A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells and cellular elements play a role. – The chronic inflammation is associated with airway. Bronchial Asthma. Pathophysiology and management. Dr Deepak Aggarwal. MD, FCCP. Asst. Professor. Pulmonary medicine. Best Treatment Guidelines For Bronchial Asthma. Col SP Rai*, Col AP Patil+, Lt Col V Vardhan#, Maj V Marwah**, M Pethe++, Maj IM Pandey.

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Bronchial Asthma Pdf

The reader acknowledges that this report is intended as an evidence-based asthma management strategy, for the use of health professionals and policy- makers. terney.info • GINA Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, an „asthma syndrome“, that is Definition of bronchial asthma (hereinafter asthma) (Global. Learn more from WebMD about bronchial asthma, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. Abstract Bronchial asthma is a distressing and common form of acute, recurrent, or chronic bronchial inflammation and obstructive emphysema, usually of allergic origin. The acute paroxysm of bronchial asthma may last for hours or recur in varying degrees of severity for days. Finally, a state of intractable asthma, during which the episode is continuous and refractory to treatment, may result. In this state the patient presents a picture of marked physiological imbalance. Evidence of hypoxia, cyanosis, dehydration, disturbed psyche, peripheral vascular collapse, and further disturbances may be noted because of changes induced by the widespread use of drug therapy. Death is more commonly due to asphyxia resulting from the plugged and obliterated bronchi and bronchioles and from oversedation; it is also due to the failure of endogenous discharge of adrenal hormones necessary in the defense mechanism against stress, and, in more recent years, particularly to steroid sequelae.

Asthma is an incurable illness of the airways. The disease causes inflammation and narrowing inside the lung, restricting air supply.

The symptoms of asthma often present in periodic attacks or episodes of tightness in the chest, wheezing, breathlessness, and coughing. During the development of asthma, the airways swell and become extremely sensitive to some of the substances a person might inhale. When this increased sensitivity causes a reaction, the muscles that control the airways tighten.

In doing so, they might restrict the airways even further and trigger an overproduction of mucus.

Asthma attacks The set of inflammatory events in the respiratory system can lead to the severe symptoms of an asthma attack. Worldwide, around , people die every year as a result of asthma. Asthma attacks occur when symptoms are at their peak.

They might begin suddenly and can range from mild to severe. In some asthma attacks, swelling in the airways can completely prevent oxygen from reaching the lungs, which also stops it entering the bloodstream and traveling to vital organs.

The use of Borg's modified scale in asthma crises

This type of asthma attack can be fatal and requires urgent hospitalization. At the start of an asthma attack, the airways allow enough air into the lungs, but it does not let the carbon dioxide leave the lungs at a fast enough rate. Carbon dioxide is poisonous if the body does not expel the gas, and a prolonged asthma attack might lead to a build-up of the gas in the lungs. This might further reduce the amount of oxygen entering the bloodstream.

People with clear symptoms of asthma should visit a doctor. They will provide treatments and advise on management techniques, as well as identifying potential triggers for asthma symptoms and how to avoid them.

The doctor will also prescribe medications to help reduce the frequency of attacks asthma. Effective asthma control reduces the impact of the condition on everyday living. Types As many different factors come together to cause asthma, there are many different types of the disease, separated by age and severity. Adults and children share the same triggers for symptoms that set off an allergic response in the airways, including airborne pollutants, mold, mildew, and cigarette smoke.

Childhood asthma Children are more likely to have an intermittent form of asthma that presents in severe attacks. Some children might experience daily symptoms, but the common characteristic among children with asthma is a heightened sensitivity to substances that cause allergy. Second-hand tobacco smoke causes severe problems for children with asthma. Between , and 1 million children experience worsening asthma symptoms as a result of second-hand smoke, according to the American Lung Association.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC advise that children experience more emergency visits and admissions for asthma than adults. Mild asthma might resolve without treatment during childhood. However, there is still a risk that the condition might return later on, especially if symptoms are moderate or severe. Adult-onset asthma Asthma in adults is often persistent and requires the daily management of flare-ups and preventing symptoms.

Asthma can begin at any age. Allergies lead to at least 30 percent of adult presentations of asthma. Obesity is a strong risk factor for adult-onset asthma, and women are more likely to develop the condition after the age of 20 years.

People over 65 years of age make up a large number of deaths from asthma. Occupational asthma This is a type of asthma that occurs as a direct result of a job or profession. Symptoms will become apparent after attending a particular workplace.

What is Bronchial Asthma? Read More Read Less.

Complications of Bronchial Asthma

Symptoms Causes Risks Prevention. Symptoms The symptoms may vary from individual to individual and depends on environmental factors. The most common signs of asthma that can help diagnose the disease are: Breathlessness or short breath while talking, laughing, or running.

Chest Pain or tightness.

What is asthma?

Sleep apnea or trouble while sleeping caused by breathlessness. Coughing or wheezing whistling sound from chest while sleeping or lying down.

Cold and flu due to viral infection. Show More Show Less. Causes Though the root cause of bronchial asthma is unclear, it occurs largely due to environmental or genetic factors. The factors that trigger an asthma reaction are: Exposure to substances such as pollen, dust, animal fur, sand, and bacteria, which triggers allergic reactions.

Viral Infection like cold and flu, or pneumonia. Air Pollution, smoke, fumes from vehicles, etc. Stress and anxiety. Physical activity or exercise induced asthma. Medications like aspirin, Ibuprofen, beta-blockers, etc. Acid reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD. Perfumes and fragrances.

Weather, especially extreme changes in temperature. Food additives such as MSG. Risks The main risk factors include: Family history parent or sibling of bronchial asthma.

Susceptive to an allergic reaction such as atopic dermatitis or hay fever. Habits which make you overweight. Smoking, or passive smoking. Exposure to chemical fumes or pollution, and irritants from hair sprays or perfumes. Prevention In order to prevent the occurrence of the disease, one should take care of the following: Avoid doing any vigorous exercise.

Take adequate diet. Use an asthma inhaler prescribed only by the doctor.

Read Less. Peak flow test. Methacholine or asthma trigger. Nitric Oxide test. Imaging tests.