The approach is skills-based, with emphasis in the Student's Book on listening and speaking. The Workbook concentrates more on reading and writing tasks. The approach is skills-based, with the emphasis in the Student's Book on listening and speaking. The Workbook has greater emphasis on reading and writing. A thorough and practical course for students aiming to work in a commercial environment.
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Commercially Speaking: Student's Book [Mark Irvine] on terney.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A main course for students on vocational courses. Commercially Speaking, Student's Book [Mark Irvine, Marion Cadman] on terney.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Commercially Speaking: Student's Book by Mark Irvine, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
The Known Universe: Try Science: Understanding Evolution: Created for K teachers, this online resource provides a one-stop, comprehensive resource on evolution. The site is divided into a K-6 section and a grades section. This venture gives students the ability to take free computer science lessons online.
Google Code University: This Google site provides course content and tutorials for Computer Science CS students and educators on current computing technologies and paradigms. Computer Science Courses from Great Universities: The more advanced student can watch lectures from computer science courses presented at great universities.
Khan Academy Technology: This innovative reading experience has been adapted from the book The Aesop for Children , and includes outstanding drawings by Milo Winter, a noted illustrator.
American Museum of Natural History: Cosmic Discoveries: Cosmic Discoveries is the first app to collect nearly 1, stunning astronomic images.
All words are accompanied by images and pronounced for you by native speakers. BrainPop Featured Movie: Discover how each brain region functions, what happens when the brain is injured, and how it is involved in mental illness.
Each detailed structure comes with information on functions, disorders, brain damage, case studies, and links to modern research.
Use your touch screen to rotate and zoom around 29 interactive structures. Color Uncovered: Pretty simple, but handy. A good dictionary in your pocket. Touch the views and control the planet with your finger.
This app will turn your iPad into a whiteboard where you can do screencasting.
A handy app for taking notes. This app offers a comprehensive visual database of all known exoplanets planets orbiting other stars discovered so far. It is frequently updated as new discoveries are confirmed. The highly-rated app allows you to easily create and study flashcards without the hassle of having to download and write on actual note cards.
Fotopedia offers a number of other great apps related to foreign travel here. Gene Screen: Gene Screen also provides information on some recessive genetic diseases and genetic screening programs. Google Sky Map: Sky Map enables users to identify stars and planets by pointing their devices towards these objects in the sky. Users can zoom in and out, and switch various layers such as constellations, planets, grids, and deep sky objects.
Users can also determine the locations of planets and stars relative to their own current locations. The highly rated app lets young students find words, steal tiles, and color the board!
Louvre Museum: From the most important museum in Paris, this app provides a virtual tour of the Louvre's galleries and lets users check out the works of everyone from DaVinci to Michelangelo. The app gets you up close and personal with paintings, drawings, prints, sculptures, and even the French Crown Jewels. An app for viewing three-dimensional renderings of molecules and manipulating them using your fingers.
You can rotate the molecules by moving your finger across the display, zoom in or out by using two-finger pinch gestures, or pan the molecule by moving two fingers across the screen at once. Mindsnacks Spanish Lessons: The introductory level is free, although more advanced levels require paying for the app. The perfect resource to help students learn about the moon.
Moon Globe: This free app puts the moon in your pocket with 3D graphics and touch screen navigation. Museum of Modern Art: Name It: It will teach you to recognize species by pictures.
Provides access to 1,, species pages and 1,, pictures. Discover a wealth of great space travel information on this free app. The NASA App collects, customizes and delivers an extensive selection of dynamically updated information, images and videos from various online NASA sources in a convenient mobile package. Available for Android, iPhone and iPad. It also gives you a statistical analysis of your performance. Periodic Table of Elements in HD: Created by Merck, this chemistry app has received lots of praise.
Poetry from the Poetry Foundation: Project Noah: Available for Apple devices and the Android. Quick Graph: Science As you will see, the app comes with some handy functionality: Plus the app automatically remembers the last page you read.
Sight Words List: Sight Words, also known as the Dolch List, are an integral part of learning how to read. The Dolch Word list contains words that are broken down into appropriate age groups. Ideal for kids 1 - 5 years old. Spacecraft 3D: NASA's Spacecraft 3D is an augmented reality application that lets you learn about and interact with a variety of spacecraft that are used to explore our solar system, study Earth, and observe the universe.
SparkNotes -- the publisher of popular literary study guides -- offers a free iPhone app that features 50 pre-installed study guides. And it also gives you access to hundreds of study guides available for viewing online.
S tanza: Another good app for downloading free e-books on the iPhone. TEDTalks need no introduction. The Elementals: Introduces children to the different elements of the periodic table. Highly rated and free. Today in History: Includes over , events. USA Presidents: A flash card app that teaches you cool facts about the historical line of American presidents. Includes videos and images of Van Gogh paintings. The popular blog BoingBoing hosts a podcast called Apps for Kids.
You might want to pay a visit. Everest to the farthest reaches of the observable universe. Bad Astronomy: Bad Astronomy is all about astronomy, space, and science. This channel is dedicated to animated nursery rhymes and stories designed to entertain and educate children between the ages of 2 and 8. Offers inspiration and information for what works in education. This channel features thousands of videos that will teach students the ins and outs of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, statistics, finance, physics, economics and more.
Minute Physics: Cool science videos that are all about getting people into learning physics. NASA Television: NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research. Videos about numbers - it's that simple.
Videos by Brady Haran. Periodic Videos: Your ultimate channel for all things chemistry. A video about each element on the periodic table. Sick Science: Can plants survive beyond Earth?
Can proteins observed in space reveal the mysteries of life? YouTube hosts a section dedicated to academic videos.
