Psychological testing gregory pdf


 

Psychological Assessment SAGE Benchmarks in Psychology Edited by Gregory J Boyle Bond University, Queensland, Donald H Saklofske University of Calgary . - Seventh edition, Global edition. [Matching item] Psychological testing: history, principles, and applications / Robert J. Gregory ; editor in chief, Ashley Dodge. - Seventh edition, Pearson global edition. Psychological Testing: History, Principles and Applications eBook PDF, Global Edition, 7/E. View larger cover. Robert J. Gregory, Wheaton College.

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Psychological Testing Gregory Pdf

Psychological Testing: Principles and Applications 6th Edition Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, and Issues. Overview of the Book 9 Principles of Psychological Testing 10 Applications of alertness to the environment and alertness to cultural opportunities (Gregory. Psychological Testing: History, Principles and Applications, Books a la Carte (7th Edition) Robert J. (7th Edition) by Robert J. Gregory ebook PDF download.

Sir Francis Galton. From the National Library of Medicine. Following Herbart, E. Weber attempted to demonstrate the existence of a psychological threshold, the minimum stimulus necessary to activate a sensory system. Then, following Weber, G. Fechner devised the law that the strength of a sensation grows as the logarithm of the stimulus intensity. Wilhelm Wundt, who set up a laboratory at the University of Leipzig in , is credited with founding the science of psychology, following in the tradition of Weber and Fechner Hearst, Wundt was succeeded by E.

Later in this book we discuss in greater detail the work of these pioneers and the tests they helped to develop. Experimental psychology developed from the latter. From this work also came the idea that testing, like an experiment, requires rigorous experimental control. Such control, as you will see, comes from administering tests under highly standardized conditions.

Such tests also arose in response to important needs such as classifying and identifying the mentally and emotionally handicapped.

Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, and Issues

Similarly, Kraepelin devised a series of examinations for evaluating emotionally impaired people. An important breakthrough in the creation of modern tests came at the turn of the 20th century. The French minister of public instruction appointed a commission to study ways of identifying intellectually subnormal individuals in order to provide them with appropriate educational experiences.

One member of that commission was Alfred Binet.

Working in conjunction with the French physician T. Like all well-constructed tests, the Binet-Simon Scale of was augmented by a comparison or standardization sample. In obtaining this standardization sample, the authors of the Binet test had norms with which they could compare the results from any new subject.

However, by knowing such things as the average number of correct responses found in the standardization sample, one could at least state whether a new subject was below or above it. It is easy to understand the importance of a standardization sample. However, the importance of obtaining a standardization sample that represents the population for which a test will be used has sometimes been ignored or overlooked by test users.

For example, if a standardization sample consists of 50 white men from wealthy families, then one cannot easily or fairly evaluate the score of an African American girl from a poverty-stricken family. Nevertheless, comparisons of this kind are sometimes made. Clearly, it is not appropriate to compare an individual with a group that does not have the same characteristics as the individual.

Binet was aware of the importance of a standardization sample. Further development of the Binet test involved attempts to increase the size and representativeness of the standardization sample. A representative sample is one that comprises individuals similar to those for whom the test is to be used. By , the Binet-Simon Scale had been substantially improved.

It was revised to include nearly twice as many items as the scale. In other words, in terms of the abilities measured by the test, this child can be viewed as having a similar level of ability as the average 8-year-old.

The chronological age of the child may be 4 or 12, but in terms of test performance, the child functions at the same level as the average 8-year-old. The mental age concept was one of the most important contributions of the revised Binet-Simon Scale. In , the Binet-Simon Scale received a minor revision. By this time, the idea of intelligence testing had swept across the world. By , L.

It also characterizes one of the most important trends in testing—the drive toward better tests. The standardization sample was increased to include people, original items were revised, and many new items were added. However, the Binet test was an individual test.

Shortly after the United States became actively involved in World War I, the army requested the assistance of Robert Yerkes, who was then the president of the American Psychological Association see Yerkes, Yerkes headed a committee of distinguished psychologists who soon developed two structured group tests of human abilities: the Army Alpha and the Army Beta.

The Army Alpha required reading ability, whereas the Army Beta measured the intelligence of illiterate adults. World War I fueled the widespread development of group tests. About this time, the scope of testing also broadened to include tests of achievement, aptitude, interest, and personality.

Psychological Testing History, Principles, and Applications, Global Edition, 7th edition

Because achievement, aptitude, and intelligence tests overlapped considerably, the distinctions proved to be more illusory than real.

Even so, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale had appeared at a time of strong demand and high optimism for the potential of measuring human behavior through tests.

World War I and the creation of group tests had then added momentum to the testing movement. Shortly after the appearance of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Army Alpha test, schools, colleges, and industry began using tests. It appeared to many that this new phenomenon, the psychological test, held the key to solving the problems emerging from the rapid growth of population and technology. Achievement Tests Among the most important developments following World War I was the development of standardized achievement tests.

Standardized achievement tests caught on quickly because of the relative ease of administration and scoring and the lack of subjectivity or favoritism that can occur in essay or other written tests.

In school settings, standardized achievement tests allowed one to maintain identical testing conditions and scoring standards for a large number of children. In , the development of standardized achievement tests culminated in the publication of the Stanford Achievement Test by T. Kelley, G. Ruch, and L. By the s, it was widely held that the objectivity and reliability of these new standardized tests made them superior to essay tests.

Their use proliferated widely. It is interesting, as we shall discuss later in the book, that teachers of today appear to have come full circle. Currently, many people favor written tests and work samples portfolios over standardized achievement tests as the best way to evaluate children Boerum, ; Harris, Rising to the Challenge For every movement there is a countermovement, and the testing movement in the United States in the s was no exception.

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Critics soon became vocal enough to dampen enthusiasm and to make even the most optimistic advocates of tests defensive. Researchers, who demanded nothing short of the highest standards, noted the limitations and weaknesses of existing tests. Near the end of the s, developers began to reestablish the respectability of tests. By , the Stanford-Binet had been revised again. Among the many improvements was the inclusion of a standardization sample of more than individuals.

The Wechsler-Bellevue scale contained several interesting innovations in intelligence testing. Among the various scores produced by the Wechsler test was the performance IQ. If you're interested in creating a cost-saving package for your students contact your Pearson account manager. Looking for technical support for your Pearson course materials? Please visit our Technical Support site. Browse by discipline. Sign in Find your rep Exam copy bookbag Basket.

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