22 leyes del marketing pdf


 

Las 22 leyes inmutables del marketing - al ries y jack trout (mcgraw hill, ). Alexander Rodriguez patiño. Jackson Tourteau. Alexander Rodriguez patiño. Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate content. Save. Las 22 Leyes Inmutables Del Marketing - Al Ries y For Later. save. Título: Las 22 leyes inmutables del marketing. Autor: Al Ries y Jack Trout Año: Formato: PDF by ndelzo in Types > Brochures y 22 leyes inmutables del.

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22 Leyes Del Marketing Pdf

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Trump won the presidency proclaiming himself a self-made billionaire, and he has long insisted that his father, the legendary New York City builder Fred C. Trump, provided almost no financial help. Much of this money came to Mr. Trump because he helped his parents dodge taxes. He and his siblings set up a sham corporation to disguise millions of dollars in gifts from their parents, records and interviews show. Records indicate that Mr.

It happened quietly, without the usual Trumpian news conference, on May 4, , when Mr. Trump and his siblings sold off the empire their father had spent 70 years assembling with the dream that it would never leave his family. Replay with audio By Gabriel J. Before he turned 20, Fred Trump had already built and sold his first home.

At age 35, he was building hundreds of houses a year in Brooklyn and Queens. By 45, he was building some of the biggest apartment complexes in the country. Beame, a future mayor who could make life easier for a developer.

He had also assembled a phalanx of plugged-in real estate lawyers, property appraisers and tax accountants who protected his interests.

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All these traits — deep experience, nimbleness, connections, a relentless focus on the efficient construction of homes for the middle class — positioned him perfectly to ride a growing wave of federal spending on housing.

The wave took shape with the New Deal, grew during the World War II rush to build military housing and crested with the postwar imperative to provide homes for returning G. Then he set about making his children his landlords. Records obtained by The Times reveal how he began to build or download apartment buildings in Brooklyn and Queens and then gradually, without public trace, transfer ownership to his children through a web of partnerships and corporations.

On June 1, , Fred Trump transferred a plot of land in Queens to a newly created corporation. While he would be its president, his children would be its owners, records show. Then he constructed a unit building called Clyde Hall. It was easy money for the Trump children. Their father took care of everything.

He bought the land, built the apartments and obtained the mortgages. His employees managed the building. The profits, meanwhile, went to his children. By the early s, Fred Trump would execute similar transfers of the other seven buildings.

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Learn More For Donald Trump, this meant a rapidly growing new source of income. How Fred Trump transferred 1, apartments to his children without incurring hundreds of thousands of dollars in gift taxes is unclear. A review of property records for the eight buildings turned up no evidence that his children bought them outright. Financial records obtained by The Times reveal only that all of the shares in the partnerships and corporations set up to create the mini-empire shifted at some point from Fred Trump to his children.

Yet his tax returns show he paid no gift taxes on seven of the buildings, and only a few thousand dollars on the eighth. Donald Trump went to work for his father after graduating from the University of Pennsylvania in His father made him vice president of dozens of companies.

This was also the moment Fred Trump telegraphed what had become painfully obvious to his family and employees: He did not consider his eldest son, Fred Trump Jr.

Fred Jr. It did not go well, relatives and former employees said in interviews. Fred Trump openly ridiculed him for being too nice, too soft, too lazy, too fond of drink. He frowned on his interests in flying and music, could not fathom why he cared so little for the family business. The Times documented streams of revenue that Fred Trump created over five decades to enrich Donald Trump, left.

Fred Trump began taking steps that enriched Donald alone, introducing him to the charms of building with cheap government loans. In , father and son formed a partnership to build a high-rise for the elderly in East Orange, N. Fred Trump paid the rest. But his son received most of the financial benefits, records show. He also pocketed what tenants paid to rent air-conditioners.

Fred Trump also gave his son an extra boost through his investment, in the early s, in the sprawling Starrett City development in Brooklyn, the largest federally subsidized housing project in the nation.

They helped Donald Trump avoid paying any federal income taxes at all in and Wealthy, yes. But a far cry from the image father and son craved for Donald Trump.

Trump, Self-Made Billionaire. Fred Trump, right, sought ways to transfer riches from his real estate empire to his children while dodging gift and estate taxes. He rides around town in a chauffeured silver Cadillac with his initials, DJT, on the plates. Even the Cadillac was leased by his father. Yet for all the spin about cutting his own path in Manhattan, Donald Trump was increasingly dependent on his father. Meanwhile, Fred Trump and his companies also began extending large loans and lines of credit to Donald Trump.

Those loans dwarfed what the other Trumps got, the flow so constant at times that it was as if Donald Trump had his own Money Store. In theory, the money had to be repaid. In practice, records show, many of the loans were more like gifts. Some were interest-free and had no repayment schedule. Even when loans charged interest, Donald Trump frequently skipped payments. When Donald Trump began expensive new projects, his father increased his help. In the late s, when Donald Trump was converting the old Commodore Hotel into a Grand Hyatt, his father stepped up with a spigot of loans.

