“Soil pollution” refers to the presence in the soil of a chemical or substance out The main anthropogenic sources of soil pollution are the chemicals used in or. Project Report on Soil Pollution 2 - Free download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. evaluation View project. Conservation of critically endangered Litsea glutinosa Lour View project . contribute towards causing soil pollution.
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Mark Hodson, Soil pollution and its impact on soil life. 2. Structure. • Sources of soil pollution. • How wide spread is the problem? • When is a pollutant a problem. and chemical processes assist in the formation of the soil, (e.g. environmental pollution: → soil acidification, releases, etc.) FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION (4) . A project report on soil pollution. This project report will help you to learn about: 1 . Introduction to Soil Pollution 2. Definition of Soil Pollution 3. Kinds 4. Causes 5.
However, mustard gas stored during World War II has contaminated some sites for up to 50 years  and the testing of Anthrax as a potential biological weapon contaminated the whole island of Gruinard. This tends to result in the development of [List of pollution-related diseases pollution-related diseases] Health consequences from exposure to soil contamination vary greatly depending on pollutant type, pathway of attack and vulnerability of the exposed population. Chronic exposure to chromium , lead and other metals, petroleum, solvents, and many pesticide and herbicide formulations can be carcinogenic, can cause congenital disorders , or can cause other chronic health conditions.
Industrial or man-made concentrations of naturally occurring substances, such as nitrate and ammonia associated with livestock manure from agricultural operations, have also been identified as health hazards in soil and groundwater. Mercury and cyclodienes are known to induce higher incidences of kidney damage and some irreversible diseases.
PCBs and cyclodienes are linked to liver toxicity. Organophosphates and carbonates can induce a chain of responses leading to neuromuscular blockage.
Many chlorinated solvents induce liver changes, kidney changes and depression of the central nervous system. There is an entire spectrum of further health effects such as headache, nausea, fatigue, eye irritation and skin rash for the above cited and other chemicals. At sufficient dosages a large number of soil contaminants can cause death by exposure via direct contact, inhalation or ingestion of contaminants in groundwater contaminated through soil.
The overall aim of the project is to work up guidance that should be useful to Scottish Local Authorities in assessing whether sites represent a significant possibility of significant harm SPOSH to human health. It is envisaged that the output of the project will be a short document providing high level guidance on health risk assessment with reference to existing published guidance and methodologies that have been identified as being particularly relevant and helpful.
The project will examine how policy guidelines have been developed for determining the acceptability of risks to human health and propose an approach for assessing what constitutes unacceptable risk in line with the criteria for SPOSH as defined in the legislation and the Scottish Statutory Guidance. Ecosystem effects[ edit ] Not unexpectedly, soil contaminants can have significant deleterious consequences for ecosystems.
These changes can manifest in the alteration of metabolism of endemic microorganisms and arthropods resident in a given soil environment. The result can be virtual eradication of some of the primary food chain, which in turn could have major consequences for predator or consumer species. Even if the chemical effect on lower life forms is small, the lower pyramid levels of the food chain may ingest alien chemicals, which normally become more concentrated for each consuming rung of the food chain.
Many of these effects are now well known, such as the concentration of persistent DDT materials for avian consumers, leading to weakening of egg shells, increased chick mortality and potential extinction of species.
Contaminants typically alter plant metabolism, often causing a reduction in crop yields. This has a secondary effect upon soil conservation , since the languishing crops cannot shield the Earth's soil from erosion. Some of these chemical contaminants have long half-lives and in other cases derivative chemicals are formed from decay of primary soil contaminants. Various technologies have been developed for remediation of oil-contaminated soil and sediments  There are several principal strategies for remediation: Excavate soil and take it to a disposal site away from ready pathways for human or sensitive ecosystem contact.
This technique also applies to dredging of bay muds containing toxins. Aeration of soils at the contaminated site with attendant risk of creating air pollution Thermal remediation by introduction of heat to raise subsurface temperatures sufficiently high to volatize chemical contaminants out of the soil for vapor extraction.
Bioremediation , involving microbial digestion of certain organic chemicals. Techniques used in bioremediation include landfarming , biostimulation and bioaugmentating soil biota with commercially available microflora. Extraction of groundwater or soil vapor with an active electromechanical system, with subsequent stripping of the contaminants from the extract.
Containment of the soil contaminants such as by capping or paving over in place. Phytoremediation, or using plants such as willow to extract heavy metals.
Mycoremediation , or using fungus to metabolize contaminants and accumulate heavy metals. Remediation of oil contaminated sediments with self-collapsing air microbubbles.
PRGs , the U. People's Republic of China[ edit ] The immense and sustained growth of the People's Republic of China since the s has exacted a price from the land in increased soil pollution. The State Environmental Protection Administration believes it to be a threat to the environment, to food safety and to sustainable agriculture.
