feldspar group under high simultaneous pressures of from a standard textbook; these pages might better water and carbon dioxide a t elevated temperatures. Fundamentals of Ecology. Eugene P. Odum. Saunders, Philadelphia, This is a PDF-only article. The first page of the PDF of this article appears above. Rupert B. Vance; Fundamentals of Ecology. By Eugene P. Odum. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders This content is only available as a PDF. Copyright, , The.
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Odum Fundamentals of Ecology - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt ) or read online for free. Get this from a library! Fundamentals of ecology. [Eugene P Odum; Gary W Barrett]. Odum considered one of his most important contribu- tions, perhaps the one for which he is best known, the book entitled Fundamentals of Ecology. Although Sir .
Martha Ann Odum joined her husband in Rensselaerville, where he continued to work at the Huyck Preserve. His research included studying chickadees and—more important for his future as an ecologist—inventorying the plants and preparing a habitat map.
His purpose was to establish a basis for succession studies of the land so man could plan and manage ecosystems.
Their son William died young, in his 40s, but had already made important contributions to science while a faculty member at the University of Virginia. He founded the Institute of Ecology, later named for him. In the Institute of Ecology, which Odum founded at the University of Georgia, was named as the Odum School of Ecology , the first stand-alone academic unit of a research university dedicated to ecology.
Ecosystems[ edit ] In the s and s, " ecology " was not yet a field of study that had been defined as a separate discipline.
Even professional biologists seemed to Odum to be generally under-educated about how the Earth's ecological systems interact with one another. Odum brought forward the importance of ecology as a discipline that should be a fundamental dimension of the training of a biologist.
Odum adopted and developed further the term " ecosystem ". Although sometimes said to have been coined by Raymond Lindeman in , the term "ecosystem" first appeared in a publication by the British ecologist , Arthur Tansley ,  and had in been coined by Tansley's colleague, Roy Clapham. Before Odum, the ecology of specific organisms and environments had been studied on a more limited scale within individual sub-disciplines of biology.
Many scientists doubted that it could be studied on a large scale, or as a discipline in itself. Odum wrote a textbook on ecology with his brother, Howard Thomas Odum , a graduate student at Yale. The Odum brothers' book first edition, , Fundamentals of Ecology, was the only textbook in the field for about ten years.
Among other things, the Odums explored how one natural system can interact with another. Environmentalism[ edit ] While Odum did wish to influence the knowledge base and thinking of fellow biologists and of college and university students, his historical role was not as a promoter of public environmentalism as we now know it.
Both ho-: P Odum ; Barrett Ecologyseek slnthesis, not separation. The revival of the holistic disciplinesmay be due at leastpartly to citizen dissatisfac- is tion with the specializedscientistwho cannot respond to the large-scaleproblems ue that need urgent attention. Accordingly, we shall discuss he ecologicalprinciples at the ecosystemlevel, with appropiate attention to organism, te. This is the philosophical basisfor the organizationo[ the chaptersin this book.
Fortunately,in the past I0 years,technologicaladvanceshaveallowed humans to deal quantitativelywith large,complex systemssuch as ecosystemsand landscapes. Technologyis, of course,a double-edgedsword: Ex- in amplesof such transcending functions are behavior,development,diversity, ener- rle getics,evolution, integration,and regulation seeFig.
Natural selectionevolulion, for example,in- an volvesmutations and other direct geneticinteractionsat the organismlevel but indl- rect coevolutionaryand group selectionprocessesat higher levels. As noted on the right-hand side ne of Figure , there are no set-pointcontrolsabovethe organismlevel no chemostats oI or thermostatsin nature.
Accordingly, feedbackcontrol is much looser,resulting in ne pulsing rather than sieady states. The term homeorhesis, from the Greek meaning n- "maintaining the floq" has been suggestedfor this pulsing control. Failure to recognizethis differencein cybernetics the sci- encedealingwith mechanismsof control or regulation has resultedin much confu- sion about the realitiesof the so-called"balanceof nature. Becauseecology is a broad, muLtileveldiscipline, it inrerfaceswell with lraditional disciplinesthat tend to have more narrow focus.
