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English Grammar - OUP - The Oxford Guide To English terney.info Raed Nemri. Uploaded by. Raed Nemri. Download with Google Download with Facebook. The Oxford Guide to English Grammar is a systematic account of grammatical forms and the way they are used in standard British English today. Oxford English Grammar: the advanced guide answer book Use the search function (ctrl + f) in this PDF to find specific page references.
Because of this difficulty, many users of the traditional pronunciation of e actually make the first two syllables of deity sound like deer, and so with the other words. The same variation is found in the sequence -ei- in the words deism, deist, reify, reification but not theism, theist. Feminine nouns can be formed from some of these by the substitution of -se for -r: In certain less familiar words and words taken from foreign languages, especially Greek, there is often uncertainty as to whether g preceding e, i, and especially y is pronounced hard as in get or soft as in gem.
The prefix gyn o - meaning 'woman' now always has a hard g. The element -gyn- with the same meaning, occurring inside the word, usually has a soft g, as in androgynous, misogynist.
The elements gyr- from a root meaning ' ring' and -gitis in names of diseases always have a soft g, as in gyrate gyro -scope, gyration compass, etc. The following, among many other more familiar words, have a hard g: The following have a soft g: There is variation in: See "-age" in topic 2.
Initial h is silent in heir, honest, honour, hour, and their derivatives; also in honorarium. Initial h used commonly to be silent if the first syllable was unstressed, as in habitual, hereditary, historic, hotel. This pronunciation is now old-fashioned. The pronunciation is like eel in: The single sound is the only one to occur at the end of a word, e. It is non-standard: To use -in for -ing suffix , i. To use n for ng in length, strength. The pronunciation lenkth, strenkth is acceptable.
To use nk for ng in anything, everything, nothing, something. This pronunciation is, however, normal in certain regional forms of English. In many words the sound normally represented in English by u as in butter, sun is written instead with o, e.
There are a few words in which there is variation in pronunciation between the above sound as in come, etc. The earlier pronunciation of most of these was with the u-sound; the o-sound was introduced under the influence of the spelling. More usually with the u-sound: More usually with the o-sound: Still variable either is acceptable: Before double ll, o has the long sound as in pole in some words, and the short sound as in Polly in others. With the long sound: With the short sound: Before lt, o is pronounced long, as in pole, e.
Before lv, o is pronounced short, as in doll, e. Pronunciation difficulties may arise, however, with the following words: In all of them it is normal not to pronounce the initial p-. The exception is psi representing the name of a Greek letter, used, e. When r is the last letter of a word always following a vowel, or another r or precedes 'silent' final e where it may follow a consonant, e. A closely connected feature of the spoken language is what is called 'intrusive r'.
The commonest occurrence of this is when a word ending with the obscure sound of a, as china, comma, Jonah, loofah, etc. An intrusive r is added to the end of the first word as if it were spelt with -er so as to ease the passage from one word to the next. Typical examples are: In the same way, some speakers unconsciously equate i the spelling a or ah in grandma, Shah with the identical-sounding ar in far, ii the spelling aw in law, draw with the similar our in four or ore in bore, tore, and iii the spelling eu in milieu, cordon bleu with the similar er r in err, prefer.
Thus, just as linking r is used with far, four, bore, tore, err, and prefer, such speakers introduce an intrusive r in, e. Intrusive r is often introduced before inflexional endings, e. The boys are keen on scubering i. Intrusive r has been noted since the end of the eighteenth century.
In the mid-nineteenth century it was regarded as unpardonable in an educated person, but acknowledged to occur widely even among the cultivated. Its use after obscure a as described under 2a above , where it greatly aids the flow of the sentence and is relatively unobtrusive, is acceptable in rapid, informal speech.
The avoidance of intrusive r here by the insertion of a hiatus or a catch in the breath would sound affected and pedantic. Its use before inflexional endings 2c above is illiterate or jocular. There is a tendency in certain words to drop r if it is closely followed or in a few cases, preceded by another r at the beginning of an unstressed syllable, e.
They may even be attached to one another or to more prominent words. There is variation between s and sh in words such as: Note that there can be a variant having the sound of s only with words in which the following i constitutes a separate syllable; hence only sh occurs in initial, racial, sociable, spatial, special, etc. It is possible that speakers avoid using sh in words that end in -tion, which also contains the sh- sound, so as to prevent the occurrence of this sound in adjacent syllables, e.
There is variation between sh and rh in aversion, equation, immersion, transition, version. In the names of some countries and regions ending in -sia, and in the adjectives derived from them, there is variation between sh and zh, and in some cases z and s as well.
