never replace a fuse with one that has a larger amperage rating. Screw-in plug fuses protect volt circuits that power lights and receptacles.
Most service panels installed before rely on fuses to protect individual circuits. After the second trip they weaken and tend to nuisance trip at lower currents. If a circuit is overloaded. A fuse must match the amperage rating of the circuit.
Fuses and circuit breakers are located in the main service panel and in subpanels. Each circuit breaker has a permanent metal strip that heats up and bends when current passes through it. Cartridge fuses control volt circuits and range from 30 to amps. Fuses are used in older panels.
Tamper-proof plug fuses have threads that fit only matching sockets. Replace breakers that have tripped more than twice—they may fail. Cartridge fuses protect volt appliance circuits and the main shutoff of the service panel. Ground-fault circuit interrupter GFCI provides protection from shocks. Single-pole circuit breakers protect volt circuits. Circuit breakers are listed to trip twice. Remove the individual cartridge fuses from the block using a fuse puller.
Unscrew the fuse. If the metal ribbon inside is cleanly melted left. If not. The breaker should trip to the OFF position. If window is discolored right. If the tester glows. The Story of the Pharaohs by Rev. James Baikie. High-Frequency Ammeters by J. Heldt Vol. Plumbing and Household Sanitation by J. Pickering Putnam. Fleming Vol. Saktik by J. Wireless Possibilities by A. Lummis Paterson. Richardson Vol.
BX: A brand name for an early type of armored cable that is no longer made. The current term is armored cable. Cable: Two or more wires that are grouped together and protected by a covering or sheath. Neutral wire: A wire that returns current at zero voltage to the source of electrical power.
Usually covered with white or light gray insulation. Also called the groundedwire. Non-metallic sheathed cable: NM cable consists of two or more insulated conductors and, in most cases, a bare ground wire housed in a durable PVC casing. Outlet: A place where electricity is taken for use. A receptacle is a common type of outlet. A box for a ceiling fan is another type of outlet. Circuit: A continuous loop of electrical current flowing along wires.
Overload: A demand for more current than the circuit wires or electrical device was designed to carry. This should cause a fuse to blow or a circuit breaker to trip. Circuit breaker: A safety device that interrupts an electrical circuit in the event of an overload or short circuit.
Pigtail: A short wire used to connect two or more wires to a single screw terminal. Conductor: Any material that allows electrical current to flow through it. Copper wire is an especially good conductor. Polarized receptacle: A receptacle designed to keep hot current flowing along black or red wires and neutral current flowing along white or gray wires.