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To request permission, please contact Lippincott Williams & Wilkins at Two. Commerce Visit Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on the Internet: terney.info com. حصريا تحميل كتاب (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series) Microbiology Lippincott Williams & Wilkins () مجاناً PDF اونلاين A MUST READ for. CLS Medical Microbiology. • INSTRUCTOR. Miss Zeina Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (), 7th. Edition. 2. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology.
Some of these mechanisms include metal efflux out of the cell, sequestration of heavy metals in complexes, and reduction of a metal to less toxic species [ 1 , 2 ].
Metal efflux is seen in the case of Cd which is detoxified in gram-negative bacteria by RND-driven system like Czc and Ncc as zinc and Nickel exporters, respectively [ 3 ].
In this way, Mercury leaves the cell by passive diffusion and does not remain inside the cell [ 4 , 5 ]. It probably delivers toxic cations to the mercury transporter system which is subsequently transported into the cytoplasm. An alternative uptake route is also present which involves MerC protein. Multidrug resistance pumps MDR , responsible for the extrusion of chemically unrelated antimicrobial agents composes alternative resistance pathway. This process is mediated by active export of the toxic compounds by means of the proton motive forces [ 6 ].
Multidrug resistance to various organic cationic antiseptics and disinfectant compounds as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide cetrimide has been reported in various organisms including S. Mutations leading to overexpression of the pumps have been identified in clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant strains [ 9 ]. Among these strains, P. This intrinsic multidrug resistance is attributed to the lowpermeability of outer membrane and expression of a number of broadlyspecific multidrug efflux Mex pumps as MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM [ 2 , 9 ].
The broad specificity of MDRs seems to be matched with the broad resistance of biofilms to antimicrobial agents. MDRs are mostly regulated by environmental factors exemplified by induced expression of E. However these pumps play different roles rather than drug efflux including export of the biocides, dyes, detergents, metabolic inhibitors, organic solvents, and molecules participated in bacterial cell-to-cell communication [ 11 ]. UV light is recognized as an effective antiorganism by inactivation of pathogens [ 13 ].
The effectiveness of UV light in biological inactivation aroused from observation of double stranded DNA breaks occurred by UV ray [ 14 ]. The break point is particularly between pyrimidine bases which alters base pairing and induces formation of new linkage between adjacent nucleotides on the same DNA strand. Unrepaired damage blocks DNA replication which ultimately lead to cell cycle arrest and death [ 14 ]. Many organisms developed reparative mechanisms to compensate destructive effects of UV radiation as nucleotide excision repair and photo reactivation [ 11 ].
Since UV radiation is widely used to sterilize operation rooms, utensils, and drinking water, the emergence of bacterial resistance will cause great hygiene problems. As mentioned above, various drug resistance mechanisms are involved in the emergence of pathogen-drug resistance. Would you also like to submit a review for this item?
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