The power of habit: why we do what we do in life and business / by Charles Duhigg. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Here is your download link: The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business by Charles Duhigg - PDF Drive. PDF Drive - Search and download PDF files for free. In The Power of Habit, award-winning business reporter Charles Duhigg takes us to the thrilling edge of. Full text of "The Power Of terney.info ". See other formats. THE POWER WHY DO WHAT W f DO IN Li F f AND BUSINESS Charles Duhigg THE POWER OF A CRISIS How Leaders Create Habits Through Accident and Design 7.
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THE POWER OF HABIT-CHARLES DUHIGG. This book abstract is intended to provide just a glimpse of this wonderful book with the hope that you may like to. The Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg. Drawing on anecdotes, as well as psychological and neurological research, NYT investigative reporter. Charles Duhigg. Book: The Power of Habit. Author: Charles Duhigg. This month's theme is the psychology of business. The more you breakdown business, whether it be sales .
But surprisingly, Eugene was able to form new habits. How could Eugene do all this without memory? They were habits, formed in a different part of the brain. For the memory game, being presented with the objects was his cue. He then executed the routine of flipping over the correct object.
He then got the reward of pleasure of picking the right object. Subconsciously, this had been baked into his brain, without his ever articulating why he was doing what he was doing. But habits are also delicate and can be changed. For Eugene above, if the cues were taken away, his habits would fail.
On his daily walks, if a storm had blown leaves all over the sidewalk or a house was undergoing construction — Eugene would get lost. Habit loops are made of cue, routine, and reward. They start as a conscious decision, but ultimately the loop can reinforce itself. Over time, you may end up losing full control over your behavior — with a cue, your brain goes into autopilot and executes the routine. The good news is that by consciously recognizing your cues and rewards, you can combat your habits.
Subscribe to get my next book summary in your email. Email address: Leave this field empty if you're human: Like this summary? Have too much to read? You'll love my new book summary product Shortform. Even better, it helps you remember what you read, so you can make your life better. What's special about Shortform: The world's highest quality book summaries - comprehensive, concise, and everything you need to know Interactive exercises that teach you to apply what you've learned Discussion communities - get the best advice from other readers Get the world's best book summaries now Chapter 2: The Craving Brain — How to Create New Habits From the last chapter of The Power of Habit, you now know that the habit consists of a cue, a routine, and a reward.
But this is only part of the story. By themselves, the cue and reward would just be considered learning. For example, consider fixing a flat tire on your car. You hear the cue of the flat tire sound, and you feel the cue of the bumpiness of the ride.
You have a routine to fix the tire. Then you have the reward of being able to continue on your ride, and the self-satisfaction of handiwork. The final essential component of a habit is craving. A craving is the anticipation of the reward when you get the cue, even before you actually get the reward.
This craving pushes you through the routine so that you get the reward at the end of the habit. You get the cue of delicious French fry smell. Before actually going through the routine, you crave the reward — the Big Mac with Diet Coke at the end. This craving makes the cue-routine-reward loop a true habit, rather than just simple learning. The seminal work in understanding cravings was done in monkeys. The monkey was set in front of a blank computer screen.
Periodically, a colored shape would appear on the screen. It was good at recognizing the cue, doing the routine of pulling the lever, and getting the reward of juice. But interestingly, over time, the monkey began anticipating the reward. The brain activity spiked when the cue appeared, well in advance of actually getting the reward: Source Notice that the peak area of brain activity happens when the cue is sensed CS. This is the craving that happens when you sense a cue. The activity no longer appears when getting the reward — in some senses, the brain is no longer pleasantly surprised at getting the reward, it just gets what is expected.
Finally, the scientist tried a different experiment — give the monkey the cue, activate the routine, but give it no reward. The spike in activity when you sense a cue is the craving. This craving, this eager anticipation of the reward, kicks your habit into gear — you execute the routine, without even thinking hard about it, so you can get that sweet reward at the end.
If you keep ignoring your craving, it can keep building and building until you lose control over your own behavior. The good news is, by becoming conscious of your habits and cravings, you can overpower them. Recognize which cues and cravings are driving your habit. You can avoid the craving by removing the cue.
And if you want to start a new habit, set up a clear cue and reward. Then, when you encounter the cue, actively mentally crave the reward that follows. For example, if you want to start exercising, set up a simple cue like putting on your running shoes after you get back from work. Set up a reward like a snack at the end of your run, a feeling of pride at extending your run time, the endorphins you get after running, or a picture of yourself in your summer swimsuit.
