This title introduces the reader to the huge variety of chemical reactions that shape our world. Find out all about explosions, learn about how to start reactions . Explains what chemical reactions are and why they occur and describes what happens during common chemical reactions that produce rust, fireworks, and. terney.info: Chemical Reactions (Core Chemistry) (): Denise Walker: Books.
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terney.info: Chemical Reactions (Essential Chemistry) (): Kristi Lew: Books. download this book The text begins with the problem of determining the chemical reaction reactants and products and the formalism of atom diatom reactions. The bread-making industry depends on a chemical reaction performed by yeast. The law of conservation of matter says that in chemical reactions, the total.
Ozilgen completed her Ph. She attended the University of California as a concurrent student during her Ph.
Ozilgen taught classes and conducted research at Massey University in New Zealand and is the author or coauthor of numerous refereed publications and books, one of which concerns the eating habits of preschool children Alfa Publishing Co.
Her research and teaching interests lie in the area of food science, food safety, food product development, and the eating habits of different consumer groups.
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Filled with intriguing colour photographs, insightful sidebars, and other essential features, this book helps students fully understand how chemical reactions happen - covering atomic structure, chemical bonding, and reaction rates. Read more Read less.
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Showing of 1 reviews. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. A typical respiratory reaction is the oxidation of glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 , the simple sugar we encountered in the chapter-opening essay that makes up the diet of yeast:.
Organic chemists use a variety of redox reactions. For example, potassium dichromate K 2 Cr 2 O 7 is a common oxidizing agent that can be used to oxidize alcohols symbolized by the general formula ROH.
The product of the reaction depends on the location of the OH functional group in the alcohol molecule, the relative proportions of alcohol and the dichromate ion, and reaction conditions such as temperature. In this case, the overall reaction is as follows:. When the OH group of the alcohol is bonded to an interior carbon atom, the oxidation of an alcohol will produce a ketone. The formulas of ketones are often written as RCOR, and the carbon—oxygen bond is a double bond.
It is the common solvent acetone [ CH 3 2 CO], which is used in varnishes, lacquers, rubber cement, and nail polish remover. Acetone can be formed by the following redox reaction:. As we have just seen, aldehydes and ketones can be formed by the oxidation of alcohols.
Conversely, aldehydes and ketones can be reduced to alcohols. Reduction of the carbonyl group is important in living organisms.
For example, in anaerobic metabolism A biochemical process that takes place in the absence of oxygen. Pyruvic acid is both a carboxylic acid and a ketone; only the ketone group is reduced. The buildup of lactic acid during vigorous exercise is responsible in large part for the fatigue that we experience. In food chemistry, the substances known as antioxidants A substance in foods that acts as a reducing agent. Ascorbic acid vitamin C; C 6 H 8 O 6 is thought to retard potentially damaging oxidation of living cells.
In the process, it is oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid C 6 H 6 O 6. If this reaction did not occur, nitrite ions from foods would oxidize the iron in hemoglobin, destroying its ability to carry oxygen. Tocopherol vitamin E is also an antioxidant. In the body, vitamin E is thought to act by scavenging harmful by-products of metabolism, such as the highly reactive molecular fragments called free radicals. In foods, vitamin E acts to prevent fats from being oxidized and thus becoming rancid.
Vitamin C is also a good antioxidant Figure 5. Citrus fruits, such as oranges, lemons, and limes, are good sources of vitamin C, which is an antioxidant.
Finally, and of greatest importance, green plants carry out the redox reaction that makes possible almost all life on Earth. They do this through a process called photosynthesis The process by which plants use solar energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to glucose.
The synthesis of glucose requires a variety of proteins called enzymes and a green pigment called chlorophyll that converts sunlight into chemical energy Figure 5. The overall change that occurs is as follows:. Photosynthesis is the fundamental process by which plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Then plants make more complex carbohydrates. It is the ultimate source of all food on Earth, and it is a redox reaction.
