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This operation was preceded by another attack from the Bukrin bridgehead on 1—2 November; according to the Ukrainian historian Victor Korol, this distracting manoeuvre resulted in huge losses among Soviet ranks Korol The rapid advancement of the Soviet troops from the Lyutezh bridgehead, however, proved to be unexpected for the German command and on the morning of 6 November — the anniversary of the October Revolution and the most important state holiday in the Soviet Union — Soviet forces recaptured the Ukrainian capital.
The successful actions of the Red Army during the Battle of Kyiv had a profound impact on the course of the war.
The capture of Kyiv led to the destabilization of the German front and a rapid Soviet advance in ; furthermore, it had great ideological significance, and was used to the fullest by Soviet propaganda Shulzhenko and Tykhonenko The propaganda, however, omitted the high losses suffered by the Red Army, estimations of which vary from , Gorelov and Grutsyk to , Levitas dead and wounded.
After the end of the war, the Battle of Kyiv quickly became an integral part of the Great Patriotic War myth, which would later be instrumental in the creation of a common public identity in the Soviet Union. During the Khrushchev period, 6 November became an official holiday — the Day of the Liberation of Kyiv — and the actions of the Red Army were unequivocally praised in Soviet historiography Hrynevych A number of monuments commemorating the battle appeared in Kyiv in the post-war period; however, the majority of them were dedicated to the Soviet High Command, whereas the sacrifices of rank-and-file soldiers remained largely ignored.
While in the late s a few monuments dedicated to ordinary soldiers appeared in the Ukrainian capital, these monuments usually commemorated soldiers who were fighting at the Lyutezh bridgehead; in contrast, the Bukrin bridgehead, where the bloodiest clashes took place, remained forgotten Makhortykh While in Ukraine the annual Soviet-style celebration of the liberation of Kyiv continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a number of Ukrainian scholars Ginda ; Korol ; Koval started questioning existing interpretations of the event.
The revision of the Soviet narrative made it possible to integrate those traumatic memories that had been left out of the glorious story of the liberation into the public discourse of the Second World War; yet, a number of scholars note that the rewriting of history in Ukraine led to the formation of new myths, which emphasized the martyrdom of the Ukrainian people Jilge ; Portnov and Portnova These radical revisions of the existing narrative of the glorious liberation turned the Battle of Kyiv into one of the problematic issues inUkrainian—Russian memory relations.
Despite significant challenges to the Great Patriotic War narrative in early s, the cultural memory of Second World War in Russia experienced significantly fewer changes than in Ukraine. The revival of the Soviet war narrative in Russia in the beginning of the s further contributed to the rise of memory wars between the two countries, especially concerning the question of Soviet war crimes.
The reason the English version is included is that it relates to its unique position as a global memory platform that hosts the most diverse community of editors Rogers and Sendijarevic For the implementation of my analysis, I used versions of all the articles as retrieved on 1 December I started by comparing the ways both historical episodes are framed in different language versions of Wikipedia. Based on these data, I compared the dynamics of interactions with the articles in different language versions in order to examine how contemporary collective traumas — such as the conflict in Eastern Ukraine — influence interactions with Second World War memory in post-socialist countries.
Battle of Kyiv on Wikipedia: findings Representation Titles. It would seem reasonable to assume that different language versions of Wikipedia would use the same name for articles on the same subject: however, as also in an earlier studies of the memory of the Srebrenica massacre in Wikipedia Rogers and Sendijarevic and the Second World War in Ukraine Makhortykh , a comparison of the respective titles for the Battle of Kyiv articles — translated into English — pointed to the existence of certain variations, as shown in Table 1.