Fred Trump did the same with Trump Tower in the early s. In the mids, as Donald Trump made his first forays into Atlantic City, Fred Trump devised a plan that sharply increased the flow of money to his son. The plan involved the mini-empire — the eight buildings Fred Trump had transferred to his children.

He converted seven of them into cooperatives, and helped his children convert the eighth. That meant inviting tenants to download their apartments, generating a three-way windfall for Donald Trump and his siblings: from selling units, from renting unsold units and from collecting mortgage payments.

Fred Trump made one other structural change to his empire that produced a big new source of revenue for Donald Trump and his siblings.

He made them his bankers.

Co-op sales, mortgage payments, ground leases — Fred Trump was a master at finding ways to enrich his children in general and Donald Trump in particular. Some ways were like slow-moving creeks. Others were rushing streams. A few were geysers. But as the decades passed they all joined into one mighty river of money.

Donald Trump took on a mien of invincibility. The stock market crashed in and the economy cratered. The skeptics who questioned the wisdom of this debt-fueled spending spree were drowned out by one magazine cover after another marveling at someone so young taking such breathtaking risks.

But whatever Donald Trump was gambling, not for one second was he at risk of losing out on a lifetime of frictionless, effortless wealth. Fred Trump had that bet covered. The Safety Net Deploys Bailouts, collateral, cash on hand — Fred Trump was prepared, and was not about to let bad bets sink his son. As the s came to a close, many of his businesses, overloaded with debt, began to lose money.

Trump Shuttle was failing to make loan payments within 15 months. The Plaza, drowning in debt, was bankrupt in four years. His Atlantic City casinos, also drowning in debt, tumbled one by one into bankruptcy. With so many of his projects losing money, Donald Trump had few viable assets of his own making to pledge as collateral. Tax records also reveal that at the peak of Mr. Fred Trump, former employees say, detested taking unnecessary distributions from his companies because he would have to pay income taxes on them.

The Times found no evidence that Fred Trump made any significant debt payments or charitable donations. The frugality he brought to business carried over to the rest of his life. His extravagances, such as they were, consisted of downloading his wife the odd gift from Antonovich Furs or hosting family celebrations at the Peter Luger Steak House in Brooklyn. His home on Midland Parkway in Jamaica Estates, Queens, built with unfussy brick like so many of his apartment buildings, had little to distinguish it from neighboring houses beyond the white columns and crest framing the front door.

There are, however, indications that he wanted plenty of cash on hand to bail out his son if need be. Donald Trump had wildly overspent on renovations, leaving the property dangerously low on operating cash. On Dec. Birds of a Feather Both the son and the father were masters of manipulating the value of their assets, making them appear worth a lot or a little depending on their needs.

Donald and Fred Trump, photographed for a s advertisement. As described by family members and associates in interviews and sworn testimony, theirs was an intimate, endless confederacy sealed by blood, shared secrets and a Hobbesian view of what it took to dominate and win.

They talked almost daily and saw each other most weekends. They were both fluent in the language of half-truths and lies, interviews and records show. They both delighted in transgressing without getting caught. They were both wizards at manipulating the value of their assets, making them appear worth a lot or a little depending on their needs.

Those talents came in handy when Fred Trump Jr. This was also the moment Fred Trump telegraphed what had become painfully obvious to his family and employees: He did not consider his eldest son, Fred Trump Jr.

Fred Jr. It did not go well, relatives and former employees said in interviews. Fred Trump openly ridiculed him for being too nice, too soft, too lazy, too fond of drink. He frowned on his interests in flying and music, could not fathom why he cared so little for the family business.

The Times documented streams of revenue that Fred Trump created over five decades to enrich Donald Trump, left. Fred Trump began taking steps that enriched Donald alone, introducing him to the charms of building with cheap government loans.

In , father and son formed a partnership to build a high-rise for the elderly in East Orange, N. Fred Trump paid the rest. But his son received most of the financial benefits, records show. He also pocketed what tenants paid to rent air-conditioners. Fred Trump also gave his son an extra boost through his investment, in the early s, in the sprawling Starrett City development in Brooklyn, the largest federally subsidized housing project in the nation.

They helped Donald Trump avoid paying any federal income taxes at all in and Wealthy, yes. But a far cry from the image father and son craved for Donald Trump. Trump, Self-Made Billionaire. Fred Trump, right, sought ways to transfer riches from his real estate empire to his children while dodging gift and estate taxes. He rides around town in a chauffeured silver Cadillac with his initials, DJT, on the plates.

Even the Cadillac was leased by his father. Yet for all the spin about cutting his own path in Manhattan, Donald Trump was increasingly dependent on his father. Meanwhile, Fred Trump and his companies also began extending large loans and lines of credit to Donald Trump. Those loans dwarfed what the other Trumps got, the flow so constant at times that it was as if Donald Trump had his own Money Store.

Las 22 Leyes Inmutables Del Marketing Al Ries y Jack Trout

In theory, the money had to be repaid. In practice, records show, many of the loans were more like gifts. Some were interest-free and had no repayment schedule. Even when loans charged interest, Donald Trump frequently skipped payments. When Donald Trump began expensive new projects, his father increased his help. In the late s, when Donald Trump was converting the old Commodore Hotel into a Grand Hyatt, his father stepped up with a spigot of loans.

