HISTORY. The Mughal Period Akbar the Mughal Emperor. (Ruling: ) . The Beginning of Mughal Rule in India. Such was the .. official language). Background: Stories of Akbar and Birbal are extremely popular in India. The several instances when Birbal uses his wit and intelligence to calm the ire of. Akbar was the third and the greatest Mughal Emperor. Let's have a look at his life history, reign, administration, contribution, achievements and timeline.
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Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar ابو الفتح جلال الدين محمد اكبر popularly known as Akbar's reign significantly influenced the course of Indian history. To defend his stance that speech arose from hearing, he carried out a language deprivation experiment, and had children raised in isolation, not allowed to be. by Gunwar Bibi. 'Abd al-Fath Jalal al-Dīn. Muḥammad. Akbar. "Arsh- ashyāni". r. "Aqiqah Begam by Bigah Begam d at age 8. Learn how Akbar the Great expanded the Mughal Empire and united the and Hindu peoples of India with his policy of religious cooperation, at terney.info
Preview download free pdf of this Telugu book is kandgapuchu.
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Screenshots of panchatantra kathalu in telugu pdf. Telugu panchatantra stories rabbit and vratham telugu pdf. It consists of a single very high room, furnished only with a central pillar. The top of the pillar, on which Akbar sits, is joined by four narrow bridges to a balcony running round the wall. On the balcony are those having an audience with the emperor. If required, someone can cross one of the bridges - in a respectfully crouched position - to join Akbar in the centre.
Meanwhile, on the floor below, courtiers not involved in the discussion can listen unseen. In the diwan-i-khas Akbar deals mainly with affairs of state.
To satisfy another personal interest, in comparative religion, he builds a special ibabat-khana 'house of worship'. The ferocity with which they all attack each other prompts him to devise a generalized religion of his own in which a certain aura of divinity rubs off on himself. The Christians involved in these debates are three Jesuits who arrive from Goa in As the first Europeans at the Moghul court, they are a portent for the future.
Jahangir: Akbar is succeeded in by his eldest and only surviving son, Jahangir. Two other sons have died of drink, and Jahangir's effectiveness as a ruler is limited by his own addiction to both alcohol and opium.
But the empire is now stable enough for him to preside over it for twenty-two years without much danger of upheaval. Instead he is able to indulge his curiosity about the natural world which he records in a diary as vivid as that of his great-grandfather Babur and his love of painting. Under his keen eye the imperial studio brings the Moghul miniature to a peak of perfection, maintained also during the reign of his son Shah Jahan.
Moghul miniatures: 16th - 17th century When Humayun wins his way back into India, in , he brings with him two Persian artists from the school of Bihzad. Humayun and the young Akbar take lessons in drawing. Professional Indian artists learn too from these Persian masters. From this blend of traditions there emerges the very distinctive Moghul school of painting. Full-bodied and realistic compared to the more fanciful and decorative Persian school, it develops in the workshops which Akbar establishes in the s at Fatehpur Sikri.
Akbar puts his artists to work illustrating the manuscripts written out by scribes for his library. New work is brought to the emperor at the end of each week. He makes his criticisms, and distributes rewards to those who meet with his approval. Detailed scenes are what Akbar likes, showing court celebrations, gardens being laid out, cheetahs released for the hunt, forts being stormed and endless battles. The resulting images are a treasure trove of historical detail.
But as paintings they are slightly busy. Akbar's son Jahangir takes a special interest in painting, and his requirements differ from his father's. He is more likely to want an accurate depiction of a bird which has caught his interest, or a political portrait showing himself with a rival potentate. In either case the image requires clarity and conviction as well as finely detailed realism. The artists rise superbly to this challenge. In Jahangir 's reign, and that of his son Shah Jahan , the Moghul imperial studio produces work of exceptional beauty.
In Shah Jahan's time even the crowded narrative scenes, so popular with Akbar, are peopled by finely observed and convincing characters.
Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb: During the reigns of Shah Jahan and his son Aurangzeb, the policy of religious toleration introduced by Akbar is gradually abandoned. It has been largely followed by Shah Jahan's father, Jahangir - though at the very start of his reign he provides the Sikhs with their first martyr when the guru Arjan is arrested, in , and dies under torture.