Finally, when you encounter the cue, actively think about the reward and anticipate it. This will make you more likely to drive through the routine to get the reward. So manufacturers are now trying to attach a sensation to putting on sunscreen, like a cool tingling sensation, to inspire a craving for that feeling.
In the early s, American rarely brushed their teeth. Combined with processed foods, the lack of dental hygiene led to an epidemic of rotten teeth. Enter Claude Hopkins, a master advertiser who had made Palmolive and Quaker Oats into household names.
Taking up the case of new toothpaste Pepsodent, he focused on building a new habit: Cue: run your tongue over your teeth. Routine: brush your teeth with Pepsodent Reward: end up with a beautiful smile Pepsodent rocketed in demand. Other brands had tried and failed with similar marketing.
The secret, it turns out, was the aftertaste of Pepsodent. With mint oil and citric acid, Pepsodent left a cool, tingling feeling after brushing teeth. Customers of Pepsodent revealed that if they forgot to brush their teeth, they missed the tingling sensation. They craved this feeling. When invented in the s, Febreze was a magical product — it could remove bad smells from fabric, not just cover it up like other products. It seemed like a sure-fire win, an alternative to dry cleaning and laundry.
The team designed ads with cues and rewards, focusing on the cue of bad smells. The reward was clothing that no longer smelled like cigarettes, or sofas that no longer smelled like dog. But the ads failed. So the Febreze team tried a different strategy. Instead of attacking the smell problem, they repositioned the product as the proper reward to a cleaning routine.
They added more perfume to Febreze, and they encouraged customers to spray Febreze after freshly making a bed or vacuuming. Over time, customers associated cleanliness with the smell of Febreze. Then the smell became a craving. In malls, Cinnabon locates its stores away from other restaurants. They want the smell alone wafting through the hallways to act as a cue, then trigger a craving for the cinnamon roll.
Over 3 million sprained ankles occurred in the US between and Recovering from this type of injury generally requires elevating your foot, wearing a supportive bandage or brace, and taking a painkiller for two weeks.
What are the inflection points that might delay recovery? What would your plan look like if you sprained your ankle very badly? What advice would you give yourself to increase your willpower habits regarding completing class assignments and submitting them by the due date?
Identify some of the strategies used by children in the marshmallow studies by observing their behavior first hand. Identify two strategies the children used to avoid eating the marshmallow. Why did these strategies help them sustain their willpower? Based on the information in this video, do you believe culture plays an important role in delayed gratification willpower?
Would you take a class to improve your willpower and learn more about willpower research?
Help Professor McGonigal with her class by creating a homework assignment for her students. What activities would you assign students to learn more about willpower? Should they read about willpower research, conduct an experiment about willpower, or watch classic footage of marshmallow studies?
What other activities can you think of to help the students learn about willpower? What are the most important pieces of information that students should know about willpower research?
The President of your university has asked for your help. She is concerned about low graduation rates among undergraduate students. The President has asked you to design a strategic plan to help students graduate. What key elements should this plan include? Write a memo to the President describing three specific suggestions to increase graduation rates using the ideas in this chapter.
What exercises should new freshmen complete on their first day of school? Outline a one-day workshop every sophomore must complete before they leave for summer break that would increase the likelihood of them graduating. If your school gave one assignment to each junior to help achieve the same goal, what would it be? Or that a fatal fire in an underground subway could have positive benefits?
However, at a hospital in Rhode Island and in a subway in London, those crises forced organizations to change their routines. This chapter explains why good leaders often capitalize on crises to remake organizational habits. Crises, or the perception of crises, can cultivate a sense that something must change and provide momentum for an organization to reevaluate organizational patterns.
Routines, as organizational habits are often called, provide unwritten rules that groups need to operate. Routines function as organizational memory and reduce uncertainty for employees. All organizations have institutional habits; some are beneficial routines and others are toxic. Organizational habits can be deliberately designed—like the worker safety habits at Alcoa in Chapter 4—or can grow without forethought.
During the turmoil of a crisis, organizational habits are more flexible and open to change. Leaders can use the opportunity of a crisis to deliberately design a new culture and better routines. What did he mean? Describe the crisis and explain how it led to a positive change. Write down three pieces of unwritten advice about how to succeed at your workplace or university. How have you, or your organization, created routines to make these rules occur? Which routines help you be successful?
How does it relate to organizational habits and routines?
According to this chapter, could an organization function if all employees had equal say in how things are run? Some people think that organizations need leaders who cultivate habits that both create a real and balanced peace and, paradoxically, make it absolutely clear who is in charge. What do you think? Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain your reasoning. Summarize the toxic routines that contributed to the devastating fire that killed thirty-one people in the London Underground.
