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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Martin N. Marger received his bachelor's degree from the. Race and Ethnic Relations: American and Global Perspectives [Martin N. Marger] on terney.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Reflecting the latest. MARTIN MARGER PDF. This is it the book Race And Ethnic Relations: American And Global Perspectives, Martin Marger, 6th. Edition By Martin Marger to be.
Native Americans The only nonimmigrant ethnic group in the United States, Native Americans once numbered in the millions but by made up only 0. Census Currently, about 2. These names arise from historically prejudiced views of Native Americans as fierce, brave, and strong savages: attributes that would be beneficial to a sports team, but are not necessarily beneficial to people in the United States who should be seen as more than just fierce savages.
The campaign has met with only limited success. While some teams have changed their names, hundreds of professional, college, and K—12 school teams still have names derived from this stereotype. Another group, American Indian Cultural Support AICS , is especially concerned with the use of such names at K—12 schools, influencing children when they should be gaining a fuller and more realistic understanding of Native Americans than such stereotypes supply. What do you think about such names?
Should they be allowed or banned? What argument would a symbolic interactionist make on this topic? Dates of the migration are debated with estimates ranging from between 45, and 12, BCE. It is thought that early Indians migrated to this new land in search of big game to hunt, which they found in huge herds of grazing herbivores in the Americas. Over the centuries and then the millennia, Native American culture blossomed into an intricate web of hundreds of interconnected tribes, each with its own customs, traditions, languages, and religions.
History of Intergroup Relations Native American culture prior to European settlement is referred to as Pre-Columbian: that is, prior to the coming of Christopher Columbus in The history of intergroup relations between European colonists and Native Americans is a brutal one. As discussed in the section on genocide, the effect of European settlement of the Americans was to nearly destroy the indigenous population. From the first Spanish colonists to the French, English, and Dutch who followed, European settlers took what land they wanted and expanded across the continent at will.
If indigenous people tried to retain their stewardship of the land, Europeans fought them off with superior weapons. A key element of this issue is the indigenous view of land and land ownership. After the establishment of the United States government, discrimination against Native Americans was codified and formalized in a series of laws intended to subjugate them and keep them from gaining any power.
Some of the most impactful laws are as follows: The Indian Removal Act of forced the relocation of any native tribes east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. The Indian Appropriation Acts funded further removals and declared that no Indian tribe could be recognized as an independent nation, tribe, or power with which the U. This made it even easier for the U. The Dawes Act of reversed the policy of isolating Native Americans on reservations, instead forcing them onto individual properties that were intermingled with white settlers, thereby reducing their capacity for power as a group.
Native American culture was further eroded by the establishment of Indian boarding schools in the late nineteenth century. The boarding schools were located off-reservation to ensure that children were separated from their families and culture. Schools forced children to cut their hair, speak English, and practice Christianity. Physical and sexual abuses were rampant for decades; only in did the Bureau of Indian Affairs issue a policy on sexual abuse in boarding schools.
Some scholars argue that many of the problems that Native Americans face today result from almost a century of mistreatment at these boarding schools. Current Status The eradication of Native American culture continued until the s, when Native Americans were able to participate in and benefit from the civil rights movement. New laws like the Indian Self-Determination Act of and the Education Assistance Act of the same year recognized tribal governments and gave them more power. Indian boarding schools have dwindled to only a few, and Native American cultural groups are striving to preserve and maintain old traditions to keep them from being lost forever.
Long-term poverty, inadequate education, cultural dislocation, and high rates of unemployment contribute to Native American populations falling to the bottom of the economic spectrum.
Native Americans also suffer disproportionately with lower life expectancies than most groups in the United States. African Americans As discussed in the section on race, the term African American can be a misnomer for many individuals. Many people with dark skin may have their more recent roots in Europe or the Caribbean, seeing themselves as Dominican American or Dutch American. Further, actual immigrants from Africa may feel that they have more of a claim to the term African American than those who are many generations removed from ancestors who originally came to this country.
This section will focus on the experience of the slaves who were transported from Africa to the United States, and their progeny. Currently, the U. Census Bureau estimates that How and Why They Came If Native Americans are the only minority group whose subordinate status occurred by conquest, African Americans are the exemplar minority group in the United States whose ancestors did not come here by choice. A Dutch sea captain brought the first Africans to the Virginia colony of Jamestown in and sold them as indentured servants.
This was not an uncommon practice for either blacks or whites, and indentured servants were in high demand. For the next century, black and white indentured servants worked side by side. But the growing agricultural economy demanded greater and cheaper labor, and by , Virginia passed the slave codes declaring that any foreign-born non-Christian could be a slave, and that slaves were considered property.
The next years saw the rise of U.
Once in the Americas, the black population grew until U. But colonial and later, U. By , the slave trade was internal in the United States, with slaves being bought and sold across state lines like livestock. History of Intergroup Relations There is no starker illustration of the dominant-subordinate group relationship than that of slavery. In order to justify their severely discriminatory behavior, slaveholders and their supporters had to view blacks as innately inferior.
Slaves were denied even the most basic rights of citizenship, a crucial factor for slaveholders and their supporters. Whippings, executions, rapes, denial of schooling and health care were all permissible and widely practiced.
