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The country has a tropical monsoon climate with an 84 percent humidity average, but the climate tends to vary considerably from place to place because of the variety of topographi- cal features and differences in latitude. Languages and Culture The Chinese, Indian, Khmer and French cultures have influenced the Vietnamese language, religion, architecture and art. Nom was com- monly used, particularly in literature, until the 19th century. During the French colonial period and until the end of the 20th century, French was used in schools, and Vietnamese was only considered to be a second language.
Not until C. How- ever, on holidays and festivals, the traditional Lunar Calendar is used.
The Lunar Calendar, which begins in the year of B. One month is approxi- mately Since the first day of the month is determined by the day during which the moment of the new moon arrives, the Lunar New Year varies every year and occurs somewhere between January 21 and February In total, the Lunar Calendar is chronologically four to six months behind the solar calendar. Each element exists in a pure form even though the majority of the people refer to themselves as Buddhists, although that is not entirely the case.
Ancestor worship is a religious practice based on the belief that a deceased family member has a continued existence. The ancestor is believed to take interest in the world and also to be able to influence the fortune of the living as they continue to live in another realm. The Vietnamese believe that existence is a continuum stretching through birth, a life spent on Earth, followed by death and a spirit existence in another realm.
There is a widespread belief that those who die a violent death become malignant spirits and endanger the lives of those who come near the haunted spot. God Tan Vien preventing flooding , God Giong resisting and defeating foreign invaders , God Chu Dong Tu along with his wife moving out of poverty to consistently build his 36 Wilkinson and Charing.
Mother worship is somewhat different, and is linked to Vietnamese animism. The female goddesses are to be found in lakes, seas, rivers, forests and so on, and are believed to have male counterparts.
As paganism is defined as religious beliefs other than those of the main world religions, and often involves different ways of worshipping nature, Mother worship can be seen as a part of paganism, in the same way as pagans may be seen as a part of animism. In Vietnamese religion, animism is a prominent feature which affects the daily life, as everything is believed to be conscious and part of the world, whether dead or alive; that is, everything is believed to have a soul.
Vietnamese tend to worship species of animals which are easy to come by in the riverside regions like water-birds, snakes, and crocodiles. Folk beliefs and animism have endured and become mixed with orthodox religions.
Shiva is believed to descend from the Vedic god Rudra.
Rudra is portrayed in the Vedas as an archer whose arrows carry illness and death. At the same time he is also believed to be a healer of a thousand diseases. Rudra is also said to be the father of the storm gods, the marutes. Shiva is worshipped as the destroyer and re-creator, and he is depicted in many forms, often carrying a trident.
The eve of each new full moon is a night sacred to Shiva. Ganesha, the son of Shiva, is considered the god of wisdom. Its female counterpart, Yoni, the symbol of the goddess Shakti, is often depicted in lingam temples as Shaktism is closely related to Shivaism.
Those relig- ions that are believed to be a threat to national security, i. Because of this, the Vietnamese government has been criticized for its religion viola- tions.
It legalized hundreds of meeting places and allowed for training of hundreds of new clergy members. The govern- ment has released all prisoners held on the basis of their religious beliefs. The minority group is believed to descend from the Hindu Kingdom of Cham Pa.
The dominant religion of the Cham people was Shivaism, and the culture was heavily influenced by India. The Cambodian Kingdom of Angkor is perhaps most famous. Today the population, numbering approximately ,, is mainly concentrated on the central coast and most Chams are Muslims Cham Bani , though still heavily influenced by Hinduism. There are also significant Hindu Balamon and Mahayana Buddhist minorities.
They have dwelled in all the oceans of the Planet for over 3 million years. Even Cambodians and Laotians say that they do not hunt dolphins, and believe that bad luck will result from killing them. However, the fishermen always hold a ceremonial funeral and bury any Cetacean stranded or found dead at sea.
The male Sperm Whale reaches The Sperm Whale is in danger of stranding it- self when it moves towards shore, probably because it is so well- adapted to deep water swimming. Retrieved Monday, January 22, , from http: The Irrawaddy Dolphin reaches up to cm and the weight of an adult exceeds kg. It is identified by its bulging forehead, short beak and 12—19 teeth on each side of each jaw. Irrawaddy Dolphins feed on a variety of fish, crustaceans and cephalopods. The total number remaining of the species is unknown, since they rarely show themselves above water and are difficult to identify.
Field Research, Interviews and Observations The Vietnamese are very much out-dooring people, who rather spend their days on their front porch, in the streets and on pavements if not riding their motorcycles or working the fields.
The widespread legend of the whale probably has its core in the surroundings of Phan Thiet, referred to as the whale relig- ion, and is quite prominent in that particular area. Because of the 61 Interview with Xinh During this era, many fishermen perished at sea, but the king did not have any option other than to escape with his men in a boat.
As the king and his men set off, they were struck by a great storm. Suddenly a large creature arose to the surface and rescued the king and his crew by bringing them ashore. Some events are even told to children as fasci- nating bed-time stories.
The boat was a small traditional boat, and could only hold two people.