Analyze those patterns and describe how different communication patterns could have prevented the tragedy. How did the institutional changes that are listed on page change the routines of the employees at Rhode Island Hospital?
Why would a leader want to prolong a sense of emergency on purpose or create the perception of a crisis? Is that ethical? How many times have you visited a hospital or used public transportation? After reading about the habits of Rhode Island Hospital and the London Underground, how do you feel about your experiences with hospitals and public transportation? Based on your experiences, are you confident about the services offered by these organizations?
Some speculate their deaths were influenced by the safety habits of the organization. To avoid exposure to the disaster surrounding the North Tower, Fetchet and his colleagues stayed in the South Tower as they did not know that their building had been damaged and assumed dangers were isolated to the North Tower.
What elements of organizational habits are revealed by this policy? What written or unwritten habits may have contributed to some of the fatalities in the World Trade Center collapse? The chapters in the second section of this book focus on habits within companies and organizations. Workplaces are unique professional atmospheres that have their own language convey organizational habits.
The questions below ask you to consider some of the language used in workplaces and to examine the underlying workplace habits. What does this phrase mean in the context of this chapter? How could you apply this phrase to the example of fire in the London Underground? What unwritten rules do these phrases reveal? Imagine that you were appointed the head of the London Underground following the fire. The British Parliament has asked you to reform the organization, and your first job is to redesign the organizational chart and develop three new rules to keep the trains running, while also making sure another tragedy like the fire never occurs.
How do you assign responsibility to make it clear who is in charge of various divisions, while also assigning broad responsibility for issues like passenger safety? What would your organizational chart look like? What are your first three rules?
What would you do on your first day at work? What do you notice about it? How do advertisers know that you need garbage bags again? Can these companies read your mind? Or, are they spying on you? You may be surprised to learn how much retail companies know about you! This chapter focuses on how companies capitalize on our shopping habits. Companies collect data about how we habitually shop.
Humans prefer familiarity, and when we are doing activities like shopping, we often make choices automatically by relying on our habits. So if companies can figure out those habits, they can predict what we will download. Retail stores use knowledge of our shopping behaviors to change what we habitually download. You learned in the last chapter that organizations are more likely to change their routines after a crisis, when everything is in turmoil.
Once companies have identified a potential life event, they flood shoppers with advertisements and coupons to promote new shop- ping habits.
Soon-to-be parents and first-time homeowners are suddenly downloading diapers, baby clothes, new pots and pans, and everything else at a store they hardly used to visit. Shoppers, in general, prefer familiarity. If you use the same cue, and provide the same reward, you can shift the routine and change the habit. Almost any behavior can be transformed if the cue and reward stay the same. A keystone habit is something that has the power to influence how we work, eat, play, live, spend money and communicate.
Duhigg explains the importance of keystone habits and their ability to encourage a chain reaction. This is particularly influential in organisations and places of business. The habits that trigger the chain reaction move through an organisation influencing other habits as they go. The habits that matter most are the ones that, when they start to shift, dislodge and remake other patterns.
Duhigg uses exercise as a way to explain the power of keystone habits. The exercise habit has the power over other habits such as eating and work that begin to become apparent. Duhigg explains that perhaps the most influential keystone habit when it comes to success is willpower. Duhigg suggests that you think of willpower as a muscle, something that needs to be exercised in order to get stronger.
You can turn willpower into a habit by identifying a behaviour or action ahead of time. This translates well into organisations and business environments.
If you allow your employees to feel like they are in control, that they have their own agency, authority and the ability to make decisions, they will reflect this through the improved energy and focus they bring to their jobs. Leaders who are thoughtless and ignore the culture of their company will let these negative habits emerge and develop. This is evident in countless industries and individual companies on both small and large scales.
Any operating business literally operates on hundreds of unwritten habits and routines. The majority of these, work like clock-work and mean that the work gets done. However, some of these can be destructive and anti-productive. These destructive habits within an organisation can often lead to a crisis.
And these crises actually become a pretty essential part of implementing new organisation habits. Weak-tie acquaintances—the people we bump into every six months—are the ones who tell us about jobs we would otherwise never hear about. Social movements that have the power to convince thousands of people, to get behind a common goal or attitude. Due to this unwillingness, activists encourage protest through a simple tool that works, even when used against people who are not willing to participate initially.
However, Duhigg recognises that despite their differences, the habits of peer pressure do share an underlying common feature. The fact that the way they are most commonly distributed is through weak ties.
And the authority is gained through communal expectations.