The pronunciation with zh is also generally acceptable. The position of the stress accent is the key to the pronunciation of many English polysyllabic words. If it is known on which syllable the stress falls, it is very often possible to deduce the pronunciation of the vowels. This is largely because the vowels of unstressed syllables in English are subject to reduction in length, obscuration of quality, and, quite often, complete elision.
Compare the sound of the vowel in the stressed syllable in the words on the left with that of the vowel in the same syllable, unstressed, in the related words on the right: It is impossible to formulate rules accounting for the position of the stress in every English word, whether by reference to the spelling or on the basis of grammatical function.
If it were, most of the controversies about pronunciation could be cleared up overnight. Instead, three very general observations can be made. Within very broad limits, the stress can fall on any syllable.
These limits are roughly defined by the statement that more than three unstressed syllables cannot easily be uttered in sequence. Hence, for example, five-syllable words with stress on the first or last syllable are rare. Very often in polysyllabic words at least one syllable besides the main stressed syllable bears a medium or secondary stress, e.
Although there is such fluidity in the occurrence of stress, some patterns of stress are clearly associated with some patterns of spelling or with grammatical function or, especially, with variation of grammatical function in a single word. For example, almost all words ending in the suffixes -ic and -ical are stressed on the syllable immediately preceding the suffix.
There is only a handful of exceptions: Arabic, arithmetic noun , arsenic, catholic, choleric, heretic, lunatic, politic s , rhetoric. If the recent and current changes and variations in stress in a large number of words are categorized, a small number of general tendencies can be discerned.
Most of these can be ascribed to the influence exerted by the existing fixed stress patterns over other words many of which may conform to other existing patterns of stress. It will be the purpose of the remaining part of this entry to describe some of these tendencies and to relate them to the existing canons of acceptibility. Two-syllable words While there is no general rule that says which syllable the stress will fall on, there is a fixed pattern to which quite a large number of words conform, by which nouns and adjectives are stressed on the first syllable, and verbs on the second.
A large number of words beginning with a Latin prefix have stress on the first syllable if they are nouns or adjectives, but on the second if they are verbs, e.
The words ally defect rampage combine intern were all originally stressed on the second syllable; as verbs, they still are, but as nouns, they are all usually stressed on the first.
Exactly the same tendency has affected dispute research recess romance but in these words, the pronunciation of the noun with stress on the first syllable is rejected in good usage. The following nouns and adjectives not corresponding to identically spelt verbs show the same transference of stress: In the verbs combat, contact, harass, and traverse, originally stressed on the first syllable, a tendency towards stress on the second syllable is discernible, but the new stress has been accepted only in the word traverse.
Three-syllable words Of the three possible stress patterns in three-syllable words, that with stress on the first syllable is the strongest and best-established, exercising an influence over words conforming to the other two patterns.
Words with stress on the final syllable are relatively rare. A number of them have been attracted to the dominant pattern; in some this pattern stress on the first syllable is acceptable in RP, e.
Many words originally having stress on the second syllable now normally or commonly have stress on the first, e. A case that typically illustrates it is the word sonorous. In W. Skeat, in his Etymological Dictionary of the English Language edn.
Fifty years after Skeat, G. Shaw wrote to The Times 2 Jan. In Compton Mackenzie, in an Oxford Union Debate, protested against the pronunciation of quandary, sonorous, and decorous with stress on the first syllable B. Foster, The Changing English Language, , p. Foster ibid. The newer pronunciation was first mentioned in the Concise Oxford Dictionary in ; the two pronunciations are both heard, but the newer one probably now prevails.
There is a tendency in a few words to move the stress from the first to the second syllable. It is generally resisted in standard usage, e. But it has prevailed in aggrandize, chastisement, conversant, doctrinal, environs, pariah. Four-syllable words In a very large group of four-syllable words there is a clash between two opposing tendencies. One is the impulse to place the stress on the first syllable; the other is the influence of antepenultimate stress which is so prevalent in three-syllable words.
Broadly speaking, it has been traditional in RP to favour stress on the first syllable, so that the shift to the second syllable has been strongly resisted in: Analogy is the obvious argument in some cases, i.
Five-syllable words Five-syllable words originally stressed on the first syllable have been affected by the difficulty of uttering more than three unstressed syllables in sequence see 2a above. The stress has been shifted to the second syllable in laboratory, obligatory, whereas in veterinary the fourth syllable is elided, and usually the second as well.
