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Sorry, this document isn't available for viewing at this time. In the meantime, you can download the document by clicking the 'Download' button above. دﻣﺣﻣ دﺑﻋ. THE MUQADDIMAH. Abd Ar Rahman bin Muhammed ibn Khaldun. Translated by. Franz Rosenthal. Table of Contents. İbn Haldun ve Mukaddime'si üzerine ülkemizde çalışmalar giderek İbn Haldun, İslâm düşünce hayatının belli başlı isimlerindendir. ebook, pages.
A crucial difference, however, is that whereas for John Maynard Keynes it is the middle class 's greater propensity to save that is to blame for economic depression , for Ibn Khaldun it is the governmental propensity to save at times when investment opportunities do not take up the slack which leads to aggregate demand. At the end of the dynasty, taxation yields a small revenue from large assessments. Laffer curve[ edit ] Ibn Khaldun introduced the concept now popularly known as the Laffer curve , that increases in tax rates initially increase tax revenues, but eventually the increases in tax rates cause a decrease in tax revenues.
This occurs as too high a tax rate discourages producers in the economy. Ibn Khaldun used a dialectic approach to describe the sociological implications of tax choice which now forms a part of economics theory : In the early stages of the state, taxes are light in their incidence, but fetch in a large revenue As time passes and kings succeed each other, they lose their tribal habits in favor of more civilized ones.
Their needs and exigencies grow Hence they impose fresh taxes on their subjects But the effects on business of this rise in taxation make themselves felt.
For business men are soon discouraged by the comparison of their profits with the burden of their taxes Consequently production falls off, and with it the yield of taxation. This analysis is very similar to the modern economic concept known as the Laffer curve. Laffer does not claim to have invented the concept himself, noting that the idea was present in the work of Ibn Khaldun and, more recently, John Maynard Keynes.
The Muslims achieved a definite advance beyond previous historical writing in the sociological understanding of history and the systematisation of historiography. The development of modern historical writing seems to have gained considerably in speed and substance through the utilization of a Muslim Literature which enabled western historians, from the seventeenth century on, to see a large section of the world through foreign eyes.
The Muslim historiography helped indirectly and modestly to shape present day historical thinking. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past.
Ibn Khaldun often criticized "idle superstition and uncritical acceptance of historical data". As a result, he introduced a scientific method to the study of history, which was considered something "new to his age", and he often referred to it as his "new science", now associated with historiography. Rational in its approach, analytical in its method, encyclopaedic in detail, it represents an almost complete departure from traditional historiography, discarding conventional concepts and cliches and seeking, beyond the mere chronicle of events, an explanation—and hence a philosophy of history.
Khaldun was quite concerned with the effect of raising the standard of evidence when confronted with uncomfortable claims, and relaxing it when given claims that seemed reasonable or comfortable.
He was a jurist, and sometimes participated reluctantly in rulings that he felt were coerced, based on arguments he did not respect. Besides al-Maqrizi — ,  Ibn Khaldun's focused attempt systematically to study and account for biases in the creation of history wouldn't be seen again until Georg Hegel , Karl Marx , and Friedrich Nietzsche in 19th-century Germany, and Arnold J.
Toynbee , a 20th-century British historian. Ibn Khaldun also examines why, throughout history, it has been common for historians to sensationalize historical events and, in particular, exaggerate numerical figures: Whenever contemporaries speak about the dynastic armies of their own or recent times, and whenever they engage in discussions about Muslim or Christian soldiers, or when they get to figuring the tax revenues and the money spent by the government, the outlays of extravagant spenders, and the goods that rich and prosperous men have in stock, they are quite generally found to exaggerate, to go beyond the bounds of the ordinary, and to succumb to the temptation of sensationalism.
When the officials in charge are questioned about their armies, when the goods and assets of wealthy people are assessed, and when the outlays of extravagant spenders are looked at in ordinary light, the figures will be found to amount to a tenth of what those people have said. The reason is simple. It is the common desire for sensationalism, the ease with which one may just mention a higher figure, and the disregard of reviewers and critics.
In the Introduction to the Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun directs this criticism towards to famous historians such as Al-Masudi ,  who is today regarded as the " Herodotus of the Arabs"  and whom Ibn Khaldun himself regarded as one of the most famous historians up until his time.
Ibn Khaldun criticizes Al-Masudi for failing to take into account certain logistics , questioning whether Egypt and Syria could have possibly held such a large number of soldiers, or whether an army of that size would be able to march or fight as a unit.
He notes that the whole available territory would have been too small for such a large army, and argues that if "it were in battle formation, it would extend" several times "beyond the field of vision. He argues that the "situation in the present day testifies to the correctness of this statement" since the "past resembles the future more than one drop of water another".