During the past decade,there has been a rapid rise of interfacefields of study accompaniedby new societies,journals, symposium volumes, books-and new careers. Ecological economics,one of the most important, was mentionedin the frrst sectionin this chapter. Others that are re- ceiving a greatdeal oI attention,especiallyin resourcemanagement,are agroecology, biodiversity,conservationecology,ecologlcalengineering,ecosystemhealth, ecotox- icology,environmentalerhics,and restorationecology.
In the beginning, an interface effort enriches the disciplines being interfaced. Lines of communication are established,and the experliseo[ narrowly trained "ex- perts" in each field is expanded. However, for an interfacefield ro becomea new dis- cipline, somethingnew hasto emerge,such asa new conceptor technology.
The con- cept oInonmarket goodsand services,for example,was a new concept that emerged in ecologicaleconomics,but that inidally neither rraditional ecologistsnor econo- mists would put in their textbook Daily ; Mooney and Ehrlich Throughout lhis book, we will reler to natural capital and economiccapital. Nat- ural capital is defined as the benefits and servicessupplied to human societiesby natural ecosystems,or provided "free of cosf'by unmanagednatural systems.
These benehtsand servicesinclude purificadon oI water and air by natural processes,de- composition of wastes,maintenanceof biodiversity, control of insect pests,pollina- tion o[ crops, mitigation of floods, and provision o[ natural beauty and recreation, amongothers Daily Economic capital is defined as the goods and servicesprovided by humankind, or the human workforce, tlpically expressedas the gross national product GNP. Gross national product is the total monetary value o[ all goods and serl,rcespro- vided in a country during one year.
Natural capital is typically quantifred and ex- pressedin units of energy,whereaseconomic capital is expressedin monetary units Table Only in recent years has there been an attempt to value the world's ecosystemservicesand natural capital in moneury terms. Costanza,d'Arge, et al. Thus it is wise to protect natural ecosystems,both ecologicallyand economically,becauseof the benehtsand servicesthey provide to human societies,aswill be illustrated in the chantersthat follow. Ifecology is to be discussedat the ecosystemlevel, for reasonsalreadyindicated,how can this complex and formidable systemlevel be dealt with?
We begn by describing simplifred versionsthat encompassonly the most important, or basic,propertiesand functions. Because,in science,simplified versionsof the real world are called models, it is appropriatenow to introduce this concept. Ultimately, however, models musr be sraristicaland mathe- matical Uormdl i[ their quantitative predictions are ro be reasonablygood.
Thus, a mathematicalformulation can often be "tuned" or refined by com- puter operations to improve the "nC'to the real-world phenomenon.
Above all, d. When a model does not t5- work-when it poorly mimics the real world-computer operadonscan often pro- vide cluesto the refinemenmor changesneeded.
Once a model proves to be a useful ed mimic, opponunities for experimentationare unlimited, becauseone can introduce o- new factorsor perturbationsand seehow they would affectthe system. Even when a model inadequatelymimics the real world, which is often the casein its early stages rt- of development,it remainsan exceedinglyuseful teachingand researchtool if it re- bt vealskey componentsand interactionsthat merit specialattention.
Watt , for example,stated,"We do not needa rremen- rd, dous amount o[ information about a great many variablesto build revealingmathe P. Shown are d's two properties, P1and P2,that interact, I, to produce or alfect a third prope y, P], aL. Five flow pathways,F, are shown, tar with F1 representingthe input and F6 the output for the systemas a whole. Thus, at a minimum, there are five ingredientsor componentsfor a working model of an eco- of logrcalsituation, namely, l an energ sourceor other outside forcing function, E;.
P"; 3 flow pathways, Fr, F2,. Fi, showing where energyflows or material transfersconnectpropertieswith each other and with forces; 4 interaction functions, I, where forcesand propertiesinteract to modify, amplify, or control llows or createnew "emergenC'properties;and 5 feed- back loops, L.
