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Among the major industrial economies, sometimes referred to as the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development OECD countries, 65 percent of the total economic production, or GDP, is associated with international trade. The recent focus on the international integration of economies is based on the desirability of a free global market with as few trade barriers as possible, allowing for true competition across borders. International economic institutions, such as the World Trade Organization WTO and the International Monetary Fund IMF , facilitate this increasingly barrier-free flow of goods, services, and money capital internationally.
Many economists assess economic globalization as having a positive impact, linking increased economic transactions across national borders to increased world GDP, and opportunities for economic development. Still, the process is not without its critics, who consider that many of the economies of the industrial North i.
Critics assert that these conditions are to a significant extent the consequence of global restructuring which has benefited Northern economies while disadvantaging Southern economies. Others voice concern that globalization adversely affects workers and the environment in many countries around the world.
Discontent with the perceived disastrous economic and social manifestations of globalization has led to large and growing demonstrations at recent intergovernmental meetings, including meetings of the World Trade Organization WTO , the International Monetary Fund IMF , the World Bank, and the Group of Eight G8 leading industrial countries.
Political manifestations of globalization Globalization has impacts in the political arena, but there is not a consensus among social scientists about the nature and degree of its impact on national and international politics. Some political scientists argue that globalization is weakening nation-states and that global institutions gradually will take over the functions and power of nation-states.
Other social scientists believe that while increased global inter-connectivity will result in dramatic changes in world politics, particularly in international relations i. Political theorists and historians often link the rise of the modern nation-state in Europe and North America in the nineteenth century and in Asia and Africa in the twentieth century with industrialization and the development of modern capitalist and socialist economies. These scholars also assert that the administrative structures and institutions of the modern nation-state were in part responsible for the conditions that led to industrial expansion.
Moreover, industrial development brought with it social dislocations that necessitated state intervention in the form of public education and social "safety nets" for health care, housing, and other social services. Consequently, the development of the contemporary nation-state, nationalism, inter-state alliances, colonization, and the great wars of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were in part political manifestations of changes in the structure of economic production.
It follows from this argument that in the era of globalization, with its significant changes in global economic relations, the nineteenth and twentieth century model of the nation-state may become obsolete.
The economic orientation of the modern nation-state has been centered on national economic interests, which may often conflict with the global trend towards the free and rapid movement of goods, services, finance, and labor.
These processes give rise to the question of whether the modern nation-state can survive in its present form in the new global age. Is it adaptable, or will it gradually be replaced by emerging multinational or regional political entities? Changes in political structure and practices resulting from economic globalization are only a partial explanation of changes in world politics in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.
International relations and world politics in the second half of the twentieth century were strongly informed by another global factor - the Cold War i. The early and most intense years of the Cold War in the s and s coincided with the de-colonization of Asia and Africa and the creation of more than 70 new nation-states. Many of the new nation-states of Africa and Asia had based their struggle for independence on the principles of freedom, justice and liberty - principles espoused by both the Eastern and Western blocks.
The economic, political, and ideological competition between East and West had fertile ground in these newly independent nation-states.
Although the "cold war" never developed into a "hot war" of actual military conflict in Europe or North America, civil wars within and wars between new nation-states in Africa and Asia were fueled and supported by Cold War tensions.
To some experts, the demise of the Soviet Union and the Eastern bloc a decade ago promised a new era of world peace and increased openness. The processes of globalization accelerated as goods, ideas and people flowed more freely across borders in the post-Cold War political environment. In place of policies of containment, the international community fostered policies of openness to trade and based on the principles of democracy and rights.
The creation of legal institutions like the international criminal tribunals that have sprung up in the past decade, as well as the proliferation of major international conferences aiming to address global problems through international cooperation, have been referred to as proof of political globalization.
Still, since all of these institutions rely on the participation of nation-states and respect the fundamental principle of national sovereignty, the extent to which these institutions exhibit true political globalization continues to be debated. Social and cultural manifestations of globalization Though there are many social and cultural manifestations of globalization, here are some of the major ones: Informational services: The past two decades have seen an internationalization of information services involving the exponential expansion of computer-based communication through the Internet and electronic mail.
On the one hand, the electronic revolution has promoted the diversification and democratization of information as people in nearly every country are able to communicate their opinions and perspectives on issues, local and global, that impact their lives.
Political groups from Chiapas to Pakistan have effectively used information technology to promote their perspectives and movements. On the other hand, this expansion of information technology has been highly uneven, creating an international "digital divide" i. Often, access to information technology and to telephone lines in many developing countries is controlled by the state or is available only to a small minority who can afford them..