Slavery eventually became an issue over which the nation divided into geographically and ideologically distinct factions, leading to the Civil War. And while the abolition of slavery on moral grounds was certainly a catalyst to war, it was not the only driving force. Students of U. A century later, the civil rights movement was characterized by boycotts, marches, sit-ins, and freedom rides: demonstrations by a subordinate group that would no longer willingly submit to domination.
This Act, which is still followed today, banned discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Some sociologists, however, would argue that institutionalized racism persists. Current Status Although government-sponsored, formalized discrimination against African Americans has been outlawed, true equality does not yet exist.
The Index, which has been published since , notes a growing trend of increased inequality with whites, especially in the areas of unemployment, insurance coverage, and incarceration. Blacks also trail whites considerably in the areas of economics, health, and education. To what degree do racism and prejudice contribute to this continued inequality? The answer is complex. Despite being popularly identified as black, we should note that President Obama is of a mixed background that is equally white, and although all presidents have been publicly mocked at times Gerald Ford was depicted as a klutz, Bill Clinton as someone who could not control his libido , a startling percentage of the critiques of Obama have been based on his race.
Although blacks have come a long way from slavery, the echoes of centuries of disempowerment are still evident. Asian Americans Like many groups this section discusses, Asian Americans represent a great diversity of cultures and backgrounds. The experience of a Japanese American whose family has been in the United States for three generations will be drastically different from a Laotian American who has only been in the United States for a few years.
This section primarily discusses Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese immigrants and shows the differences between their experiences. The most recent estimate from the U. Census Bureau suggest about 5. How and Why They Came The national and ethnic diversity of Asian American immigration history is reflected in the variety of their experiences in joining U.
Asian immigrants have come to the United States in waves, at different times, and for different reasons. The first Asian immigrants to come to the United States in the mid-nineteenth century were Chinese. These immigrants were primarily men whose intention was to work for several years in order to earn incomes to support their families in China. Their main destination was the American West, where the Gold Rush was drawing people with its lure of abundant money.
The construction of the Transcontinental Railroad was underway at this time, and the Central Pacific section hired thousands of migrant Chinese men to complete the laying of rails across the rugged Sierra Nevada mountain range. Chinese men also engaged in other manual labor like mining and agricultural work.
The work was grueling and underpaid, but like many immigrants, they persevered.
Japanese immigration began in the s, on the heels of the Chinese Exclusion Act of Many Japanese immigrants came to Hawaii to participate in the sugar industry; others came to the mainland, especially to California. Unlike the Chinese, however, the Japanese had a strong government that negotiated with the U. Japanese men were able to bring their wives and families to the United States, and were thus able to produce second- and third-generation Japanese Americans more quickly than their Chinese counterparts.
The most recent large-scale Asian immigration came from Korea and Vietnam and largely took place during the second half of the twentieth century.
While Korean immigration has been fairly gradual, Vietnamese immigration occurred primarily post, after the fall of Saigon and the establishment of restrictive communist policies in Vietnam.
Whereas many Asian immigrants came to the United States to seek better economic opportunities, Vietnamese immigrants came as political refugees, seeking asylum from harsh conditions in their homeland.
The Refugee Act of helped them to find a place to settle in the United States. They are being rescued from a thirty-five-foot fishing boat miles northeast of Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam, after spending eight days at sea. Photo courtesy of U. This act was a result of anti-Chinese sentiment burgeoned by a depressed economy and loss of jobs. White workers blamed Chinese migrants for taking jobs, and the passage of the Act meant the number of Chinese workers decreased.
Chinese men did not have the funds to return to China or to bring their families to the United States, so they remained physically and culturally segregated in the Chinatowns of large cities.
Later legislation, the Immigration Act of , further curtailed Chinese immigration. It was not until after the Immigration and Nationality Act of that Chinese immigration again increased, and many Chinese families were reunited. Although Japanese Americans have deep, long-reaching roots in the United States, their history here has not always been smooth. The California Alien Land Law of was aimed at them and other Asian immigrants, and it prohibited aliens from owning land.
An even uglier action was the Japanese internment camps of World War II, discussed earlier as an illustration of expulsion. Current Status Asian Americans certainly have been subject to their share of racial prejudice, despite the seemingly positive stereotype as the model minority. The model minority stereotype is applied to a minority group that is seen as reaching significant educational, professional, and socioeconomic levels without challenging the existing establishment. This stereotype is typically applied to Asian groups in the United States, and it can result in unrealistic expectations, by putting a stigma on members of this group that do not meet the expectations.
Stereotyping all Asians as smart and capable can also lead to a lack of much-needed government assistance and to educational and professional discrimination. Hispanic Americans Hispanic Americans have a wide range of backgrounds and nationalities. The segment of the U. Census Bureau According to the U. Census, about 75 percent of the respondents who identify as Hispanic report being of Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban origin. Of the total Hispanic group, 60 percent reported as Mexican, 44 percent reported as Cuban, and 9 percent reported as Puerto Rican.
Remember that the U. Census allows people to report as being more than one ethnicity. Not only are there wide differences among the different origins that make up the Hispanic American population, but there are also different names for the group itself. The U. This section will compare the experiences of Mexican Americans and Cuban Americans.
Mexican migration to the United States started in the early s in response to the need for cheap agricultural labor.
Mexican migration was often circular; workers would stay for a few years and then go back to Mexico with more money than they could have made in their country of origin. Cuban Americans are the second-largest Hispanic subgroup, and their history is quite different from that of Mexican Americans.
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