In this reaction, carbon dioxide is reduced to glucose, and water is oxidized to oxygen gas. Other reactions convert the glucose to more complex carbohydrates, plant proteins, and oils.
Give some biochemical examples of oxidation and reduction reactions. A typical respiratory reaction discussed in the text is the oxidation of glucose C 6 H 12 O Is this a redox reaction?
If so, what are the oxidizing and reducing agents? What alcohol is produced in the reduction of acetone [ CH 3 2 CO]? O 2 ; reducing agent: To ensure that you understand the material in this chapter, you should review the meanings of the following bold terms in the following summary and ask yourself how they relate to the topics in the chapter.
Scientific laws are general statements that apply to a wide variety of circumstances. One important law in chemistry is the law of conservation of matter , which states that in any closed system, the amount of matter stays constant. Chemical equations are used to represent chemical reactions.
Reactants change chemically into products. The law of conservation of matter requires that a proper chemical equation be balanced. Coefficients are used to show the relative numbers of reactant and product molecules. The coefficients in a balanced chemical reaction are used to devise the proper ratios that relate the number of molecules of one substance to the number of molecules of another substance. Chemical reactions can be classified by type. Combination reactions also called composition reactions make a substance from other substances.
Decomposition reactions break one substance down into multiple substances. Combustion reactions combine molecular oxygen with the atoms of another reactant.
Oxidation reactions are reactions in which an atom loses an electron. Reduction reactions are reactions in which an atom gains an electron. These two processes always occur together, so they are collectively referred to as oxidation-reduction or redox reactions.
The species being oxidized it called the reducing agent , while the species being reduced is the oxidizing agent. Alternate definitions of oxidation and reduction focus on the gain or loss of oxygen atoms, or the loss or gain of hydrogen atoms. Redox reactions are easily balanced if the overall reaction is first separated into half reactions , which are individually balanced.
Oxidation-reduction reactions are common in organic and biological chemistry. Respiration , the process by which we inhale and metabolize oxygen, is a series of redox reactions. In the absence of oxygen, redox reactions still occur in a process called anaerobic metabolism.
Antioxidants such as ascorbic acid also play a part in the human diet, acting as reducing agents in various biochemical reactions. Photosynthesis , the process by which plants convert water and carbon dioxide to glucose, is also based on redox reactions. Isooctane C 8 H 18 is used as a standard for comparing gasoline performance.
Write a balanced chemical equation for the combustion of isooctane. Heptane C 7 H 16 , like isooctane see Exercise 1 , is also used as a standard for determining gasoline performance.
Write a balanced chemical equation for the combustion of heptane. What is the difference between a combination reaction and a redox reaction? Are all combination reactions also redox reactions?
Are all redox reactions also combination reactions? Are combustion reactions always redox reactions as well? Explain why your friend is incorrect. Some antacids contain aluminum hydroxide [Al OH 3 ].
This compound reacts with excess hydrochloric acid HCl in the stomach to neutralize it. If the products of this reaction are water and aluminum chloride, what is the balanced chemical equation for this reaction? Sulfuric acid is made in a three-step process: Write balanced chemical equations for all three reactions. If the products of glucose metabolism are carbon dioxide and water, what is the balanced chemical equation for the overall process? What is the stoichiometric ratio between the number of CO 2 molecules made to the number of H 2 O molecules made?
It was based on the following reaction:. Identify what is being oxidized, what is being reduced, and the respective reducing and oxidizing agents. A combination reaction makes a new substance from more than one reactant; a redox reaction rearranges electrons. Not all combination reactions are redox reactions, and not all redox reactions are combination reactions. Your friend is incorrect because the number of electrons transferring is not balanced. Zn; reduced and oxidizing agent: Help Creative Commons.