Fred Trump did the same with Trump Tower in the early s. In the mids, as Donald Trump made his first forays into Atlantic City, Fred Trump devised a plan that sharply increased the flow of money to his son. The plan involved the mini-empire — the eight buildings Fred Trump had transferred to his children.

He converted seven of them into cooperatives, and helped his children convert the eighth. That meant inviting tenants to download their apartments, generating a three-way windfall for Donald Trump and his siblings: from selling units, from renting unsold units and from collecting mortgage payments. Fred Trump made one other structural change to his empire that produced a big new source of revenue for Donald Trump and his siblings.

He made them his bankers. Co-op sales, mortgage payments, ground leases — Fred Trump was a master at finding ways to enrich his children in general and Donald Trump in particular. Some ways were like slow-moving creeks. Others were rushing streams. A few were geysers. But as the decades passed they all joined into one mighty river of money.

Donald Trump took on a mien of invincibility. The stock market crashed in and the economy cratered. The skeptics who questioned the wisdom of this debt-fueled spending spree were drowned out by one magazine cover after another marveling at someone so young taking such breathtaking risks.

But whatever Donald Trump was gambling, not for one second was he at risk of losing out on a lifetime of frictionless, effortless wealth. Fred Trump had that bet covered. The Safety Net Deploys Bailouts, collateral, cash on hand — Fred Trump was prepared, and was not about to let bad bets sink his son. As the s came to a close, many of his businesses, overloaded with debt, began to lose money.

Trump Shuttle was failing to make loan payments within 15 months. The Plaza, drowning in debt, was bankrupt in four years. His Atlantic City casinos, also drowning in debt, tumbled one by one into bankruptcy. With so many of his projects losing money, Donald Trump had few viable assets of his own making to pledge as collateral. Tax records also reveal that at the peak of Mr.

Fred Trump, former employees say, detested taking unnecessary distributions from his companies because he would have to pay income taxes on them.

The Times found no evidence that Fred Trump made any significant debt payments or charitable donations. The frugality he brought to business carried over to the rest of his life.

His extravagances, such as they were, consisted of downloading his wife the odd gift from Antonovich Furs or hosting family celebrations at the Peter Luger Steak House in Brooklyn. His home on Midland Parkway in Jamaica Estates, Queens, built with unfussy brick like so many of his apartment buildings, had little to distinguish it from neighboring houses beyond the white columns and crest framing the front door. There are, however, indications that he wanted plenty of cash on hand to bail out his son if need be.

Donald Trump had wildly overspent on renovations, leaving the property dangerously low on operating cash. On Dec. Birds of a Feather Both the son and the father were masters of manipulating the value of their assets, making them appear worth a lot or a little depending on their needs.

Donald and Fred Trump, photographed for a s advertisement. As described by family members and associates in interviews and sworn testimony, theirs was an intimate, endless confederacy sealed by blood, shared secrets and a Hobbesian view of what it took to dominate and win. They talked almost daily and saw each other most weekends. They were both fluent in the language of half-truths and lies, interviews and records show. They both delighted in transgressing without getting caught. They were both wizards at manipulating the value of their assets, making them appear worth a lot or a little depending on their needs.

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Those talents came in handy when Fred Trump Jr. The executors of his estate were his father and his brother Donald. Fred Trump Jr. This result was achieved by lowballing all seven buildings.

Emblematic of their audacity was Park Briar, a unit building in Queens. As it happened, 18 days before Fred Trump Jr.

Yet as Fred Trump Jr. During the s, Donald Trump became notorious for leaking word that he was taking positions in stocks, hinting of a possible takeover, and then either selling on the run-up or trying to extract lucrative concessions from the target company to make him go away. Trump enlisted his father as his greenmailing wingman. On Jan. Dorfman reported that Donald Trump was taking a stake in the company.

A week later, Mr. Dorfman reported that Donald Trump had sold, too. With other family members, Fred Trump could be cantankerous and cruel, according to sworn testimony by his relatives.

He was different with his son Donald. Yet canceling the debt would have required Donald Trump to pay millions in taxes on the amount forgiven. Father and son found another solution, one never before disclosed, that appears to constitute both an unreported multimillion-dollar gift and a potentially illegal tax write-off. In December , records show, Fred Trump bought a 7.

Tax document showing most of the write-offs for the Trump Palace investments Read document Those documents do not identify who bought his stake. But other records indicate that he sold it back to his son. The Trump Palace offering plan, submitted in November , identified two owners: Donald Trump and his father. He did not do that, records show.

He did, however, sign a sworn affidavit a month after his father sold his stake. Under I. Fred Trump reported no such gift. According to tax experts, the only circumstance that would not have required Fred Trump to report a gift was if Trump Palace had been effectively bankrupt when he unloaded his shares. Yet Trump Palace was far from bankrupt. Property records show that condo sales there were brisk in At the same time, he declared to the I.

Federal tax law prohibits deducting any loss from the sale of property between members of the same family, because of the potential for abuse. At its heart lay a more ambitious project, executed to perfection over decades — to create that origin story, the myth of Donald J.

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