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The video footage from the two cameras was gen-locked and synchronized manually using a hand held switch that caused a barcode in each video field to turn white.
All data collection was performed after sunset under artificial lighting. A wide range of speeds was recorded in prior studies Rubenson et al. These two trials were within 1 S. The 3D position and orientation of the ostrich limb segments were determined by videotaping clusters of non-linear, retro-reflective markers placed on the pelvis, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus and a single marker placed on the end of the third phalanx.
Prior to walking and running trials, static calibration trials were performed in order to identify several key anatomical landmarks necessary to construct segment Anatomical Coordinate Systems ACS; see Rubenson et al. Anatomical landmarks were identified using a 6-marker pointer device and expressed in the segment TCSs. Segment ACSs in both the model below and in the experimental animals were constructed using the same landmarks anatomical landmarks and numerically derived axes and same ordered set of rotations between proximal and distal ACSs.
Thus, 3D joint motion was defined equivalently in the musculoskeletal model and in the experimental animals and we were able to use experimentally derived joint angles as input into our musculoskeletal model to estimate muscular mechanics in vivo during walking and running.
This tracking system is accurate to within 1. We first skinned the right pelvic limb of the ostrich specimen. Each reference frame contained a cluster of LEDs that allowed the tracking system to record the 3D position and orientation of each segment establishing the segment TCSs for the dissections, comparable to that for the experiments.
Figure 1 shows the apparatus we used. We used a digitizing probe Northern Digital Inc. Unlike the LED-emitting reference frames, the digitizing probe had a cluster of highly reflective spheres, making it an untethered and mobile tool. When these spheres were visible to the tracking system, the 3D position of the tip of the probe calibrated in advance could be recorded with respect to the TCS.
This step allowed the TCS to be removed from the bone and reattached in a different area to facilitate the dissection process while still preserving the overall relationship of digitized points on a given bone between sessions. Figure 1: Digitizing apparatus used during anatomical dissection of ostrich.
DOI: The pelvis reference frame was defined as follows: the origin at the midline of the pelvis halfway between the left and right side hip joint centres; the unit vector SUL SYN x-axis; positive being cranial ; the cross-product of the unit vector SUL IL and the x-axis y-axis; positive being dorsal , and cross-product of the x-axis and y-axis z-axis; positive being to the right. To locate the hip joint centres, we digitized 10—20 points in and around the acetabulum and femoral head, and then used least-squares optimization to fit a sphere to each of the two resulting point clouds.
The centre of this best-fit sphere was the hip joint centre. To establish the reference frames for the other segments, we first estimated the medial-lateral joint rotational axis for the remaining joints by flexing and extending each joint and recording the 3D position and orientation of the distal bone with respect to the proximal one as a series of homogeneous transformation matrices.
Figure 2: Ostrich model joint axes x, y, z shown in right lateral A and oblique right dorsolateral B views.
The tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus coordinate systems were defined as: the origin at the proximal joint centre; the y-axis as unit vector between the proximal and distal joint centres; the segment z-axis as the cross product of the medial-lateral joint rotational axis and the y-axis; and the x-axis as the cross-product of the y- and z-axes.
The pes coordinate system was defined as: the origin at the proximal joint centre; the segment x-axis as the unit vector between the proximal joint centre and the end of the segment; the z-axis as the cross product of the medial-lateral joint rotational axis and the x-axis; and the y-axis as the cross-product of the x- and z-axes.
Table 1 provides data on axis positions used in the final model. Table 1: Joint axes for the ostrich musculoskeletal model. The breaking of these chemical bonds in the Krebs Cycle provides the energy needed for muscular contraction. Glucose[ edit ] Because the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in all carbohydrates is always the same as that in water—that is, 2 to 1—all of the oxygen consumed by the cells is used to oxidize the carbon in the carbohydrate molecule to form carbon dioxide.
Consequently, during the complete oxidation of a glucose molecule, six molecules of carbon dioxide and six molecules of water are produced and six molecules of oxygen are consumed.
When listed on nutritional information tables, fats are generally divided into six categories: total fats, saturated fatty acid , polyunsaturated fatty acid , monounsaturated fatty acid , dietary cholesterol , and trans fatty acid. From a basal metabolic or resting metabolic perspective, more energy is needed to burn a saturated fatty acid than an unsaturated fatty acid. The fatty acid molecule is broken down and categorized based on the number of carbon atoms in its molecular structure.
The chemical equation for metabolism of the twelve to sixteen carbon atoms in a saturated fatty acid molecule shows the difference between metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids. Palmitic acid is a commonly studied example of the saturated fatty acid molecule.