News services: In recent years there has been a significant shift in the transmission and reporting of world news with the rise of a small number of global news services. This process has been referred to as the "CNN-ization of news," reflecting the power of a few news agencies to construct and disseminate news. Thanks to satellite technology, CNN and its few competitors extend their reach to even the most geographically remote areas of the world. This raises some important questions of globalization: Who determines what news What is "newsworthy?
What are the potential political consequences of the silencing of alternative voices and perspectives? Popular culture: The contemporary revolution in communication technology has had a dramatic impact in the arena of popular culture. Information technology enables a wide diversity of locally-based popular culture to develop and reach a larger audience.
For example, "world music" has developed a major international audience.
Old and new musical traditions that a few years ago were limited to a small local audience are now playing on the world stage. On the other hand, globalization has increased transmission of popular culture easily and inexpensively from the developed countries of the North throughout the world.
Consequently, despite efforts of nationally-based media to develop local television, movie, and video programs, many media markets in countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America are saturated with productions from the U.
Local critics of this trend lament not only the resulting silencing of domestic cultural expression, but also the hegemonic reach of Western, "alien" culture and the potential global homogenization of values and cultural taste.
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I have learnt that innovation requires collaboration, creativity, practical implementation and added value to the product.
And this task becomes much easier if you have an interdisciplinary team working for a unified goal. I have truly learned a systemic approach to designing a product, that how to start from scratch and nothing to build a customer oriented or to introduce a new product into the market, how to work in teams for short span of time, how to manage and divide tasks within the group, which project management methodology to apply depending upon the nature of the project, how to filter the needs or requirements of the products, how to look for patents, benchmark for the particular project you are working on to have the basic knowledge of what already is out there available in the market.
How to be creative during the synthesis of concepts for your topic or project. In my learning diaries I will be explaining the concepts learnt during the lectures, group works, workshops and mostly through self-studies. I learnt that most important part of the planning stage is building project team. Generally try to establish your team as soon as possible. Identifying one or two people even during the initial stages is also possible sometimes.
Appointing the team early get the most out of their ownership to the project, and maximizes what they can contribute towards the product development.
The first step in building an effective project team is to create a resource plan. A resource plan requires you to understand and identify the work to be done and the human skills required to complete it. An initial plan is often a high-level outline and will be refined as you break down into parts the whole of your work.
To develop an effective team, you have to start by choosing the best people for the job. Many factors concerning potential members have to be considered, including factors such as: the skills required of them to complete project tasks, their level of influence in the organization, their access to a network of other resources, their capacity to participate effectively, their ability to work well in a team environment. If this is your situation, it is vital that you take extra care to establish a relationship with your team members before the team begins to meet as a group.
Otherwise, they may not feel connected to the rest of the project team or, worse, may feel put upon and lack any commitment to the project. Without successful communication, it is very difficult to achieve the desired result. When information is shared effectively, the workload is divided between the team members and task at hand becomes easier for all.
During our project we used skype, whatsapp and Google drive for the communication purposes within our group. It is essential that team communication occurs throughout the project in order to minimize confusion and unnecessary delays. Team members more freely share their ideas, thoughts and opinions, thus offering additional opportunities for innovation and creativity.
Messages to be communicated become simplified when there is effective communication. Chances for misunderstandings are minimized, if not altogether excluded. Team attention remains on the project, completing tasks and such activities, and whatever energy is necessary in the best interest of the project. One out of five projects is unsuccessful due to ineffective communications.
Separating these each stage is a phase review where a decision is made to skip the product, enter into the next stage or redirect back to a previous stage for additional work. The purpose of the concept stage is to quickly assess a new product opportunities.
This activity will be performed by a product manager with support from others in the team. The objective of the system level design is to define the product which has to be developed, and to complete the business strategy for the product. During the next stage the assumptions made during the concept stage are verified through further market research and competitive analysis.
Engineering assumptions will be verified in this stage by more detailed design and feasibility tests. While old-style approaches also recommend carrying out market research and study before we engage in product planning and definition, lean approaches increase the speed at which a startup team will operate.
This allows startup teams to fail and learn faster, to adapt their product strategy and tactics rapidly, and to hopefully launch the right product with the right features in the market. Lean startup product development method Source: We as a group chose lean and agile method for project management.
Agile Software Development methodology is for a project that needs extreme agility in requirements. Agile project management focuses on doing the process piece-by-piece, rather than in one big portion like the traditional approach.