Figure could serveas a model for the production of photochemicalsmog in the air over Los Angeles. Under the driving force of sunlight energy,E, rheseinteract to produce photochemicalsmog, P1. In this case, rn8 the interaction function, l, is a slrrergisticor augmentativeone, in that P3is a more.
P2might repre- senta herbivorousanimal that eatsplants, and P: Compartment diagramshowingthefjvebasjccomponents of primaryInterestrn modelingecological systems. Or I cou]d be a seasonaiswitchi[ pr feedson plants during one part of the yearancLon animalsduring anorherseason. Or I could be a thresholdswitch il P, greatlyprelcrsanimalfood and switchesto plantsonly when P, is rcducedto a low level.
Figure l-6 is a simplilieddiagramoIa systemth fearures a feedbackloop in which "downstream,, ourput,or so;e part o[ ii. Compartmentmodelwith afeedbackorcon- trol loop that transformsa linear system into a partiallycycli- cal one.
Interactionof positive and negativefeedbacksin the relation- ships of atmosphericCOr, climate warming,soilrespiration, andcarbonse' questration modifiedafter Luo et al. By and large, natural ecosystemshave a circular or loop design mther than a linear structure.
Feedbackand cybernetics,the scienceof: An increase let in CO2 has a positive greenhouseeffect on global warming and on plant growth. This acclimation results in a negativefeedbackon la carbon sequestrationin the soil, thus reducing emissionof CO2 to the atmosphere, c'n accordingto a study by Luo et al. Odum energylanguage H. P Odum ; H. Odum are depicted as used in this book. Also, in this diagram estimatesof the amount of energ'yflow through the units are shown as indicators of the relativeim- portanceof unit functions.
I the spaceto be considered how the system is bounded ; 2 the subsystems compo- nents judged to be important in overall function; and 3 the lime interval to be con- sidered. Once an ecosystem,ecological situation, or problem has been properly dehnedand bounded, a testablehlpothesis or serieso[ hlpotheses is developedthat can be rejectedor accepted,at leasttentatively,pending further expedmenLationor analysis. For more on ecologicalmodeling, seePattenand Jorgensen , H.
Odum , and Gundersonand Holling Energy circuit Consumer A pathwayor Usesproducer energy flowof energy for self-maintenance. Heatsink Degradedenergy afterusein work Twoor moreflows of energyto producea high-qualityenergy. Figule , TheH. Odumenergylanguagesymbolsusedin modeldiagramsin this book. Ecosystemmodel using energylanguagesymbolsand including estimatedratesof energyflowfor a Flor- Heatsink usedenergy ida pineforest courtesyof H.
P Odum noted that ecologyhad becomea new holistii discipline, having roots in the biologicai, physical,and social sciences,rather than jusr a iubdiscipline ofbiology. Thus, a goal of ecoiogyis to link the natural and sociaisciences. It should be noted that most disciplinesand disciplinary approachesare basedon increased specializationin isolation Fig.
Unfonunately, the multidisciplinary approaches lacked cooperation or focus. To achievecooperation and define goals,insliutes or centerswere establishedon campusesthroughout the world' such as the lnstilute of Ecologylocatedon the campusof lhe University ofGeorgla Thesecrossdisciplinary uppro". A crossdisciplinaryapproachalso frequently resultedin polarized fac- uhy reward systems.
Researchers theorized that new systemProper- ties emerge during the course of ecosystem development and that it is theseproper- ties that largely account for species and growth form changes that occur E P Odum ,, seeChapter 8 for details.
Today, interdisciplinary approachesare com- mon when addressing problems at ecosystem, landscape, and global levels' Much remainsto be done, however. There is an increased need to solve problems, promote environmental literacy, and manage resources in a transdisciplinary man- ner. This multilevel, large-scale approach involves entire educalion and innovation systems Fig.
Thil integrativeapproach to the need for unlocking cause-and- ect explanations across and among disciplines achieving a transdisciplinary un- derstanding has been termed consilience E.
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