Unlike fat the body has no storage deposits of protein. All of it is contained in the body as important parts of tissues, blood hormones, and enzymes. The structural components of the body that contain these amino acids are continually undergoing a process of breakdown and replacement.
This process could severely degrade the protein structures needed to maintain survival such as contractile properties of proteins in the heart, cellular mitochondria, myoglobin storage, and metabolic enzymes within muscles.
Because of the weak protection offered through a patent on the final product, the protection of the innovation regarding vaccines is often made through the patent of processes used in the development of new vaccines as well as the protection of secrecy. Vaccines are complex mixtures of biological compounds, and unlike the case of drugs, there are no true generic vaccines.
The vaccine produced by a new facility must undergo complete clinical testing for safety and efficacy similar to that undergone by that produced by the original manufacturer.
For most vaccines, specific processes have been patented. In the case of a few relatively new vaccines such as the human papillomavirus vaccine, the patents may impose an additional barrier. Vaccine production has several stages. First, the antigen itself is generated. Viruses are grown either on primary cells such as chicken eggs e. Likewise, a recombinant protein derived from the viruses or bacteria can be generated in yeast, bacteria, or cell cultures. After the antigen is generated, it is isolated from the cells used to generate it.
A virus may need to be inactivated, possibly with no further purification required. Recombinant proteins need many operations involving ultrafiltration and column chromatography. Finally, the vaccine is formulated by adding adjuvant, stabilizers, and preservatives as needed. The adjuvant enhances the immune response of the antigen, stabilizers increase the storage life, and preservatives allow the use of multidose vials. Cultured mammalian cells are expected to become increasingly important, compared to conventional options such as chicken eggs, due to greater productivity and low incidence of problems with contamination.
Recombination technology that produces genetically detoxified vaccine is expected to grow in popularity for the production of bacterial vaccines that use toxoids. Combination vaccines are expected to reduce the quantities of antigens they contain, and thereby decrease undesirable interactions, by using pathogen-associated molecular patterns.
Adjuvants are added to promote an earlier, more potent response, and more persistent immune response to the vaccine; they allow for a lower vaccine dosage.
Antibiotics are added to some vaccines to prevent the growth of bacteria during production and storage of the vaccine. Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines as they are prepared using chicken eggs.
Other proteins may be present.
Formaldehyde is used to inactivate bacterial products for toxoid vaccines. Formaldehyde is also used to inactivate unwanted viruses and kill bacteria that might contaminate the vaccine during production. Monosodium glutamate MSG and 2- phenoxyethanol are used as stabilizers in a few vaccines to help the vaccine remain unchanged when the vaccine is exposed to heat, light, acidity, or humidity.
Thimerosal is a mercury-containing antimicrobial that is added to vials of vaccine that contain more than one dose to prevent contamination and growth of potentially harmful bacteria. Due to the controversy surrounding thimerosal it has been removed from most vaccines except multi-use influenza, where it was reduced to levels so that a single dose contained less than 1 microgram of mercury, a level similar to eating 10g of canned tuna.
Thiomersal is more effective against bacteria, has a better shelf-life, and improves vaccine stability, potency, and safety; but, in the U. The development of new delivery systems raises the hope of vaccines that are safer and more efficient to deliver and administer. Early attempts to apply oral vaccines showed varying degrees of promise, beginning early in the 20th century, at a time when the very possibility of an effective oral antibacterial vaccine was controversial.
Effective oral vaccines have many advantages; for example, there is no risk of blood contamination. Vaccines intended for oral administration need not be liquid, and as solids, they commonly are more stable and less prone to damage or to spoilage by freezing in transport and storage. A microneedle approach, which is still in stages of development, uses "pointed projections fabricated into arrays that can create vaccine delivery pathways through the skin".
However, in human studies, this approach has failed to provide clinically relevant benefit. The overall efficacy of plasmid DNA immunization depends on increasing the plasmid's immunogenicity while also correcting for factors involved in the specific activation of immune effector cells.
In some instances, wild populations may be vaccinated. This is sometimes accomplished with vaccine-laced food spread in a disease-prone area and has been used to attempt to control rabies in raccoons. Where rabies occurs, rabies vaccination of dogs may be required by law.
Other canine vaccines include canine distemper , canine parvovirus , infectious canine hepatitis , adenovirus-2 , leptospirosis , bordatella , canine parainfluenza virus , and Lyme disease , among others. Cases of veterinary vaccines used in humans have been documented, whether intentional or accidental, with some cases of resultant illness, most notably with brucellosis.
With the advent of aerosol vaccination in veterinary clinics for companion animals, human exposure to pathogens that are not naturally carried in humans, such as Bordetella bronchiseptica , has likely increased in recent years. DIVA vaccines carry at least one epitope less than the microorganisms circulating in the field.