In Shah Jahan signals an abrupt return to a stricter interpretation of Islam when he orders that all recently built Hindu temples shall be destroyed.
A Muslim tradition states that unbelievers may keep the shrines which they have when Islam arrives, but not add to their number. Direct provocation of this kind is untypical of Shah Jahan, but it becomes standard policy during the reign of his son Aurangzeb.
His determination to impose strict Islamic rule on India undoes much of what was achieved by Akbar. An attack on Rajput territories in makes enemies of the Hindu princes; the reimposition of the jizya in the same year ensures resentment among Hindu merchants and peasants. At the same time Aurangzeb is obsessed with extending Moghul rule into the difficult terrain of southern India.
He leaves the empire larger but weaker than he finds it. In his eighties he is still engaged in permanent and futile warfare to hold what he has seized. In the decades after the death of Aurangzeb , in , the Moghul empire fragments into numerous semi-independent territories - seized by local officials or landowners whose descendants become the rajas and nawabs of more recent times. Moghul emperors continue to rule in name for another century and more, but their prestige is hollow.
Real power has declined gradually and imperceptibly throughout the 17th century, ever since the expansive days of Akbar's empire.
Yet it is in the 17th century that news of the wealth, splendour, architectural brilliance and dynastic violence of the Moghul dynasty first impresses the rest of the world. Europeans become a significant presence in India for the first time during the 17th century.
They take home descriptions of the ruler's fabulous wealth, causing him to become known as the Great Moghul. They have a touching tale to tell of Shah Jahan's love for his wife and of the extraordinary building, the Taj Mahal , which he provides for her tomb. And as Shah Jahan's reign merges into Aurangzeb's, they can astonish their hearers with an oriental melodrama of a kind more often associated with Turkey , telling of how Aurangzeb kills two of his brothers and imprisons his ageing father, Shah Jahan, in the Red Fort at Agra - with the Taj Mahal in his view across the Jumna, from the marble pavilions of his castle prison.
Moghul domes: The paintings commissioned by the Moghul emperors are superb, but it is their architecture which has most astonished the world - and in particular the white marble domes characteristic of the reign of Shah Jahan. There is a long tradition of large Muslim domes in central Asia, going as far back as a tomb in Bukhara in the 10th century.
But the Moghuls develop a style which is very much their own - allowing the dome to rise from the building in a swelling curve which somehow implies lightness, especially when the material of the dome is white marble. The first dome of this kind surmounts the tomb of Humayun in Delhi, built between and The style is then overlooked for a while - no doubt because of Akbar's preference for Hindu architecture, as in Fatehpur Sikri - until Shah Jahan, the greatest builder of the dynasty, develops it in the 17th century with vigour and sophistication.
His first attempt in this line is also his masterpiece - a building which has become the most famous in the world, for its beauty and for the romantic story behind its creation. Throughout his early career, much of it spent in rebellion against his father, Shah Jahan 's greatest support has been his wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
But four years after he succeeds to the throne this much loved companion dies, in , giving birth to their fourteenth child. Such romantic gestures are rare among monarchs the Eleanor Crosses come to mind as another , and certainly none has ever achieved its commemorative purpose so brilliantly.
There is no known architect for the Taj. It seems probable that Shah Jahan himself takes a leading role in directing his masons - particularly since his numerous other buildings evolve within a related style. The Taj Mahal is built between and In the emperor commissions the vast Friday Mosque for his new city in Delhi.
Meanwhile he is building a new Red Fort in Delhi, with white marble pavilions for his own lodgings above massive red sandstone walls. At Fatehpur Sikri he provides a new shrine for the Sufi saint to whom his grandfather, Akbar , was so devoted. All these buildings contain variations on the theme of white and subtly curving domes, though none can rival Shah Jahan's first great example in the Taj. Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan's son, does not inherit his father's passionate interest in architecture.
But he commissions two admirable buildings in the same tradition. One is the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, begun in ; even larger than his father's Friday Mosque in Delhi, it rivals it in the beauty of its domes. The other, begun in , goes to the other extreme; the tiny Pearl Mosque in the Red Fort in Delhi, begun in for Aurangzeb's private worship, is a small miracle of white marble.