Suddenly the fishermen were in the middle of a storm and the captain of the boat panicked. Within five minutes, the waves had settled and the ongoing storm kept a five square meters radie from the boat. Early in the morning, they set off shore to download fresh seafood from the fishing boats.
On their way back home, they were caught in the middle of a raging storm which thrashed their boat and left father and son floating in the water.
The brothers were more or less known for their ability to always manage through storms and heavy rains and their boat was never damaged, although other fishermen had gotten into trouble due to foul weather.
The temple keeper is often the oldest man of the village and, following tra- dition, the title is passed on to family sons. The incense sticks, which in Vietnamese are called Huong, which mean good, are burned to bless the spirits and all other things involved in the ceremony, and also to make everyone feel at ease.
By lighting incense, the smoke from the sticks brings food to the gods via the air. The cere- mony ends once the incense goes out.
The greatest fear among fishermen is death in the open sea, because dead fishermen are believed to wander in eternity as wandering ghosts if they do not find a home to rest. It is believed, how- ever, that fishermen who have perished at sea are in need of funeral rituals to help the souls come to rest and thus find a home.
The bandana also shows that the fisherman is impure, and will be for the following days. Perhaps this can be linked to dolphins being scientifically referred to as the dogs of the sea. The fishermen make one exception to entering the temple as possibly im- pure, and that is during ceremonies. Fifteen years ago, wedding processions were not allowed to go near the temple at all. Nowadays wedding processions are not an issue, but the question is how much the old tradition still remains in the minds and acts of the worshippers.
Traditional round boats at South China Beach. The fishermen have a specific schedule as when to fish near the beach and when to go offshore. From the 20th to the 10th of the Lunar Calendar, the fishermen fish offshore.
Before the fishermen leave, the fishermen turn to the temple to burn incense and to pray for protection and good fortune while at sea. Hence, the boats are blessed and different kinds of food are sacrificed at the beach.
The paper dolls symbolize each crew member, and are offered to the goddess as an exchange for not risking their own souls at sea and thus returning home safely.
Between the 1st and the 9th of each Lunar month, the fishermen fish close to the shore. This kind of fishing is carried out in small, round traditional boats in which one fisherman alone is standing. This kind of fishing used to be the most dangerous kind of fishing since the boats easily flipped over. As each boat only holds one fisherman, he could not rely on getting any help if the boat capsized, and thus many perished. The boats have now been reconstructed, although they have maintained their traditional design, so they will not sink if they flip over.
The fish are said to be growing new teeth and there- fore will not bite anyway, and therefore fishing is a waste of time. The boats are then blessed at sea by a monk, and a ceremony is held. Meanwhile, his crew watch out for any danger that might linger at sea, i. The differences mainly depend on the wealth of the village and how frequently the ceremonies and festivals are carried out.
Many villages hold one major annual festival and several minor ceremonies. The whales at sea circled around for as long as the ceremony went on, and then they disappeared in the depths of the ocean. It is worth noticing that seafood is never eaten during ceremonies and the Vietnamese, fisherman or not, do not eat whale meat, ever.
Due to in- vestments in infrastructure many roads have been refurbished, which at times resulted in even smaller temple grounds. When this happens, an expert is called to find a new suitable place of worship.
The temple can only be moved after the fishermen have prayed for a good day and asked if the new place is a good place for worship. Unfortunately, the new sites available tend to be further away from the beach and sea shore. Each fishing village also has their 84 Interview with Gian Ceremonies usually last one day and focus on prayers, whereas festivals last for a period of three days and include both songs and prayers.
The oldest man in the village, who has a birth year that matches that of the particular year of the ceremony, leads the ceremony. For example, if the ceremony is held in the year of the Cat, the man leading the ceremony should also have been born in the year of the Cat. Figure 6. Ghost money — Vietnamese and American bills.
Ghost money — Coins. Then the present season is presented and three prominent fishermen, usually older men with a great deal of experience, step forward to lead the ceremony. The leader of the three men stands in the middle of the temple, and the other two stand on each side of him as the ceremonial worship begins.
The three men invite the gods to attend, i. See original text in Appendix. The procedure during the invitation is carried out the same way as when the other gods are being called upon.
In the final procedure, the gods are offered gold, silver coins made of paper, water and wine, all which have been placed on the altar before the ceremony begun. On the altar there is also incense, red candles, flowers, white wine, cakes, bananas, rice, salt, sweet soup and sticky rice for the gods.
A barbecued pig is also an important offering, but chicken is also accepted on the altar if there is no pig at hand, though seafood is strictly forbidden. This ceremony is repeated once a year, even if no festival is held. The festival used to be arranged every year but because of a lack of funds, the fishermen now have had to change their tradition. Each participant and family in the fishing village contributes to the festival by offering money, but it is not enough. On the temple site, the fishermen set tables of food for their deceased loved ones and also for those perished at sea.