These are screening values that demonstrate the minimal acceptable level of a substance. Above this there can be no assurances in terms of significant risk of harm to human health. As part of this framework, generic Soil Guideline Values SGVs have currently been derived for ten contaminants to be used as "intervention values"[ citation needed ]. These values should not be considered as remedial targets but values above which further detailed assessment should be considered; see Dutch standards.
Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in Pollution became a major issue in the United States in the early twentieth century, as progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, and street pollution caused by the 3 million horses who worked in American cities in , generating large quantities of urine and manure. As historian Martin Melosi notes, The generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as "miracles of cleanliness.
Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late s, serving as another public reminder. Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread widely after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing.
The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination , which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years.
Chelyabinsk , Russia, is considered the "Most polluted place on the planet". The toll on the worst-affected populations and the growth since then in understanding about the critical threat to human health posed by radioactivity has also been a prohibitive complication associated with nuclear power. Though extreme care is practiced in that industry, the potential for disaster suggested by incidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl pose a lingering specter of public mistrust.
Worldwide publicity has been intense on those disasters. The borderless nature of atmosphere and oceans inevitably resulted in the implication of pollution on a planetary level with the issue of global warming. Though their effects remain somewhat less well understood owing to a lack of experimental data, they have been detected in various ecological habitats far removed from industrial activity such as the Arctic, demonstrating diffusion and bioaccumulation after only a relatively brief period of widespread use.
Plastic Pollution in Ghana, Plastic pollution on the remote island of Maui, Hawaii A much more recently discovered problem is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch , a huge concentration of plastics, chemical sludge and other debris which has been collected into a large area of the Pacific Ocean by the North Pacific Gyre. This is a less well known pollution problem than the others described above, but nonetheless has multiple and serious consequences such as increasing wildlife mortality, the spread of invasive species and human ingestion of toxic chemicals.
Organizations such as 5 Gyres have researched the pollution and, along with artists like Marina DeBris , are working toward publicizing the issue. Pollution introduced by light at night is becoming a global problem, more severe in urban centres, but nonetheless contaminating also large territories, far away from towns. Blue drain and yellow fish symbol used by the UK Environment Agency to raise awareness of the ecological impacts of contaminating surface drainage.
The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular contaminant relevant to each of them: Air pollution : the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide , sulfur dioxide , chlorofluorocarbons CFCs and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter , or fine dust is characterized by their micrometre size PM10 to PM2.
Light pollution : includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference. Littering : the criminal throwing of inappropriate man-made objects, unremoved, onto public and private properties.
Noise pollution : which encompasses roadway noise , aircraft noise , industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar. Plastic pollution : involves the accumulation of plastic products and microplastics in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, or humans.
Radioactive contamination , resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics , such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment.
Thermal pollution , is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant.
Water pollution , by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste intentionally or through spills into surface waters ; discharges of untreated domestic sewage , and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine , from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides ; also including human feces from open defecation — still a major problem in many developing countries ; groundwater pollution from waste disposal and leaching into the ground, including from pit latrines and septic tanks ; eutrophication and littering.
Pollutants Main article: Pollutant A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water, or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, the concentration and the persistence.
Cost of pollution Pollution has a cost. A manufacturing activity that causes air pollution is an example of a negative externality in production. Because responsibility or consequence for self-directed action lies partly outside the self, an element of externalization is involved. If there are external benefits, such as in public safety , less of the good may be produced than would be the case if the producer were to receive payment for the external benefits to others.
However, goods and services that involve negative externalities in production, such as those that produce pollution, tend to be over-produced and underpriced since the externality is not being priced into the market.
Sometimes firms choose, or are forced by regulation, to reduce the amount of pollution that they are producing. The associated costs of doing this are called abatement costs, or marginal abatement costs if measured by each additional unit. This utility comes from the consumption of goods and services that create pollution. Therefore, it is important that policymakers attempt to balance these indirect benefits with the costs of pollution in order to achieve an efficient outcome.
It is possible to use environmental economics to determine which level of pollution is deemed the social optimum. At this point the damage of one extra unit of pollution to society, the marginal cost of pollution, is exactly equal to the marginal benefit of consuming one more unit of the good or service.
If the social costs of pollution are higher than the private costs incurred by the firm, then the true supply curve will be higher. The point at which the social marginal cost and market demand intersect gives the socially optimal level of pollution. At this point, the quantity will be lower and the price will be higher in comparison to the free market equilibrium.
Some examples include tariffs , a carbon tax and cap and trade systems. Sources and causes Play media Air pollution produced by ships may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures.
Air pollution comes from both natural and human-made anthropogenic sources. However, globally human-made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants , coal-fired power plants , oil refineries ,  petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.
Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides  About million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year.
Humans have ways to cut greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the consequences of global warming, a major climate report concluded.