For arbitrarily, momentarily, etc. In rapid speech, t is often dropped from the sequence cts, so that acts, ducts, pacts sound like axe, ducks, packs. The sounding of t in often is a spelling pronunciation: In some words It voiceless as in myths, in others voiced as in mouths. The following are like myth: The following are like mouth: Note that final th is like th in bathe, father in: It is properly a compound of two sounds, the semi-vowel y followed by the long vowel elsewhere written oo.
When this compound sound follows certain consonants the y is lost, leaving only the oo-sound. Where it follows ch,j, r, and the sound of sh, the y element was lost in the mid-eighteenth century. So brewed, chews, chute, Jules, rude, sound like brood, choose, shoot, joules, rood. The y element was also lost at about the same time or a little later where it follows an l preceded by another consonant; so blew, clue, glue, etc.
Where this compound sound follows an l not preceded by another consonant, loss of the y-element is now very common in a syllable that bears the main or secondary stress. COD, for instance, gives only the oo pronunciation in many words, e.
Lewis, Lucifer, lucrative, lucre, etc. It is equally common in internal stressed syllables; in COD the words allude, alluvial, collusion, voluminous, etc. So also in a syllable which bears a secondary stress: The yoo-sound is the only one possible in, e. After s, there is again variation between the compound sound and the oo-sound. The latter has now a very strong foothold. Very few people, if any, pronounce Susan and Sue with a yoo, and most people pronounce super the word and the prefix with oo.
Common words such as sewage, sewer, suet, suicide, sue, and suit show wide variation: In an unstressed syllable, the y- sound is kept, as with l in 2 above: After d, n, t, and th, the loss of the y-sound is non-standard, e. English loss of the y-sound is normal after these consonants and l and s.
Tuesday, duel as if Choosday, jewel, should be avoided in careful speech. In unstressed syllables e. In a few words there is uncertainty about the sound of u, or actual variation. Bulgarian fulminate pulmonary ebullient pullulate pulverize effulgent b Normally with u as in bull: Some of the words in it have only one current pronunciation, which cannot, however, he deduced with certainty from the written form.
These are mainly words that are encountered in writing and are not part of the average person's spoken vocabulary. Another class of words included here have a single, universally accepted pronunciation, which, in rapid or careless speech, undergoes a significant slurring or reduction. These reduced forms are noted, with a warning to use the fully enunciated form in careful speech so as to avoid giving an impression of sloppiness or casualness. Much the largest group are words for which two or more different pronunciations exist.
Both or all are given, with notes giving a rough guide to the currency and acceptability of each. The approach adopted here is fairly flexible, allowing for the inevitable subjectivity of judgements about pronunciation and the fact that there is variation and inconsistency even in the speech of an individual person.
Where the American pronunciation is significantly different from the British disregarding the differences that are constant, such as the American pronunciation of r where it is silent in British speech , a note of it has been added, usually in brackets at the end of the entry.
In a few cases the American pronunciation stands alone after the recommended one, implying that the use of the American form is incorrect in British speech. It will be found that in many cases the American pronunciation coincides with an older British one that is now being ousted. It is hoped that this will dispel the impression that all innovations are Americanisms, and give a clearer idea of the relationship between the two varieties of English pronunciation.
Argentine 3rd syllable as in turpentine. Bourbon dynasty: Byzantine stress on 2nd syllable. Edwardian 2nd syllable as ward. Gaelic 1st syllable as gale. When stress is restored to it, it should become have, not of, as in 'You couldn't 've done it', 'I could have' not 'I could of'. Hegira stress on 1st syllable, which is like hedge. The pronunciation with stress on 1st and 3rd syllables is now chiefly Amer. Primates order of mammals originally with 3 syllables, but now often with 2.
The former is the commoner, the latter, the older, pronunciation. Renaissance stress on 2nd syllable, ai as in plaice. Romany 1st syllable as that of Romulus. Sinhalese sin-hal-ese. Sioux soo. Soviet o as in sober. The pronunciation with o as in sob is also very common. Not spee-seez. Tibetan 2nd syllable like bet, not beat. The original pronunciation of the verb exactly like the noun is still usual in Amer.
The alternative pronunciation ull-yoo-late seems now to be chiefly Amer. Uranus stress on 1st syllable. Valkyrie stress on 1st syllable. Connolly, Enemies of Promise THIS section is concerned with problems of meaning, construction, derivation, and diction, associated with individual words. The main aim is to recommend the meaning or construction most appropriate for serious writing or formal speaking, but some attention is paid to informal and American usage.
Mere morality Hugh was immensely affected by the way Randall had put it Iris Murdoch. He picked at the German's lapel, hoping to effect a closer relationship by touch Patrick White. Ann felt an affinity with them, as she too were an old dusty object Iris Murdoch ; Points of affinity between Stephen and Bloom Anthony Burgess.