Agile methodology handles project change and complexity through communication between project team members and end users. These sprints aim at bringing a well-tested, functional working prototype. Planning and changes in design occur throughout the project based on lessons that are learned along the way. The work these days are more and more demanding and companies need to develop products of high quality in a short span of time.
On the other hand the bigger companies are continuously improving their processes, products and services are likely to survive in the changing market where medium sized and startup companies are booming at a very rapid speed. This is why the industry has started to hire more and more interdisciplinary teams for the product development. An interdisciplinary team consists of specialists of their own fields.
A typical interdisciplinary team includes specialists of research and development, engineering, manufacturing, marketing, economics, arts, business, and design. Usage of interdisciplinary teams has accelerated the product development cycle which will result fast launch of the product into the market, lowered the production costs as those teams will evaluate each and every aspect of the product before sending it to the manufacturing phase, it is usually noticed that time spend in research and development phase before sending the product to manufacturing stage will decrease the cost of the product and avoid unnecessary breaks, and even doubled the estimated sales.
The value of interdisciplinary teams is that every member has their own expertise and viewpoint from their own field. The diversity of the group increases access to different types of information. A group with the members all from different backgrounds can sometimes solve the problems which will take months within a week or even the problems which feel impossible to crack. The group members also learn from each other and might get some important contacts from the other fields.
The good thing is that every person know their role in the group according to their own skills set so they must contribute their maximum effort. This will creates a positive atmosphere and that increases productivity. A team with different expertise ensures that all the tasks of a project are completed. Even after this the interdisciplinary teams has to have the talent, knowledge, experience and technical know-how to get the job done. The team needs also a unified goal and a good leader who will lead them to the right way in the process of development.
Team work is difficult, especially in a group with different skills and expertise. Collaboration is sometimes problematic, because every profession has its own language and it can lead to misunderstandings.
Sometimes the group members use stereotypes and do not understand the value of the other ones skills and knowledge. Everyone should be valued and listened to in the team.
The situation where a team member does not feel at ease and is scared to share his or her views may cut down the amount of ideas and expertise that can be crucial for the accomplishment of the project. Due to the differences in skills, interests and trainings, the team members are likely to observe the project or problem from different point of views.
The group will think outside the box and that will lead to breakthrough innovations. Source: IPD Handbook ver1. A little preparation is required at the initial stage of the product development. The first part is idea generation when we will use divergent method of thinking.
The second part is about idea selection where will use convergent thinking. The first step of Idea generation using divergent thinking consist of suspend judgment: No one is allowed to criticize or even discuss an idea. This can be done on post-it, computers, white boards or flip charts but no fault-finding or comments are allowed at this stage to slow down the process of idea flow.
Go beyond reason: Wild ideas are useful because they challenge limits and inflame other fresh ideas. The second phase now is idea selection using convergent thinking method, Set criteria: Make an initial list of the ideas using some broad criteria agreed with the group. For example we want concepts that will satisfy customers, user experience, increase awareness and can be implemented in the next 2 months.
Discuss the short list: When you are down to say 5 to 6 good ideas then discuss them productively. Sometimes there is a clear agreement as to which are the best.
Sometimes you might want to vote to see which are the most popular. The brainstorm is worthwhile only if it delivers actions. We should run consistent brainstorm meetings with your team.
They should be exciting and motivational for people. They can deliver the concepts and innovations you need to renovate your organization. Source: How to be more creative and productive in the dreaming and scheming phase? Rather than trying to figure it all out on paper or in your head, get out into the real world and test out your rough ideas.
No doubt, constraints in product design can make our lives difficult, and finding a solution that fits them all simultaneously is no easy task.
However, respecting the importance that constraints play in driving a great design solution may help you look at them more as your friend rather than your enemy. Concept selection is the process of evaluating concepts with respect to customer needs and other criteria, comparing the relative strengths and weaknesses of the concepts, and selecting one or more concepts for further investigation or development SWOT analysis: strength, weakness, opportunities, threats.
Decision techniques used for selecting concepts range from intuitive approaches to structured methods. Successful design is facilitated by structured concept selection. It is two stage process: concept screening and concept scoring. Concept screening uses a reference concept to evaluate concept variants against selection criteria. Concept scoring may use different reference points for each criterion. Concept screening uses a coarse comparison system to narrow the range of concepts under consideration.
Concept scoring uses weighted selection criteria and a finer rating scale. Concept scoring may be skipped if concept screening produces a dominant concept. Both screening and scoring use a matrix as the basis of a six step process. The six steps are: Prepare the selection matrix Rate the concepts Rank the concepts Combine and improve the concepts Select one or more concepts Reflect on the results and the process. One of the reasons for us to select our project was that we wanted to design something based on emotion.