Khan Academy Tutorials: SAT Practice: General Reference Web Resources. Encyclopedia Smithsonian: The Smithsonian provides a set of handy online resources across many disciplines. Eric Weisstein's World of Science: Interactive Timelines: This site allows people to create interactive timelines, which they can share anywhere on the web.
Learning Is for Everyone: This non-profit has created a valuable collection of web resources. This right-leaning archive gives users access to American periodicals going back to Provides teachers and students free maps of Europe, the U. Teacher and Parent Resources. Just what the title says. Classroom Earth: Helps teachers integrate environmental education into their classrooms. Climate Classroom: The NWF also offers a great number of lesson plans.
Common Sense Media: Run by The George Lucas Educational Foundation, Edutopia empowers teachers, administrators, and parents with innovative solutions and resources to better education.
You can access materials by grade level: A free high quality K educational resource from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
Google Earth for Science Teachers: Includes a downloadable poster and 25 page manual. The system for digit codes is not compatible and will, in general, give a different check digit from the corresponding digit ISBN, and does not provide the same protection against transposition.
This is because the digit code was required to be compatible with the EAN format, and hence could not contain an "X". According to the edition of the official manual of the International ISBN Agency,  the ISBN check digit  — which is the last digit of the digit ISBN — must range from 0 to 10 the symbol X is used for 10 , and must be such that the sum of all the ten digits, each multiplied by its integer weight, descending from 10 to 1, is a multiple of That is, if x i is the i th digit numbered from right to left beginning at 1, then x 1 must be chosen such that.
Formally, using modular arithmetic , this is rendered:. It is also true for ISBNs that the sum of all the ten digits, each multiplied by its weight in ascending order from 1 to 10, is a multiple of For this example:. The two most common errors in handling an ISBN e. It can be proven that all possible valid ISBNs have at least two digits different from each other.
It can also be proven that there are no pairs of valid ISBNs with eight identical digits and two transposed digits. These are true only because the ISBN is less than eleven digits long, and because 11 is a prime number. The ISBN check-digit method therefore ensures that it will always be possible to detect these two most common types of error, i.
However, if the error occurs in the publishing house and goes undetected, the book will be issued with an invalid ISBN. In contrast, it is possible for other types of error, such as two altered non-transposed digits, or three altered digits, to result in a valid ISBN although it is still unlikely. Each of the first nine digits of the digit ISBN—excluding the check digit itself—is multiplied by its integer weight, descending from 10 to 2, and the sum of these nine products found.
The value of the check digit is simply the one number between 0 and 10 which, when added to this sum, means the total is a multiple of Therefore, the check digit has to be 2, and the complete sequence is ISBN Alternatively, modular arithmetic is convenient for calculating the check digit using modulus The remainder of this sum when it is divided by 11 i.
This remainder plus the check digit must equal either 0 or Therefore, the check digit is 11 minus the remainder of the sum of the products modulo 11 modulo Taking the remainder modulo 11 a second time accounts for the possibility that the first remainder is 0. Strictly speaking the first "modulo 11" is unneeded, but it may be considered to simplify the calculation. It is possible to avoid the multiplications in a software implementation by using two accumulators.
Repeatedly adding t into s computes the necessary multiples:. The modular reduction can be done once at the end, as shown above in which case s could hold a value as large as , for the invalid ISBN X , or s and t could be reduced by a conditional subtract after each addition. The ISBN check digit, which is the last digit of the ISBN, must range from 0 to 9 and must be such that the sum of all the thirteen digits, each multiplied by its integer weight, alternating between 1 and 3, is a multiple of Each digit, from left to right, is alternately multiplied by 1 or 3, then those products are summed modulo 10 to give a value ranging from 0 to 9.
Subtracted from 10, that leaves a result from 1 to A zero 0 replaces a ten 10 , so, in all cases, a single check digit results. Specifically, if the difference between two adjacent digits is 5, the check digit will not catch their transposition. For instance, the above example allows this situation with the 6 followed by a 1.
However, 19 and 9 are congruent modulo 10, and so produce the same, final result: The ISBN formula uses the prime modulus 11 which avoids this blind spot, but requires more than the digits 0—9 to express the check digit. Additionally, if the sum of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th digits is tripled then added to the remaining digits 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, and 13th , the total will always be divisible by 10 i.
The reverse process can also be performed, but not for numbers commencing with a prefix other than , which have no digit equivalent. Publishers and libraries have varied policies about the use of the ISBN check digit. Publishers sometimes fail to check the correspondence of a book title and its ISBN before publishing it; that failure causes book identification problems for libraries, booksellers, and readers.
Most libraries and booksellers display the book record for an invalid ISBN issued by the publisher. If a book exists in one or more digital e-book formats, each of those formats must have its own ISBN. Currently the barcodes on a book's back cover or inside a mass-market paperback book's front cover are EAN ; they may have a separate barcode encoding five digits called an EAN-5 for the currency and the recommended retail price.
The process began on 1 January and was planned to conclude on 1 January As the ISBN supply is exhausted, the prefix was introduced. The digit ISMN codes differed visually as they began with an "M" letter; the bar code represents the "M" as a zero 0 , and for checksum purposes it counted as a 3. Publisher identification code numbers are unlikely to be the same in the and ISBNs, likewise, there is no guarantee that language area code numbers will be the same.
So, migration to an EAN-based system allows booksellers the use of a single numbering system for both books and non-book products that is compatible with existing ISBN based data, with only minimal changes to information technology systems. Hence, many booksellers e. Although many American and Canadian booksellers were able to read EAN barcodes before , most general retailers could not read them. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Unique numeric book identifier.
Conversely, books are published with several ISBNs: If present, hyphens must be correctly placed. The document defining the ranges, listed by agency, is 29 pages.
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