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Physiological measures C. Interviews APA Outcome: Behavioral measures are more susceptible to social desirability bias than are self-report measures.
Behavioral measures provide more objective measurements because they come from a trained outside observer. Behavioral measures do not allow people to modify their behavior even if they know they are being observed. Behavioral measures are not very time-intensive as collecting behavioral data does not take a long time. What type of measure best describes the one used by Rita? Surveys B. Questionnaires C. Case studies APA Outcome: Behavioral measurement does not require too much time to collect and code the data.
It is possible to collect data on a large number of participants at once, and therefore behavioral measures are very useful for large-scale studies. Behavioral measures involve the systematic observation of people's actions either in their normal environment or in a laboratory setting. Singh, a scientist, wants to study how anxiety affects adolescents.
For this purpose, he measures the electrical changes in their heart rates, their sweating and respiration patterns, as well as the hormonal changes in their blood.
Which psychological measure has been used by Dr. Singh in this scenario? Statistics in Psychology. The batch's mean score on the final exam was Based on these statistics, which of the following can be interpreted?
The most common score on the final exam was lower than the most common score on the midterm exam. There was more variability in the scores of the midterm exam than of the final exam. Predictive inferences B. Statistical inferences C. Descriptive statistics D.
Inferential statistics. This guideline of psychological research is known as. Thus, is maintained. She contacts married couples from across the country to participate in her study. She lets them know that the only cost of participation would be that they would need to reveal if they have ever lied to their parents.
In this scenario, which guideline of psychological research best describes the one followed by Irene? All participants were fully informed about the fact that they would be assigned the roles of a prisoner or a guard.
All participants were informed of the details and the extent to which being in this study would be like being in a real prison world. All participants were told upfront that, if they were assigned to the prisoner role, they would be strip-searched. All participants were informed that they might experience physical pain or psychological distress during the study. Full download: See More. Scientific Method 2. Scientific Method 3. Environmental APA Outcome: Scientific Method 4.
Psychokinesis B. Astronomy D. Genetics APA Outcome: Scientific Method 5. Chemical B. Scientific Method 6. Cultural understanding APA Outcome: Scientific Method 7. Scientific Method 9. Scientific Method When they protect their methods of inquiry from others B. When they announce their findings immediately after a study C. When they ignore the data that are contrary to their theory D. When they allow their work to be evaluated by other scientists APA Outcome: Creating C.
They are not facts. They do not generate any expectations. They are merely guesses and observations. They should not be tied to real evidence. Scientific Method the results and determine Bioscience D. Ethnoscience APA Outcome: Biology APA Outcome: Scientific Method , Science uses statistics to express research data, whereas pseudoscience does not.
The content area studied in science is narrow, whereas it is very vast in pseudoscience. Science encourages open skepticism of its findings, whereas pseudoscience does not. Science makes no real advances in knowledge, whereas pseudoscience does. Research Methods All the men studying in the United States B. The chosen female graduates C. The chosen male and female college graduates D.
By ensuring that the sample accurately represents people of different ethnicities B. By increasing the number of men in the sample C. By increasing the number of women in the sample D. They do not involve observations that stretch for over a year. They are based on one-on-one relationships. They involve collecting data about different legal cases that are under trial.
They involve scientific experimentations on different groups of animals. Naturalistic observations B. Correlational studies B. Experimental studies C.
Naturalistic observations D. Case-control studies APA Outcome: Correlational studies are useful when the variables can be easily manipulated or controlled.
Confounding variables B. Random assignments C. Experiments D. The two variables become interdependent of on each other. The strength of the relationship decreases. Sample size B. Effect size C. Z-value D. A self-report APA Outcome: Nocebo B. Micro-analysis C. Meta-analysis D. Placebo APA Outcome: Students who attended classes regularly performed well in exams.
The number of goals scored by the players C. The players who did not know their roles in the study D. The players attempting to score as many goals as possible APA Outcome: She wanted to ensure that each player had an equal chance of wearing the new or old uniform. A correlation coefficient is a statistic that tells us whether two variables relate to each other and the direction of the relationship.
Experimental Studies A true experiment has two crucial characteristics. First, experimental manipulation of a predicted cause, the independent variable, and measurement of the response, or dependent variable. Second, random assignment of participants to control and experimental groups or conditions.
The independent variable in an experiment is an attribute that is manipulated by the experimenter while other aspects of the study are held constant. The dependent variable is the outcome, or response to the experimental manipulation. Random assignment is the method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that each person has the same chance of being in one group as another.
Random assignment is critical because it assures that on average the groups will be similar with respect to certain variables. Because if the groups are the same on these qualities at the beginning of the study, then any differences between the groups at the end of the experiment are likely to be the result of the experiment.
They may instead be given a placebo, a substance or treatment that appears identical to the actual treatment but lacks the active substance. Confounding variables are additional variables whose influence cannot be separated from the independent variable being examined.
Experimental design allows us to determine causality if the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable and everything else is held constant. How much participants and experimenters know about the experimental conditions to which participants have been assigned can also affect outcome.