Going beyond the basics functionality, consistency, and usability and we wanted to design something for humans, not for machines. Design for Emotion Most researchers within the field of product development agree on the importance of understanding customer needs when developing products. Satisfied customers are loyal customers and ensure a lasting cash-flow for the business in the future.
Accordingly, to deliver an attractive end-product, it is important to keep customer focus in all stages of the product development process for all involved departments.
Customer oriented product development During the workshops I have learnt the importance of converting your ideas into a tangible or CAD simulation prototype. Few companies are highly successful more than half the time. In the earlier stages of product development once the team has selected the concept and wanted to pursue with their that idea, it is really important to make sketches and do some rough, quick and dirty prototyping as this will reveal number of issues related to design, feasibility and questions related to user experience.
Right after the rapid prototype workshop I enrolled for a special course designed for 3D printing enthusiast. To learn how to use and print your own model with complex lattice structures.
To meet the rigorous demands of product designers and development engineers, prototyping materials are the critical link to product design validation and product development process efficiency. Successful OEMs and product developers understand the value of time. Time-to-market can be dramatically reduced if prototype-to-production bridge materials mirror production material specifications.
The model is then lowered by the thickness of the next layer, and the process is repeated until completion of the model. The model with any unnecessary supports are removed from the final product. Most often it is not practical to produce hard tools to make a few parts. Design iterations and engineering revisions could quickly absorb budget, time and patience to complete a project. Better and more effective installation procedures.
Interviews of Norwegian pipe producers Higher quality pipe materials - Improving lifetime expectancy of pipes Material quality will improve in time with better raw materials and better production standards.
Technical approval of pipes will probably be a standard for Norwegian water utilities. Poor performance. Too little investment in renewal of pipes. We expect that there will be an increased rehabilitation need due to the demographic echo of past construction periods. Poor management leads to poor performance of the networks. The more thorough assessment depicted in this table resulted in more specific conclusions for each scenario specifics and their relevant analysing approaches.
This led to a branching out of the case study into smaller sub case studies focusing on specific parts. This was substantiated by cost- benefit and sustainability reasoning, as other more suitable solutions than rehabilitation are available at lower costs and with less impact. Analysing approaches 3a, 4a and 4b: A qualitative case study based on interviews was considered to be the best solution for these approaches.
Relevant people for each approach were contacted for an interview. The selection of relevant people was based on their relevance for the subject matter, their experience and their up-to-date knowledge.
Analysing approaches 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 5a, 5b and 5c: A quantitative case study based on data analysis was considered to be the best solution for these approaches. We found it necessary to create three dedicated sub case studies to cover all the scenario specifics.
These sub case studies are explained more in detail below. Analysing approach 3b: We found that there is little Norwegian specific data available on the public perception of risk levels related to water and wastewater systems.
The topic is intricate and comprehensive, and any conclusion should only follow a project that has done studies into a representative number of people. New knowledge on this topic will be pursued through the potential of a national project, which means that we will not be able to include this aspect into the scenario building.
The organization of the most pressing scenario specifics and their assessment led to the establishment of some central sub case studies, which will be topics for later more detailed publishing.
Each of the case studies were designed to focus on consequences related to the specific main scenario and would look at probability where possible. Some of these sub case studies are already underway and results are available. It is planned that all of these case studies will be carried out within the next year, in time to support the national Norwegian project on investment needs in the Norwegian water and wastewater networks. The annual project group meeting lasted for a day, but that meeting included discussions relating to several topics, and not just the scenario planning.
The number of persons in the meetings was seven, where four of them had to travel from other parts of the country. No overnight accommodation was necessary. As the project group was mainly concerned with giving feedback, all the heavy lifting of the project was left to the core research group. The authors were tasked with the main bulk of the work, with the two managers from the municipalities assisting the authors whenever necessary, for example in the distribution of questionnaires, helping answering pressing questions, data gathering, etc.
This work included a lot of discussion between the authors. This is evidenced by the work already done in sub case study 4 through the work of Simonsen [ 40 ]. That includes data gathering, data screening, literature study, data analysis and assessment of results.
Generally, it seems that quantitative analyses take more time than qualitative analyses. Simonsen [ 40 ] also contributed to sub case study 1, which included less resource use than study 4. The reason seems to be that quantitative analyses are based on more comprehensive data sets, which makes data gathering, data screening and data analysis more time consuming. Outside of air travel for some of the project group members, the study did not lead to any direct costs and use of financial resources.