The aftermath of the wedding seemed to mean different things to different people The Times. It's a short agenda, by the way Edward Hyams. But it is occasionally found in its original use as a plural meaning 'things to be done' or 'items of business to be considered' singular agend.
The war The participial adjective aggravating is often used in sense 2 by good writers, e. He had pronounced and aggravating views on what the United States was doing for the world Graham Greene.
Low spirits make you seem complaining I have an alibi because I'm going to have a baby L. And so say all of us, or emphatically, often paralleling none of etc. Marshall Stone has all of the problems but none of the attributes of a star Frederick Raphael. All the King's men. This phrase is popularly thought of as a unit, e. I just wanted to make sure it was all all right Iris Murdoch.
He would allude to her, and hear her discussed, but never mention her by name E. The use of alternative with reference to more than two options, though sometimes criticized, is acceptable, e. We have been driven to Proletarian Democracy by the failure of all the alternative systems G. Just as every sense is afflicted with a fitting torment so is every spiritual faculty; The dogs were now running, all together. The reverse error, of using all together for the adverb altogether, should also be avoided; altogether is correct in There's too much going on altogether at the moment Evelyn Waugh.
If you consider my expression inadequate I am willing to amend it G. Shaw ; I have amended my life, have I not?
James Joyce ; noun amendment. An instance of how the dictionary may be emended or censored Frederic Raphael ; noun emendation. An emendation will almost always be an amendment, but the converse is not true. It is not a mere synonym for similar. His power to anticipate every change of volume and tempo C.
Day Lewis ; I shall anticipate any such opposition by tendering my resignation now Angus Wilson ; She had anticipated execution by suicide Robert Graves ; Some unknown writer in the second century I'm sorry--do go on. Serious writers Use expect in formal contexts. In any case, anticipate cannot be followed, as expect can, by infinitive constructions I expect to see him or him to come or a personal object I expect him today and cannot mean 'expect as one's due' I expect good behaviour from pupils.
I will give letters of introduction to persons approved by you NEB. All the books approved of by young persons of cultivated taste C. In weather like this he is apt to bowl at the batsman's head Robert Graves. It indicates that the subject of the sentence is habitually predisposed to doing what is expressed by the verb, e. Time was apt to become confusing Muriel Spark. It rhymes with turpentine. Such comments as seem to be needed George Orwell ; but not I know somebody who knows this kid as went blind Alan Sillitoe, representing regional speech.
Asian is to be preferred when used of persons to Asiatic, which is now widely considered derogatory; the formation of Asian is in any case more closely parallel to that of European, African, etc.
Asiatic is acceptable in other contexts, e. As from 10 p. As of, originally Amer. I suppose you get on pretty well with your parents. Someone called it to my attention Alison Lurie represents an illogical reversal of the idiom, not uncommon in speech; someone called or drew my attention to it or someone brought it to my attention would be better in formal contexts.
The most intellectually ambitious and the most technically aware W. Aware, provincial, intelligent, tall Englishman New Statesman. I scoffed at that pompous question-begging word 'Evolution' H.
Bimonthly, bi-weekly, and bi-yearly are ambiguous in sense, meaning either 'twice a month etc. Many people who have frequent need to refer to the quantity, namely astronomers and economists, use the American billion for this. Most British national newspapers have officially adopted it too. But where the sense is vague, e. A billion miles away, Billions of stars, the exact value is immaterial.
Laura censured his immoral marriage E. A rather restless, cultureless life, centring round tinned food, Picture Post, the radio and the internal combustion engine George Orwell.
It can be avoided by using to be centred in or on, e. My universe was still centred in my mother's fragrant person Richard Church.
Strictly, since the first century ran from the year 1 to the year , the first year of a given century should be that ending in the digits 0l, and the last year of the preceding century should be the year before, ending in two noughts. Beware of ambiguity in their written use. The use of this word after an adjective as a substitute for an abstract-noun termination -ness, -ty, or the like , or for the word kind, devalues it and should be avoided, e.
A forcefully charismatic hero compensating in physical presence for what he politically lacks Terry Eagleton. The poorest girl alive may not be able to choose between being Queen of England or Principal of Newnham; but she can choose between ragpicking and flowerselling G. The chronic unemployment of the nineteen-twenties A. Taylor ; The commodities of which there is a chronic shortage George Orwell. The latter is much the more usual use, e.
The little wooden crib-figures In formal use, the following distinctions of sense are made: To call a bishop a mitred fool and compare him to a mouse G. How can you compare the Brigadier with my father? John Osborne. Conversely, in the separate clause as compared with or to x, only sense 1 is possible, but to occurs as well as with, e.