This must be the case in all studies to avoid the possibility that participants will behave in a biased way. For example, if participants know they have been assigned to a group that receives a new training technique on memory, then they might try harder to perform well. This would confound the results. To test this idea, he conducted an experiment in which he told one group of participants that they had done well on an intelligence test and another group that they had done poorly on an intelligence test.
Rosenthal randomly assigned participants to be in one of these conditions there was also a neutral control condition where participants were not given any feedback after the intelligence test.
Then he asked both groups to examine photographs of people doing various tasks and rate how successful they thought the people in the photos were. He compared the average scores of the participants assigned to different conditions before doing anything to them.
Unfortunately, the groups were not only different at the outset, but they were different in exactly the way that favored his hypothesis. Somehow, by knowing who was in which group, he unintentionally created behaviors that favored his hypothesis. Rosenthal had discovered experimenter expectancy effects. Rosenthal stumbled upon a more general phenomenon known as selffulfilling prophecy, a statement that changes events to cause a belief or prediction to become true.
Their research led to the development of double-blind procedures. Expectancy effects have also been found in classrooms. Two kinds of self-report measures are commonly used in psychology: interviews and questionnaires. Answers are either coded into broad categories or simply summarized. The answers are often open-ended and not constrained by the researcher.
Pros of Self-Report Questionnaires o Self-report questionnaires are easy to use, especially in the context of collecting data from a large number of people at once or in a short period of time. Cons of Self-Report Questionnaires o People are not always the best sources of information about themselves because of social desirability bias. This is the tendency toward favorable self-presentation. Afterward, trained coders observe the videotapes and, using a prescribed method, code the level of aggressive behavior exhibited by each person.
Pros o They are less susceptible to social desirability bias than are self-report measures. Physiological Measures Physiological measures are used to collect data on bodily responses such as heart rate, sweating, respiration, and brain activity. Chapter 3 will discuss brain imaging techniques.
Clearly, the big con here is that these technologies require specialized training in the use of equipment, collection of measurements, and data interpretation.
They can therefore be quite costly. Statistics are used to describe and simplify data and to understand how variables are related. Descriptive Statistics The first statistics researchers calculate are called descriptive statistics. These tests provide a way of summarizing and organizing data. The most common way to represent that information is to calculate the standard deviation, which tells you how much the scores in a sample vary around the mean.
A graph of frequency scores is known as a distribution. To graph a distribution we place the scores on the horizontal or X-axis and their frequencies on the vertical or Y-axis. For example, the standard bell curve, or normal distribution, if we gave 1, children an IQ test and plot all 1, scores, we would end up with something very close to a symmetrical bell-shaped distribution.
That is, very few children would score 70 or below and very few children would score and above. The majority of children would be right around the average or mean of Inferential Statistics Inferential statistics allow us to test hypotheses and make an inference as to how likely a sample score is to occur in a population. Probability and the normal distribution are used to rule out chance as an explanation for why the group scores are different. To compare just two means, we use a statistic known as the t-test.
The basic logic of the t-tests is to determine whether the means for your two groups are so different they are not likely to come from the same population. In short, t-tests allow us to test our hypotheses and rule out chance as an explanation.
As useful and helpful as statistics are to help us understand our results, be aware however that they also can be and are used to mislead people. The car more people would download again.
Here are a few things to consider: The fact that a substance works well in a test tube a controlled environment does not mean it will work in the human throat or respiratory tract. Scenario 3: Graphic displays of data can be misleading. Consider Figures 2.
Companies, journalists, and politicians mislead people all the time by tweaking the graphic depiction of data. Ethics are the rules governing the conduct of a person or group in general or in a specific situation, or more simply, standards of right and wrong.
Every single psychological study conducted with humans and animals must pass through a rigorous review of its methods by a panel of experts. If the proposed study does not meet the standards, it cannot be approved. Despite his screams, most of the participants continued to shock the learner. Ethical Research with Humans Today, all psychological and medical researchers must adhere to the following guidelines listed below. Informed consent: Participants must be told, in general terms, what the study is about, what they will do and how long it will take, what the known risks and benefits are, that they have the right to withdraw at any time without penalty, and whom to contact with questions.
Respect for persons: The dignity and autonomy of the individual must be protected. Beneficence: Participants should be told the costs and benefits of participation.
The costs should be minimized and the benefits maximized. Privacy and confidentiality: Protect the privacy of the participant, generally by keeping all responses confidential. Justice: The benefits and costs of participation must be distributed equally among participants.
The APA believes that participant deception should be avoided whenever possible but recognizes that sometimes it is justified. If deception is used then, when the study is over, participants must be debriefed or informed of the exact purposes of the study including the hypotheses and all deceptive practices must be revealed and explained.
Today, to ensure adherence to ethical guidelines, institutional review boards IRBs evaluate proposed research before it is conducted to make sure research involving humans does not cause undue harm or distress. Ethical Research with Animals Biological psychology and learning are the areas of psychology that most often use animals for research. Animals cannot consent to research but since animal research has led to many treatments for disease, as well as advances in understanding basic neuroscientific processes, the medical and scientific communities, along with the general public, have deemed such research acceptable as long as the general conditions and treatment of the animals is humane.
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