The Muqaddimah states that if the Israelites really did have such a large army, the extent of their empire would have been far larger, as "the size of administrative units and provinces under a particular dynasty is in direct proportion to the size of its militia and the groups that support the dynasty".
Ibn Khaldun argues that it "is improbable that the descendants of one man could branch out into such a number within four generations". He states that Jews have claimed the unrealistically large increase in the Israelite population within several generations was possible because it was a miracle of God, a claim that Ibn Khaldun did not dismiss completely.
He considers such a miracle highly unlikely, but appears to be open to the possibility. He was also a critic of Neoplatonism , particularly its notion of a hierarchy of being. The Muqaddimah covers the historical development of kalam and the different schools of Islamic thought, notably the Mu'tazili and Ash'ari schools.
Ibn Khaldun, being a follower of the Ash'ari school, criticizes the views of the Mu'tazili school, and bases his criticisms on the views of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari , whom he describes as "the mediator between different approaches in the kalam ".
Ibn Khaldun also covers the historical development of Islamic logic in the context of theology, as he viewed logic as being distinct from early Islamic philosophy , and believed that philosophy should remain separate from theology.
The book also contains commentaries on verses from the Qur'an. We thus know that they are true and come from the world of truth.
He disagreed with the use of reason in the evaluation of a hadith , arguing that "there is no place for the intellect in them, save that the intellect may be used in connection with them to relate problems of detail with basic principles.
He states that: the statement concerning the alteration of the Torah by the Jews is unacceptable to thorough scholars and cannot be understood in its plain meaning, since custom prevents people who have a revealed religion from dealing with their divine scriptures in such a manner.
This was mentioned by al-Bukhari in the Sahih. Ibn Khaldun wrote that " Jurisprudence is the knowledge of the classification of the laws of God. There is rather, change with days and epochs, as well as passing from one state to another It started out from the minerals and progressed, in an ingenious, gradual manner, to plants and animals.
Especially the outlooks from Turkey are very weak. Recently, it has been identified that İbn Haldun was well recognized in Turkey since 16th and 17th centuries but much emphasize has not been put on the details.
İbn Haldun is actually the child of an unraveling civilization. His family is a well-known Andalusian family, immigrated to North Africa, Tunisia at the end of the 12th century. İbn Haldun starts even his own story from a historical-sociological location. Introducing his own biography by explaining the historical fate of his family is a remarkable indicator of how sharply his mind worked. Where we were born, what language we speak, environment we live in and receive education are all results of our family history and sociology.
The information İbn Haldun gave about his private education is very exciting. When we take a close look at the books that he had to read one can immediately notice the high advancement of the 14th century Maghrebi in Islamic sciences. Subsequently he became kadi. When we mention kadi, it should not be taken as one of our modern day judges, who only adjudicate at lawsuits. For Islamic societies, kadis played the role of independent judges, and exercised important missions on behalf of education and bureaucracy.
From place to place, it was seen that kadis took important parts in administering the cities. İbn Haldun was one of those mighty kadis and he became the head Maliki kadi to Egypt at the peak of his career. In other words, before everything else he was a grand master and a major practitioner of religious sciences. The study has an unusual look on the page, as most of the notes are printed smaller than is ordinary, with the accented notes printed at full size.
If you are indifferent or worse, offendedthen this music is not for you. Godowsky made every effort to make one hand sound like two—many of the Studies actually require two staves for their notation—and in doing so godowskh hoped to inspire other composers to extend this principle to both hands to enrich piano-writing even more. Asks the right hand to play a legato melody and stacatto accompaniment the latter augmented by the left hand simultaneously a procedure which Robert Collet claims originated with Weber.
It is worth quoting at length:. Godowsky Studies on Chopin Etudes It is worth quoting at length: In addition to what is stated above, the left hand, commanding as it does the lower half of the keyboard, has the incontestable advantage of enabling the player to produce with less effort and more elasticity a fuller and mellower tone, superior in quantity and quality to that of the right hand.
These and a further twenty-two studies were published in by Schlesinger and Schirmer, re-engraved with little change to the music but with commentary and, occasionally, revised fingerings and ossia readings.
This provides yet another explanation why these Studies have been neglected over the years: In its application to etudds playing the left hand has many advantages over the right hand and it would suffice to enumerate but a few of these to convince the student that etudez is a fallacy to deem the left hand less adaptable to training than the right hand.
Chopin provides no pedal markings, but careful use of pedal is essential. March Total duration: The pianist must have lare reserves of power and endurance. Being averse to any tampering with the text of any master work when played in the original form, I would condemn any artist for taking liberties with the works of Chopin or any other great composer.
Indeed, the Godowsky etudes have the express intention of demonstrating that the left hand could do as much as the right hand could, to the extent of transcribing entire etudes solely for the left hand.