It is followed by to when the sense is 'the action of likening to ', e. The comparison of philosophy to a yelping she-dog Jowett. The indulgent complaisance which Horace did not bother to disguise Frederic Raphael. The tribes which composed the German nation. It is more commonly used in the passive with the whole as subject and the constituents as object, e. The proper constructions with comprise are the converse of those used with compose. The faculty comprises the following six departments.
Unlike include, comprise indicates a comprehensive statement of constituents. Fifty American dollars comprised in a single note Graham Greene. The twenty-odd children who now comprise the school Miss Read. This is regarded as incorrect by many people. It is especially objectionable in the passive, since comprise is not followed by of; write The faculty is composed not comprised of six departments.
Console one another The enterprise was popular, since it conduced to cut price jobs J. The United Nations A congeries of halls and inns on the site J. Stewart ; it is unchanged in the plural. Connote means 'to imply in addition to the primary meaning, to imply as a consequence or condition', e. Literature has needed to learn how to exploit all the connotations that lie latent in a word Anthony Burgess. Denote means 'to be the sign of, indicate, signify', e. A proper name will convey no information beyond the bare fact that it denotes a person Stephen Ullman.
Denote cannot be used in the senses of connote, e. Two engaged in a common pursuit do not consequently share personal identity Muriel Spark. These are nearly always to be used rather than consequential 'following as an indirect result' and consequentially, which are rarer and more specialized. All enjoyment consists in undetected sinning G.
He was continually sending Tiberius not very helpful military advice Robert Graves ; There was a continuous rattle from the one-armed bandits Graham Greene. The former relates mainly to the intransitive senses of continue to be still in existence , the latter to its transitive senses to keep up, to resume , e. The great question of our continuance after death J. Huxley ; As if contemplating a continuation of her assault William Trevor.
Do not use it when climax is meant, e. His medical studies were not merely an episode in the development of his persona but crucial to it Frederic Raphael. Let us give the name of 'sense-data' to the things which are immediately known in sensation: Bertrand Russell ; The optical data are incomplete Nature ; the singular is datum, e.
Personality is not a datum from which we start C. Useful data has been obtained Winston Churchill. Decidedly, definitely; undoubtedly, e. The bungalow had a decidedly English appearance Muriel Spark. Decisively 1 conclusively, so as to decide the question, e. The definition of 'capital' itself depends decisively on the level of technology employed E.
Schumacher ; 2 resolutely, unhesitatingly, e. The young lady, whose taste has to be considered, decisively objected to him G. All my parents' friends, my friends' brothers were getting killed. Our circle was decimated Rosamond Lehmann. The Gold Cup flat handicap, the official and definitive result of which he had read in the Evening Telegraph James Joyce.
A general distinction can be drawn, though it is not absolute. Delusion would naturally occur in psychiatric contexts, and is used similarly outside them, to denote a false idea, impression, or belief held tenaciously, arising mainly from the internal workings of the mind; e.
His most serious delusion is that he's a murderer Robert Graves. Illusion denotes a false impression derived either from the external world, e. I still imagine I could live in Rome, but it may be an illusion Iris Murdoch.
It is in this second sense that illusion is almost equivalent to delusion; cf. I hope to strike some small blows for what I believe to be right, but I have no delusions that knock-outs are likely Frederic Raphael.
It should be remembered that delusion carries the sense of being deluded by oneself or another , whereas no verb is implied in illusion; on the other hand, one can be said to be disillusioned, whereas delusion forms no such derivative. Even on the scaffold he demeaned himself with dignity. Their nobles would not demean themselves to serve their governor NEB.
It depends what you have.. Depreciate 1 to make or become lower in value; 2 to belittle, disparage, e. To defend our record we seem forced to depreciate the Africans Listener ; To become a little more forthcoming and less self- depreciating Richard Adams.
Deprecate 1 with a plan, proceeding, purpose, etc. I deprecate this extreme course, because it is good neither for my pocket nor for their own souls G. Shaw ; Polly.. Anyone who has reprinted his reviews is in no position to deprecate our reprinter Christopher Ricks. This use is frequently found in good writers, e. It is, however, widely regarded as incorrect. A part Rolling a die will generate a stream of random numbers. An absolute dichotomy between science and reason on the one hand and faith and poetry on the other.
It is also an 'important' book, in a sense different from the sense in which that word is generally used George Orwell. It sometimes sounds more natural than different from, and should then be used; e. His looks are neither especially similar nor markedly different to those of his twin brother.