The first day is a ceremonial day, and the second day is a carnival. Early in the morning the following day, the fishermen and their families beat the drums and sing as they accord- ingly set out on their boats off to sea. In some regions, this ceremony proceeds from one village to the next, showing solidarity. As with all festivals, each region has its own way of worshiping, though this kind of festival usually includes traditional games of the coast i.
The festival ends at midnight as the official ceremony is conducted, and incense is burned as a classical Vietnamese opera is played by an orchestra. The festival is only held once every four years, and has been arranged for over years.
Dur- ing the ceremony, which is held on the riverbank the second day of the Lunar Tet Festival, boatmen sing and pray to the whale while rowing.
The festival is rich in performances, depicting scenes of fishermen at sea among other things. The worship itself is somewhat similar. Authorities and Locals During the communist era that followed the after-war, many temples were abandoned and destroyed due to the communist prohibition against religion.
If one does not respect the dead, one is not in contact with his body. As the temple was neglected, the tide washed the last remains of the old religious stronghold away. Although most of the ceremonies take place within the fishing community, fishermen go to the market to download various portraits of im- portant spirits.
This act causes tension among fishermen and peasants, as the Vietnamese government does not fully accept that pictures of the spirits and gods can be downloadd or even sold. Vietnamese police are said to have relaxed their regulations, but the sellers and downloaders may still risk being fined at times.
It is also a combination of a sys- tem of religious beliefs involving ancestor worship, ghost wanderings and animist beliefs. They do not live by the laws of cause and effect but with them in symbiosis. This, I argue, can also be likened with the Maori mana and tabu; dedication, responsibility, respect and care.
It is important to note, how- ever, that the comparisons made between mana and tabu and yin and yang are based upon their relation towards each other as inseparable pairs, and not on an idea that the two pairs share a definition.
As presented by Graham Harvey, animism does not separate persons but unite and connect all elements of life. Furthermore, the fishermen base the day s of each festival and ceremony on the phases of the moon, which, I would argue, is considered a person too, and is thus indispensable in the community of life of the fishermen.
He preserves the ancient traditions and his- torical events as he brings wandering spirits ashore, and he destroys evil as he rescues the wandering spirits from devious water spirits.
Still, the interaction and combination of the whale God and Goddess are of importance since they represent creation, as the lingam and yoni in Shivaism.
As Shiva is also believed to originate from the Vedic god Rudra, whose sons were weather gods, would not he, as a father, be more or less in control of his sons? Being the greatest mammals on earth, though living at sea, whales have the largest dorks of all mammals. Religion or Cult? The peasants, however, are most likely to ignore taking a stand in this matter since they, as Buddhists, simply respect the religious beliefs of others. Looking at the different definition of each of the words, it is obvious that there is nothing that practically sets the two words apart, yet many aspects link them together.
Furthermore, the fishermen believe in a superhuman controlling power, although one related to the sea. Perhaps there is no difference as to what a cult is and what a religion is. The definitions of the word cult can easily be applied to any of the world religions of today as easily as the definition of the word religion.
In a sense, all more or less organized religions are cults, but cults that are more clearly respected are referred to as religions. Because of this, perhaps it is time to redefine the two words, since it seems to be of importance to stress the difference. Perhaps it is more suitable to use the words of Eric Sharpe: People are allowed to believe, but they are not encouraged to do so, which in a way the ambiguity surrounding free- dom of religion more or less confirms.
Since fishermen are not encouraged to continue their worship, it is fair to assume that remaining temples may be forced to move or even be torn down in the near future. The popula- Sharpe. An extinction of either species would have a devastating effect on the fishermen. Conclusion In all things of nature, there is something of the marvellous.
The fishermen of each village keep their worship and traditions somewhat alike, although the dates of worship vary. Furthermore, the important rescue of the wandering spirits of the sea will be accomplished only if the fishermen continue believing. Because of this I dare argue that regardless of whether the State decide to fully accept the worship or banish it, the fishermen will find a way to help the lost ones. Today nothing really separates a cult from a religion, and because of all the religious beliefs in the modern world it is perhaps time to adjust to reality by adapting a modern way of thinking when it comes to worship, faith and religious beliefs.
Questions It is of importance to stress that since the interviews were semi-struc- tured, the questions below are not placed in any particular order. What is the main difference between a ceremony and a festival? How is a festival carried out? Why do the festivals have different names?
Are fishermen also Buddhists? Who arranges the festivals? How is the worship viewed by other locals, such as peasants? How do authorities look upon the worship of the fishermen? When was the last time a whale stranded? Of what importance is the moon to the fishermen? Do the fishermen worship a particular whale or all species?
Why do small boats have a whale tail on the rudder? Is the worship strong among younger fishermen as well?
Is the whale to be seen as a God or as a whale with divine powers? Is the worship a tradition among all fishermen? Why are eyes painted on each side of larger boats? What do authorities say about the worship? Is the belief legally accepted or do the fishermen carry out their wor- ship in secret? When did the Communist Party agree upon the issue of freedom of religion? Partie 2: However, selling and making a profit out of this file is strictly prohibited. Chicagoan believes that putting ketchup on hot dogs is a cardinal sin.
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