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download LLB Part 1 and Part 2 books from Urdu Bazar Online with home delivery to all over International Law By SK Kapoor and LN Tandon - AH Publisher. Book Law - Urdu meanings of word Book Law. English to Urdu dictionary gives you the best and accurate urdu meanings of Book Law. law of Pakistan in the form of a book, booklet, pamphlet, journal, or in Pakistan and translation thereof in Urdu and Provincial languages, both in paper and.
By this time the differences between the main parties to the conflict had already crystallized. Bhutto announced on 15 February that his party would not attend the National Assembly unless there was 'some amount of reciprocity' from the Awami League. Sheikh Mujib replied at a press conference on 21 February, asserting that " Our stand is absolutely clear. The constitution will be framed on the basis of the six-points "'. Such announcement led the PPP to demand the removal of the National Assembly session or opening session to be postponed.
The Awami League launched a non-co-operation movement as they virtually controlled the entire province.
With India successfully intervening in the conflict, the Pakistan military surrendered to the Indian military and almost 93, military personnel were taken as prisoners of war on 16 December After Bangladesh was formed in , the PPP formed the government and partially enacted the constitution. The law experts, constitutional analysts, and country's reputed clergymen worked on formulating the constitution that represents the will and desire of people.
On 20 October , the draft was revived by all leaders of the political parties and signed the declaration of adopting the Constitution in the National Assembly on 2 February Contrary to and articles , several ideas in the Constitution were new, and guaranteed security to each citizen of Pakistan. First part of the Constitution introduced the definition of State , the idea of life, liberty and property , individual equality , prohibition of slavery , preservation of languages , right to fair trial , and provided safeguard as to arrest and detention as well as providing safeguards against discrimination in services.
The due process clause of the Constitution was partly based on the British Common law , as many founding fathers and legal experts of the country had followed the British legal tradition.
In contrast to the constitutions of India and Bangladesh , the Constitution reflected a heavy compromise over several issues to maintain a delicate balance of power among the country's institutions.
The Constitution defined the role of Islam ;  Pakistan was to be a Federation of Four Provinces and shall be known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan;  introduction of check and balances , separation of powers , and provided the federal system under which the government should governed.
The Constitution established a " Bicameral Parliament " as a legislative authority that consists of the Senate as Upper house providing equal provincial representation , and National Assembly as Lower house providing the will and representation of people.
In case of complaint of interference in water supply by any province the Council would look into the complaint. Another major innovative introduction in the Constitution is the establishment of the National Finance Commission NFC consisting of the Provincial and Finance Ministers and other members to advice on distribution of revenues between the federation and the provinces.
Under the Constitution, the Fundamental Rights include security of person , safeguards as to arrest and detention, prohibition of slavery and forced labour , freedom of movement , freedom of association , freedom of speech, freedom to profess religion and safeguards to religious institutions, non-discrimination in respect of access to public places and in service, preservation of languages , script and culture.
The judiciary enjoys full supremacy over the other organs of the state. About national languages, Urdu was declared as national languages, and English as official language; all other languages were preserved by the Constitution. Many key ideas on regarding the role of Islam in the State that were mentioned in Articles were made part of the Constitution:.
Schedules are lists in the Constitution that categorise and tabulate bureaucratic activity and policy of the Government. Unlike the previous documents, the Constitution cannot be changed, instead constitutional amendments are passed; altering its effect.
As of [update] , 21 amendments have been introduced to the Constitution.
Among the most important of these are the Eighth and Seventeenth Amendments , which changed the government from a parliamentary system to a semi-presidential system. However, in the Eighteenth Amendment reversed these expansions of presidential powers, returning the government to a parliamentary republic , and also defined any attempt to subvert, abrogate, or suspend the constitution as an act of high treason.
Whereas sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone, and the authority to be exercised by the people of Pakistan within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust;. Wherein the State shall exercise its powers and authority through the chosen representatives of the people;. Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed;.
Wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah;. Wherein adequate provision shall be made for the minorities freely to profess and practise their religions and develop their cultures;.
Wherein the territories now included in or in accession with Pakistan and such other territories as may hereafter be included in or accede to Pakistan shall form a Federation wherein the units will be autonomous with such boundaries and limitations on their powers and authority as may be prescribed;.
Therein shall be guaranteed fundamental rights, including equality of status, of opportunity and before law, social, economic and political justice, and freedom of thought , expression, belief, faith, worship and association, subject to law and public morality;.
Wherein adequate provision shall be made to safeguard the legitimate interests of minorities and backward and depressed classes;. Wherein the integrity of the territories of the Federation, its independence and all its rights, including its sovereign rights on land, sea and air, shall be safeguarded;.
So that the people of Pakistan may prosper and attain their rightful and honoured place amongst the nations of the World and make their full contribution towards international peace and progress and happiness of humanity:.
Faithful to the declaration made by the Founder of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, that Pakistan would be a democratic State based on Islamic principles of social justice ;. Dedicated to the preservation of democracy achieved by the unremitting struggle of the people against oppression and tyranny;.
Inspired by the resolve to protect our national and political unity and solidarity by creating an egalitarian society through a new order;. Do hereby, through our representatives in the National Assembly, adopt, enact and give to ourselves, this Constitution.