Both came from a different world than the housing estate outside London Doris Lessing. Both different to and different than are especially valuable as a means of avoiding the repetition and the relative construction required after different from in sentences like I was a very different man in from what I was in Joyce Cary.
This could be recast as I was a very different man in than I was in or than in Compare The American theatre, which is suffering from a different malaise than ours, which is greatly preferable to suffering from a different malaise from that which ours is suffering from. This construction is especially common when different is part of an adverbial clause e.
Things were constructed very differently now than in former times Trollope ; Sebastian was a drunkard in quite a different sense to myself Evelyn Waugh ; Puts one in a different position to your own father John Osborne.
The term diphthong is best restricted to the sense for which there is no synonym, namely 'a union of two vowels pronounced in one syllable', which is something primarily spoken and heard, not written; i in find, ei in rein, and eau in bureau all represent diphthongs.
The unpleasant dilemma of being obliged either to kill the father or give up the daughter. The dilemma of the s about whether nice girls should sleep with men Alan Watkins. Another door led direct to the house Evelyn Waugh ; 2 without intermediaries, e. I appeal now, over your head, direct to the august oracle G. Why don't you deal directly with the wholesalers?
Shaw ; The wind is blowing directly on shore; directly opposite, opposed. Just a night in London--I'll be back directly Iris Murdoch. He discomfited his opponents by obliging them to disagree with a great logician Frederic Raphael. Buried the world under a heavy snowfall of disinterest Christopher Fry. Thanks to his scientific mind he understood--a proof of disinterested intelligence which had pleased her Virginia Woolf.
The noun is disinterestedness. It is not that we are disinterested in these subjects, but that we are better qualified to talk about our own interests The Times. The noun is disinterest. It had smelled like this soap today, a light, entirely distinctive smell Susan Hill.
Trying to put into words an impression that was not distinct in my own mind W. Somerset Maugham. In older and literary usage, the predicative and attributive forms respectively; now usually allocated to distinct senses, namely 'intoxicated' and 'given to drink', e. They were lazy, irresponsible, and drunken; but on this occasion they were not drunk. Drunken also means 'caused by or exhibiting drunkenness', e.
Half the diseases of modern civilization are due to starvation of the affections in the young G. Due is here an adjective with a complementary prepositional phrase, like liable to , subject to. As an adjective it needs to be attached to a noun as complement see example above , or as part of a verbless adjective clause, e.
A few days' temporary absence of mind due to sunstroke was A sentence conforming to type 2 above like He suffered a few days' absence of mind due to sunstroke can be equated with He suffered a few days' absence of mind, owing to sunstroke. In this way due to has borrowed from owing to the status of independent compound preposition, a use not uncommon even with good writers, e. It can often be avoided by the addition of the verb to be and that, e. It is due to your provident care that Many countries of Asia, e.
India, Indonesia, and Malaysia, were once ruled by European powers. It was natural that the largest nation i. India should take the lead; The United States presence, i. Egoism is the term used in Philosophy and Psychology, and denotes self-interest often contrasted with altruism , e.
Egoistic instincts concerned with self-preservation or the good of the Ego Gilbert Murray. Egotism is the practice of talking or thinking excessively about oneself, self-centredness, e. He is petty, selfish, vain, egotistical; he is spoilt; he is a tyrant Virginia Woolf. Human loves don't last, Wark tenderly forgives her most egregious clerical errors Martin Amis. Simple explanations are for simple minds.
I've no use for either Joe Orton. Every few kilometres on either side of the road, there were Haitian and Dominican guard-posts Graham Greene. This use is sometimes ignorantly condemned but is both the older sense of either and commonly found in good writers of all periods. The first and elder wife Eldest first-born or oldest surviving member of family, son, daughter, etc.
Hugh was made entirely speechless They had met to pass sentence on Wingfield for his enormities David Garnett. The war in its entire magnitude did not exist for the average civilian The enormity of it was quite beyond most of us G. Newman , or for as, e. The Government are equally as guilty as the Opposition. In the event of the earl's death, the title will lapse. In the event the car overturns. When placed after a wh-question word in order to intensify it, ever should be written separately, e.
Where ever have you been? When used with a relative pronoun or adverb to give it indefinite or general force, ever is written as one word with it, e. Wherever you go I'll follow; whenever he washes up he breaks something; there's a reward for whoever not whomever finds it; whatever else you do, don't get lost; however it's done, it's difficult. Evidence verb , to serve as evidence for the existence or truth of, e.