It is these marble highlights which catch the eye. Akbar forgave him, however, and gave him the option of either continuing in his court or resuming his pilgrimage; Bairam chose the latter. The Afghan ruler, Baz Bahadur , was defeated at the Battle of Sarangpur and fled to Khandesh for refuge leaving behind his harem, treasure, and war elephants. His foster brother retained all the spoils and followed through with the Central Asian practice of slaughtering the surrendered garrison, their wives and children, and many Muslim theologians and Sayyids, who were the descendants of Muhammad.
Pir Muhammad Khan was then sent in pursuit of Baz Bahadur but was beaten back by the alliance of the rulers of Khandesh and Berar. Baz Bahadur survived as a refugee at various courts until, eight years later in , he took service under Akbar. When Adham Khan confronted Akbar following another dispute in , he was struck down by the emperor and thrown from a terrace into the palace courtyard at Agra.
Still alive, Adham Khan was dragged up and thrown to the courtyard once again by Akbar to ensure his death. Akbar now sought to eliminate the threat of over-mighty subjects.
Following a third revolt with the proclamation of Mirza Muhammad Hakim , Akbar's brother and the Mughal ruler of Kabul, as emperor, his patience was finally exhausted.
Several Uzbek chieftains were subsequently slain and the rebel leaders trampled to death under elephants. They too were slain and driven out of the empire. Following a brief confrontation, however, Muhammad Hakim accepted Akbar's supremacy and retreated back to Kabul. Kamala Devi, a younger sister of Durgavati, was sent to the Mughal harem.
When summoned to give accounts, he fled Gondwana. He went first to the Uzbeks, then returned to Gondwana where he was pursued by Mughal forces. Finally, he submitted and Akbar restored him to his previous position. No imperial power in India based on the Indo-Gangetic plains could be secure if a rival centre of power existed on its flank in Rajputana. Beginning in , the Mughals actively engaged the Rajputs in warfare and diplomacy. Unless Udai Singh was reduced to submission, the imperial authority of the Mughals would be lessened in Rajput eyes.
The fortress-capital of Mewar was of great strategic importance as it lay on the shortest route from Agra to Gujarat and was also considered a key to holding the interior parts of Rajputana. Udai Singh retired to the hills of Mewar, leaving two Rajput warriors, Jaimal and Patta, in charge of the defence of his capital.
Akbar had the surviving defenders and 30, non-combatants massacred and their heads displayed upon towers erected throughout the region, in order to demonstrate his authority. He never again ventured out his mountain refuge in Mewar and Akbar was content to let him be. Ranthambore was held by the Hada Rajputs and reputed to be the most powerful fortress in India. Most of the Rajput kings had submitted to the Mughals.
W of Agra in It was called Fatehpur Sikri "the city of victory". Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama Akbar's next military objectives were the conquest of Gujarat and Bengal, which connected India with the trading centres of Asia, Africa, and Europe through the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal respectively.
Akbar first moved against Gujarat, which lay in the crook of the Mughal provinces of Rajputana and Malwa. Moreover, Akbar had received invitations from cliques in Gujarat to oust the reigning king, which served as justification for his military expedition.
By , he had driven out the Mirzas who, after offering token resistance, fled for refuge in the Deccan. Surat , the commercial capital of the region and other coastal cities soon capitulated to the Mughals.
The outnumbered Mughal army then won a decisive victory on 2 September Akbar slew the rebel leaders and erected a tower out of their severed heads. The only centre of Afghan power was now in Bengal, where Sulaiman Khan Karrani, an Afghan chieftain whose family had served under Sher Shah Suri, was reigning in power. While Sulaiman Khan scrupulously avoided giving offence to Akbar, his son, Daud Khan , who had succeeded him in , decided otherwise.
The Mughal army was subsequently victorious at the Battle of Tukaroi in , which led to the annexation of Bengal and parts of Bihar that had been under the dominion of Daud Khan.
Only Orissa was left in the hands of the Karrani dynasty as a fief of the Mughal Empire. A year later, however, Daud Khan rebelled and attempted to regain Bengal. He was defeated by the Mughal general, Khan Jahan Quli , and had to flee into exile. Daud Khan was later captured and executed by Mughal forces. His severed head was sent to Akbar, while his limbs were gibbeted at Tandah, the Mughal capital in Bengal.