Bsac 88 Tables - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Dive tables and dive terney.info - Everyone learns to use 'no decompression' tables during the basic open water. When using PADI. If you dive to a maximum depth of 6m, what is your no stop time See BSAC 8. 8 Tables 2. Bsac 88 Dive Tables. pdf Free Download Here BSAC.
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BSAC 88 decompression tables (Air and nitrox diving and Ox-Stops) have been calculated based on a maximum ascent rate of 15 metres per minute up to 6. Diving. BSAC Sports Diver Training On a Dive! Increase in ambient pressure = increase in partial pressure of . Tables/decompression computers will. Why do BSAC use their proprietary BSAC 88 dive tables when *most* of the rest of terney.info terney.info
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All divers underwent echocardiography, either transthoracic TTE or transesophageal TEE , with the use of agitated saline for contrast in order to assess the presence or absence of patency of the foramen ovale.
Prevalence of PFO patent foramen ovale. DCS, decompression sickness.
Numbers in parentheses are total number of cases. The differences were significant in relation to control group on all scales except for Dis. Between the two diver groups only TAS difference was significant. Discussion One of the most remarkable observation was undoubtedly that despite all divers receiving medical counseling about diving safety and DCS prevention when resuming diving consisting of a 1 h consultation with schematic drawing of PFO and bubble possible pathways and risks , more than one third of the diver were admitted for iterative DCS.
This might be explained by two hypotheses.
First, there is the legitimate question of either the effectiveness of preventive measures, or the implementation of these measures when resuming diving after an accident. On one hand, studies that have evaluated procedures to reduce nitrogen load after a first episode of DCS appeared to reduce the probability for subsequent DCS Klingmann et al.
Moreover, the average depth of the causal dives significantly increases with subsequent occurrences of DCS 1st DCS: from This suggests that having had a decompression accident does not seem to constitute a sufficient argument to modify a diver's underwater behavior. Indeed, whereas all sportsmen seek physical sensations, they not necessarily do so by voluntary adopting behaviors known to be dangerous Lafollie and Le Scanff, However, injured divers score very high not only on TAS but also on ES, which means that they are eager to seek new unusual experiences in all areas of life.
Divers also score unusually high on boredom susceptibility. On the disinhibition scale there are no differences with control. High disinhibition scorers enjoy partying but are not willing to take the risk of making a fool of oneself or becoming a social misfit.
For high TAS scorers there is a constant risk of severe injury or death. For high ES scorers there may be the risk of becoming a drug addict and the social consequences that go with it Breivik, Although, the number of multiple injured divers is small, they scored significantly higher on TAS than any other groups, giving support for the notion of physical risk taking. Indeed, many diving accidents are at least in part attributable to failure to follow correct procedures.
Without such data the possibility of the experience having an effect on supposedly stable personality characteristics cannot be ruled out Harding and Gee, Nonetheless, one observation may confirm the importance of behavioral issues.
Indeed, the monthly breakdown of accidents shows that Belgian diver dives all year round independently of the season. This anomaly can possibly be explained either by a more significant number of divers continuing their activity during the winter months, or more probably by the more rigorous winter we had in , , , , compared to other years.
Indeed, when these years are excluded, distribution follows a Gaussian pattern. When planning a dive in cold water or in conditions that might be strenuous, dive tables requires the divers to assume a depth that is 3 m deeper than the actual depth. Nonetheless none of the injured divers during this particular period have adapted their decompression schedules. Another argument seems to confirm the importance of behavior. Normally one star divers are limited in depth.
Indeed, in Belgium, they cannot dive deeper than 15 m 20 m when accompanied by an instructor. Yet the average depth of their accidents is In the same way, the maximum depth allowed in quarry, gravel pit and lake's reservoirs is 40 m pushed for seasoned divers four stars divers and instructors to 60 m in case of air diving.
Yet the average depth of instructor accidents is These faulty dive profiles may reveal some hidden psychological motive or a potential self-destructive attitude questioning diver's capacity to understand and to cope with specific risk.
The second hypothesis relies with the patency of foramen ovale PFO. Our results show an increase of PFO prevalence among multiple injured divers with furthermore, also an increase in PFO grade. Since this is a retrospective study, a selection bias cannot be fully excluded, which would mean our results are just an incidental finding. However, there are arguments why this would not be the case.
Indeed, a statistical correlation has been shown between ischemic cerebral incidents in diving cerebral DCS and large PFOs grade 2. No such correlation has been demonstrated for small PFOs grade 1. Moreover, a prospective follow-up study has documented the increase in PFO size in humans Germonpre et al.
This is an important finding, as the authors stated it, because it may imply that increased susceptibility to neurologic DCS could develop over time. According to our results this seems to be the case. Finally, although not statistically significant, it has to be noted that the risk of residual symptoms, mild or severe, seems to increase with the number of DCS. This might be explained by several mechanisms. Anecdotally, it should be noted that two divers of our series had benefited from a PFO closure within the 10 years preceding their second accident.
During the ultrasound control, they both had a grade 2 PFO despite the device being in place. Studies with long-term follow-up of PFO closure among divers therefore appear mandatory. In the meantime, safe diving is something to be learned, not something that can be implanted Germonpre, There are some inherent limitations to this study, mainly concerning the representativeness of the divers in our database.
First, we cannot be sure that we do not have a full record of all types of incident. If a hyperbaric center is not involved and if those involved do not declare their accident, then it will go unrecorded.
It is impossible to assess just how many incidents are unrecorded. There are many similarities between the two populations. First, the average age is similar The certifications breakdown between the two populations is also very similar.
There are some differences, as our database does not contain any divers with no certification and has a significant over representation of instructors. This seems also logical, as seasoned divers, who naturally achieve higher ranking in their respective organizations through the years, constitute a large part of the examined cohort.
Finally, women constitute This is why this report should be treated as a sample and not as a definitive and complete record.