There was an innate refinement Evince, to show that one has a hidden or unseen quality, e. Highly evolved sentiments and needs sometimes said to be distinctively human, though birds and animals A timely and generous act which evoked afresh outburst of emotion James Joyce. The excessively rational terms employed by people with a secret panic Muriel Spark. The opposite claim would seem to him unexceptionable even if he disagreed with it George Orwell.
In excess of 'to a greater amount or degree than' forms an adverbial phrase. I had been too tactful, But I now saw that I ought to have been more explicit Iris Murdoch ; express, definite, unmistakable in import, e. Idolatry fulsome enough to irritate Jonson into an express disavowal of it G. I knew that I had a facility with words George Orwell , should not be confused with a similar sense of faculty, viz.
Heroic tragedy is decadent because it is factitious; it substitutes violent emotionalism for emotion and the purple patch for poetry L. Knights ; fictitious, feigned, simulated; imaginary, e.
Afraid of being suspected, he gave a fictitious account of his movements. One whose actual dwelling lay presumably amid the farther mysteries of the cosmos J. Young people believing that niceness and innocence are politically as well as morally feasible J. The real negatives are non-flammable and non-inflammable.
The wicked flaunt themselves on every side NEB ; As though to defy reason, as though to flaunt a divine indestructibility, the question will not go away: Tom Stoppard. His deliberate flouting of one still supposedly iron rule Frederic Raphael: During demonstrations following the hanging of two British soldiers. The prologue was written by the company following an incident witnessed by them. It can also give rise to ambiguity, e. Police arrested a man following the hunt. In any case, following should not be used as a mere synonym for after e.
Following supper they went to bed. The subject of a clause of which the verb is the to-infinitive is normally preceded by for, e. For him to stay elsewhere is unthinkable contrast that he should stay elsewhere But if the clause is a direct object in a main sentence, for is omitted: Daily Mail is non-standard.
An object which has been sent for forensic examination. When referring the first last of three or more, the first the last should he used, not the former the latter. His presence is not fortuitous. It was too fortuitous to be chance. In spite of such a divisive past and a fractious correctly, factious present New York Times. They listened to fulsome speeches, doggedly translated by a wilting Olga Fiodorovna Beryl Bainbridge.
The use of half in expressions of time to mean half-past is indigenous to Britain and has been remarked on since the s, e. It remains non-standard. Hardly had Grimes left the house when a tall young man More than, or as little as, one can help are illogical but established idioms, e. They will not respect more than they can help treaties extracted from them under duress Winston Churchill.
The screens with which working archaeologists baffle the hoi polloi Frederic Raphael. Homogeneous means 'of the same kind, uniform', e. The style throughout was homogeneous but the authors' names were multiform Evelyn Waugh. These adverbs are used in two ways: The prevailing mentality of that deluded time was still hopefully parliamentary G.
Shaw ; When it thankfully dawned on her that the travel agency would be open Muriel Spark. Hopefully they will be available in the autumn Guardian ; The editor, thankfully, has left them as they were written TLS. The main reason is that other commenting sentence adverbs, such as regrettably, fortunately, etc. A further objection is that absurdity or ambiguity can arise from the interplay of senses 1 and 2 , e.
There is also a screen, hopefully forming a backdrop to the whole stage Tom Stoppard ; Any decision to trust Egypt This use of hopefully probably arose as a translation of German hoffentlich, used in the same way, and first became popular in America in the late Os; the same American provenance, but not the German, holds good for thankfully.
It is recommended that sense 2 should be restricted to informal contexts. A great play, if not the greatest, by this author. Is this famous teacher of Israel ignorant of such things? Of that ilk is a Scots term, meaning 'of the same place, territorial designation, or name', e.
Joan Baez and other vocalists of that ilk David Lodge. This should be avoided in formal English. The most dynamic colour combination if used too often loses its impact i. It is weakened if used as a mere synonym for effect, impression, or influence. The total resistance of an electric circuit to the flow of alternating current. Convinced of the existence of a serious impediment to his marriage Evelyn Waugh.
Imply 1 to involve the truth or existence of; 2 to express indirectly, insinuate, hint at. Infer 1 to reach an opinion , deduce, from facts and reasoning, e. She left it to my intelligence to infer her meaning.
I inferred it all right W. Somerset Maugham ; He is a philosopher's God, logically inferred from self-evident premises Tom Stoppard. I have inferred once, and I repeat, that Limehouse is the most overrated excitement in London H. Fox-trots and quicksteps, at which he had been so inept David Lodge ; 2 inappropriate, e. Not much less than famous for looking ineptly dressed Anthony Powell ; 3 absurd, silly, e. Here l was, awkward and tongue-tied, and all the time in danger of saying something inept or even rude Siegfried Sassoon.