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Table of Contents. Next Chapter. Chapter 5 Introduction to Chemical Reactions Opening Essay Although yeast has been used for thousands of years, its true nature has been known only for the last two centuries. They convert glucose into carbon dioxide CO 2 and ethanol C 2 H 5 OH in a chemical transformation that is represented as follows: The bread-making industry depends on a chemical reaction performed by yeast.
State the law of conservation of matter. Concept Review Exercises What is the law of conservation of matter? Answers The law of conservation of matter states that in any given system that is closed to the transfer of matter, the amount of matter in the system stays constant. Key Takeaway The amount of matter in a closed system is conserved. Exercises Express the law of conservation of matter in your own words. Answer Matter may not be created or destroyed.
Use a balanced chemical equation to represent a chemical reaction. Note Chemical equations can also be used to describe physical changes. Note This point is so important that we should repeat it. Example 1 Is each chemical equation balanced?
This equation is not balanced. The reactants have one carbon atom, four hydrogen atoms, and four oxygen atoms. The products have one carbon atom, four hydrogen atoms, and four oxygen atoms.
This equation is balanced. The reactants have one silver atom, one nitrogen atom, three oxygen atoms, two potassium atoms, and two chlorine atoms. The products have one silver atom, one chlorine atom, one potassium atom, one nitrogen atom, and three oxygen atoms.
Because there are different numbers of chlorine and potassium atoms, this equation is not balanced.
Skill-Building Exercise Is each chemical equation balanced? Concept Review Exercises What are the parts of a chemical equation? Explain why chemical equations need to be balanced. Answers reactants and products. Key Takeaways Chemical reactions are represented by chemical equations that list reactants and products.
Exercises Write a chemical equation to express the fact that hydrogen gas and solid iodine react to make gaseous hydrogen iodide. Balance each equation. Looking Closer: Stoichiometry in Cooking Let us consider a stoichiometry analogy from the kitchen. Because 2 cups of flour make 12 biscuits, we can set up an equivalency ratio: Example 2 Start with this balanced chemical equation.
Give 2 ratios that give the relationship between HCl and FeCl 3. Solution Each side has 1 K atom and 1 Mn atom. On the product side, there are 15 Cl atoms from the 5 FeCl 3 formula units, 2 from the MnCl 2 formula unit, and 1 from the KCl formula unit. This is a total of 18 Cl atoms in the products, so the Cl atoms are balanced. All the elements are balanced, so the entire chemical equation is balanced.
Because the balanced chemical equation tells us that 8 HCl molecules react to make 5 FeCl 3 formula units, we have the following 2 ratios: There are a total of 42 possible ratios. Can you find the other 40 relationships? Skill-Building Exercise Start with this balanced chemical equation. Concept Review Exercises Explain how stoichiometric ratios are constructed from a chemical equation.
Answers Stoichiometric ratios are made using the coefficients of the substances in the balanced chemical equation. Key Takeaway A balanced chemical equation gives the ratios in which molecules of substances react and are produced in a chemical reaction. Exercises Balance this equation and write every stoichiometric ratio you can from it. Copper metal reacts with nitric acid according to this equation: How many Cu atoms will react if molecules of aqueous HNO 3 are reacted?
Gold metal reacts with a combination of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid according to this equation: How many Au atoms react with molecules of aqueous HNO 3? Sulfur can be formed by reacting sulfur dioxide with hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures according to this equation: How many S atoms will be formed from by reacting 1, molecules of H 2 S? Nitric acid is made by reacting nitrogen dioxide with water: How many molecules of NO will be formed by reacting 2, molecules of NO 2?
It is balanced. Example 3 Which equations are combination reactions? This is a combination reaction. The compound COCl 2 is called phosgene and, in the past, was used as a gassing agent in chemical warfare. This is not a combination reaction. Skill-Building Exercise Which equations are combination reactions? Note The decomposition reaction of NaHCO 3 is the reaction that occurs when baking soda is poured on a small kitchen fire. Note Energy in the form of heat is usually given off as a product in a combustion reaction as well.