With regard to provincial rights the constitution was in fact the most centralised of Pakistan's various constitutions. The Government of India Act of , which Pakistan adopted as its first working constitution, granted the federal government 96 items of power. The constitution reduced that number to 49, and this was retained in the constitution.
In , however, it was then enlarged to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Without proper rendering support , you may see unjoined letters running left to right or other symbols instead of Urdu script. Main article: Pakistan Movement. Constitution of Pakistan of Legal Framework Order, John Locke Two Treatises of Government life, liberty and property.
The official name "Islamic Republic of Pakistan" as selected for the state of Pakistan. Islam is declared as the state religion of Pakistan. Enabling of living life, culture, and customs of Muslims, individually or collectively, in accordance with the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam.
Teachings on Arabic , Quran , and Islamiyat to be compulsory in country's institutions and to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Quran. Proper organisations of Zakat , Waqf , and mosques is ensured.
Prevent prostitution, gambling and consumption of alcohol, printing, publication, circulation, pornography, and display of obscene literature and advertisements.
No restriction as to religion or gender on any other post, up to and including provincial governor and Chief Minister. All existing laws shall be brought in conformity with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such injunctions.
However, the Fourth Amendment set aside six seats in the National Assembly for non-Muslim representatives to protect minority rights. The state shall endeavour to strengthen the bonds of unity among Muslim countries. Islamic revisions were introduced into the Pakistan Penal Code. Amendments to the Constitution of Pakistan. Objectives Resolution. Iqbal third , Syed Zafarul Hasan sixth at Aligarh Muslim University In November , with the encouragement of friends and supporters, Iqbal contested the election for a seat in the Punjab Legislative Assembly from the Muslim district of Lahore, and defeated his opponent by a margin of 3, votes.
Discontent with factional leaders like Muhammad Shafi and Fazl-ur-Rahman, Iqbal came to believe that only Jinnah was a political leader capable of preserving unity and fulfilling the League's objectives of Muslim political empowerment. Building a strong, personal correspondence with Jinnah, Iqbal was an influential force in convincing Jinnah to end his self-imposed exile in London, return to India and take charge of the League. Iqbal firmly believed that Jinnah was the only leader capable of drawing Indian Muslims to the League and maintaining party unity before the British and the Congress: I know you are a busy man but I do hope you won't mind my writing to you often, as you are the only Muslim in India today to whom the community has right to look up for safe guidance through the storm which is coming to North-West India and, perhaps, to the whole of India.
Some historians postulate that Jinnah always remained hopeful for an agreement with the Congress and never fully desired the partition of India. Iqbal elucidated to Jinnah his vision of a separate Muslim state in a letter sent on 21 June A separate federation of Muslim Provinces, reformed on the lines I have suggested above, is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the domination of Non-Muslims.
Why should not the Muslims of North-West India and Bengal be considered as nations entitled to self-determination just as other nations in India and outside India are. Nevertheless, Iqbal worked constantly to encourage Muslim leaders and masses to support Jinnah and the League. Speaking about the political future of Muslims in India, Iqbal said: There is only one way out. Muslims should strengthen Jinnah's hands. They should join the Muslim League.
Indian question, as is now being solved, can be countered by our united front against both the Hindus and the English. Without it, our demands are not going to be accepted. People say our demands smack of communalism. This is sheer propaganda. These demands relate to the defense of our national existence The united front can be formed under the leadership of the Muslim League.
And the Muslim League can succeed only on account of Jinnah. Now none but Jinnah is capable of leading the Muslims. The lectures had been delivered at Madras , Hyderabad and Aligarh. Iqbal expressed fears that not only would secularism weaken the spiritual foundations of Islam and Muslim society, but that India's Hindu -majority population would crowd out Muslim heritage, culture and political influence.
In his travels to Egypt , Afghanistan , Iran and Turkey , he promoted ideas of greater Islamic political co-operation and unity, calling for the shedding of nationalist differences. Ambedkar , Iqbal expressed his desire to see Indian provinces as autonomous units under the direct control of the British government and with no central Indian government.
He envisaged autonomous Muslim provinces in India. Under a single Indian union he feared for Muslims, who would suffer in many respects especially with regard to their existentially separate entity as Muslims. According to the official, the direction was also to adopt a standardized procedure for the publication of all laws, rules and regulations made by the parliament and all the provincial assemblies, correct mistakes in them and regulate private publishers of law books.
He said in the first step, the government had contacted all the district administrations, departments and the Punjab assembly for preparing a list of the best translators. Many people, including lawyers and government officials, had showed their willingness for the work and they were being given sample laws for translation in Urdu to check their ability. After receiving their translations, the willing persons would be shortlisted for interviews and hiring as consultants. The law department was trying to build its own capacity of translating all the existing and new laws into Urdu.
For that purpose it would employ translators. Senior lawyer AK Dogar welcomed the decision and said the translation would end exploitation of people and empower them, enabling them know their rights. On a mobile phone? Get the Dawn Mobile App: Apple Store Google Play. Dear reader, online ads enable us to deliver the journalism you value.
Please support us by taking a moment to turn off Adblock on Dawn. Punjab for Urdu translation of all laws Intikhab Hanif March 12, Facebook Count. Twitter Share. All are in English and are understood or interpreted only by legal experts.