Trying to give his work a finished look--and all the time it's pathetically obvious If possible, use strike, work-to-rule, overtime ban, etc. One inflicts something on someone or afflicts someone with something; something is inflicted on one, or one is afflicted with something.
The intense evening sunshine Iris Murdoch ; intensive employing much effort, concentrated, e. Intensive care; The intensive geological surveys of the Sahara Margaret Drabble. The concepts of surface tension apply to the interfaces between solid and solid, solid and liquid etc.
Modular interfaces can easily be designed to adapt the general-purpose computer to the equipment. The interface between physics and music is of direct relevance to The need for the interface of lecturer and student will diminish. A multiplexed analog-to-digital converter interfaced to a PDP computer Lancet. Practically knocked me over in his eagerness to get in the house David Lodge.
The noun irony can mean 1 a way of speaking in which the intended meaning for those with insight is the opposite to, or very different from, that expressed by the words used and apprehended by the victim of the irony ; or 2 a condition of affairs or events that is the opposite of what might be expected, especially when the outcome of an action appears as if it is in mockery of the agent's intention. The adjectives ironic, ironical, and the adverb ironically are commonly used in sense 1 of irony, e.
Ironical silent apology for the absence of naked women and tanks of gin from the amenities Kingsley Amis. They are also frequently found in sense 2 , e. The outcome was ironic. Taylor ; The fact that after all she had been faithful to me was ironic Graham Greene.
It was ironic that he thought himself locked out when the key was in his pocket all the time. They would be on those sort of terms Anthony Powell. This is widely regarded as incorrect except in informal use: I kind of expected it, are informal only. He's made a lot of kudos out of the strike Evelyn Waugh. The Opposition's abstention from criticism of the Government in this crisis was laudable; laudatory, expressing praise, e.
One politician's remarks about another are not always laudatory. Lay her on the bed; They laid her on the bed; reflexive, somewhat archaic I will both lay me down in peace, and sleep Authorized Version. She wants to lay down; She was laying on the bed is non-standard, even though fairly common in spoken English. The solicitor I had to try to be both forthcoming and discreet C. I owe him little duty and less love Shakespeare ; fewer is the comparative of a few, and both are used with plural countable nouns, e.
Few people have their houses broken into; and fewer still have them burnt G. I wish that they would send less delicacies and frills and some more plain and substantial things Susan Hill. This is regarded as incorrect in formal English. He opened The Times with the rich crackle that drowns all lesser sounds John Galsworthy.
It cannot replace smaller in A smaller prize will probably be offered. Lest the eye wander aimlessly, a Doric temple stood by the water's edge Evelyn Waugh ; Lest some too sudden gesture or burst of emotion should turn the petals brown Patrick White.
Halfdan's two sons Allowed to is usual. Receiving in the bedroom is liable to get a woman talked about Tom Stoppard ; 3 can indicate either the mere possibility, or the habituality, of what is expressed by the verb, e. The cruellest question which a novelist is liable to be asked Frederic Raphael ; The kind of point that one is always liable to miss George Orwell.
Contrast apt. Lie down on the bed; The ship lay at anchor until yesterday; Her left arm, on which she had lain all night, was numb.
Lie her on the bed is non-standard. The past lay and participle lain are quite often wrongly used for laid out of over-correctness, e. He had lain this peer's honour in the dust. A man with human frailties like our own NEB ; He loathes people like you and me not.. It can be used to mean 'such as' introducing a particular example of a class about which something is said , e. With a strongly patterned dress like that you shouldn't really wear any jewellery Iris Murdoch.
British composers such as Elgar, Vaughan Williams, and Britten. Everything went wrong With glossy hair, black, and a nose like on someone historical Patrick White ; It was as if I saw myself. Like in a looking-glass Jean Rhys. Use as, e. Are you going to kill me as you killed the Egyptian? NEB , or recast the sentence, e.
A costume like those that the others wore. What is the structure after I wish? When do we say used to do and when do we say used to doing? When do we use the? What is the difference between like and as? These and many other points of English grammar are explained in the book and there are exercises on each point. Some advanced students who have problems with grammar will also find the book useful.
The book is not suitable for elementary learners. Each unit concentrates on a particular point of grammar. Some problems for example, the present perfect or the use of the are covered in more than one unit. For a list of units, see the Contents at the beginning of the book English Grammar in Use 4th Edition. English grammar in use raymond murphy Each unit consists of two facing pages. On the left there are explanations and examples; on the right there are exercises. At the back of the book there is a Key for you to check your answers to the exercises page There are also seven Appendices at the back of the book pages