The main contribution to resource use in the project was therefore the working hours spent by members of the two project teams. Qualitative case studies Sub case study 1 This case study was established in order to support analysing approach 3a and the scenario of delivered service. As stated earlier, a questionnaire was sent to four large Norwegian water utilities. The questions revolved around their views concerning level of service and their ability to deliver satisfying service levels now and in the future, the increasing expectations from customers concerning level of service, population growth and its accompanying challenges, water supply reliability, customer willingness to pay, the future ambitions of the utility, and future challenging trends for the urban water systems.
Another questionnaire was sent to two social researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The interview questions and their results are found in Simonsen [ 40 ]. Sub case study 2 This case study was established in order to support analysing approaches 4a and 4b and the scenario of technologic and methodical development. Four leading persons from different pipe producers in Norway were interviewed with questions revolving around the development of pipe quality, pipe material, research and future technologic advancement.
The interviewed people are central when it comes to the specific pipe materials, and the research work being put into the development of pipes. This can then be used to say something about the quality of the pipe systems in the future, and if we can expect pipes to last longer than today.
Quantitative case studies Sub case study 3 This case study was established in order to support analysing approach 1a, 1b and 1c, and the scenario of climate change impact. Extensive amounts of climate data and operational data exist for the Norwegian pipe networks, which facilitates a wide and extensive data analysis.
The situation is therefore tailored for a quantitative analysis. Long-term climate predictions for Norway until the year are prepared by the Norwegian Environmental Agency [ 38 ], where different emission scenarios are the basis to calculate ranges of expected air temperature, precipitation, sea level rise and other hydrological data.
The first step of the case study is to look for correlations between operational data e.
The end result is a prediction of the effect of climate change on the reliability of the urban water systems. This approach is a combination of the standard prediction method and scenario planning, as the prediction is based on different future emission scenarios. Sub case study 4 This case study was established in order to support analysing approach 2a and the scenario of population growth.
The result of this case study is already available in Simonsen [ 40 ]. Part of the water network of one of the largest cities in Norway was chosen as it represents the situation in many of the Norwegian cities: high water pressure, varying topography and medium density in population.
The case study looked at the impact of three factors on the hydraulic reliability of the water supply: population growth, leakages and deterioration of the network. Deterioration was modelled by increasing the roughness of the pipes. Single scenarios were run for these parameters, and the following four combined scenarios were tested: Increase in maintenance to reduce leakages and roughness and medium population growth Small increase in maintenance and medium population growth No increase in maintenance and medium population growth Decrease in maintenance and high population growth The study found, despite the hydraulic oversized network, that the scenarios will lead to some pressure deficits in the network.
The worst scenario will lead to a moderate impact on network pressure and will cause a need for an upgrade of the hydraulic capacity in order to maintain the reliability of the water supply system.
These results will be used to assess the need for a hydraulic upgrade of the water supply system based on different scenarios. Sub case study 5 This case study was established in order to support analysing approach 5a and 5c, and the scenario of resource capacity. There already exists an analysis of trends in educational data compared to the future need for the water utilities. This analysis shows that there are too few people being educated for the Norwegian water sector, which might impact the future ability of water utilities to meet future challenges.
In connection with the national project on investment needs in the urban water sector, there will be an extensive data analysis on the composition of the water network, including the distribution of ages and construction periods.
Based on these distributions, and on unit costs for rehabilitation, there will be a calculation of future investment need. These three approaches educational data, lag in rehabilitation, investment need will help the water utilities to understand the problems they are facing with regard to the composition of their networks, upcoming investment needs and future resource capacity.
Discussion By including several people in the scenario building process, possibly from different branches of science, it helps to reduce subjectivity and helps to drive discussion within a utility. The combining of scenarios with risk management helps to strengthen the long-term planning by embracing uncertainty and emphasizing high-risk future scenarios.
The selection of scenarios, their qualitative or quantitative determination and the risk analysis are vital to obtain a vision of the future which is representative and which reduces bias and the possibility of choosing a failed strategy when implementing an intervention.
A failed strategy could result in extensive environmental impacts, larger than necessary costs and high social impacts, especially for future generations. As for now, there are a total of 5 main scenarios and 13 potential consequences specifically designed for building scenarios for the urban water networks. The variations of the main scenarios give the user variability to adapt scenarios which are suitable for the local situation.
Key external elements for the urban water systems are hard to predict or foresee into the future. Elements like climate change, population growth, economy, regulatory frameworks, social conditions and technology will impact the necessary flow of money and skilled labour into the urban water systems management. The big question is how to foresee the future and manage the systems in a way that makes water utilities prepared for different kinds of changes and different kinds of impacts.