Indian Railways is the world's seventh largest commercial The history of rail transport in India began in the mid- nineteenth .. in) metre gauge railway in the Nilgiri Hills in Tamil .  “Zones and their Divisions in Indian Railways” (PDF). In-. Railway Gk PDF Free Download - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt ) or read online for free. Kanyakumari at the southern tip of Tamil Nadu. Railway accident in the history of Indian Railway occurred in Morghat ( PureBombay. Indian Railways GK pdf covers the list of all Railway Zones in India This list (Tamil Nadu) is the longest distance running train in India.
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Indian Railways (IR) is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways. Main article: History of rail transport in India a 1, mm (3 ft 3 3⁄ 8 in) metre gauge rack railway in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu and the Kalka- Shimla Railway, a mm . "Indian Railways Budget Documents –19" ( PDF). Foreign Trade. India's external sector witnessed a turnaround after two years of . Major commodities carried by Indian railways Tamil Nadu. 4, With its more than year old history, IR is a state-owned public utility. These were amalgamated into the Indian Railways. . in the Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu and .. The factory is located at a distance of 7 kms. from the historical.
The patrolling staff can then pass on the information to the railway signalmen on the presence of elephants. These measures are not without their problems, as patrolling at night inside dense forest is hazardous. The provision of more watch towers along the track in forest areas may be useful. Implement garbage clearance and ensure better visibility along the track Elephants are attracted by food items, including packaged ones that passengers may throw out of trains.
Creating awareness among passengers and employing staff to remove such garbage along the track would help reduce the possibility of elephants lingering along the railway track in search of food. Vegetation along the track has to be cleared on a regular basis to ensure the best possible visibility to train drivers who have to be sensitized to the risks of elephants crossing the tracks such awareness is already being instituted among the drivers.
There have been instances of elephants, usually solitary bulls, feeding on an attractive plant such as banana that grows close to a railway track, and being hit by a train. It is important to remove such elephant forage plants along the railway tracks. Use of communications technology as an advance warning to train drivers and signalling staff Electronic surveillance can be undertaken to assess its efficacy in detecting elephants close to the railway track.
Various technologies have been suggested, including seismic sensors that measure ground vibrations to record elephant presence, infrared thermal sensors and cameras to provide images of elephants along railway tracks, infrared beams to detect the movement of an elephant, and even acoustic devices to scare elephants from tracks when trains are approaching. GPS collaring of representative animals in family herds and bulls would help in the fine-grained analysis of their movement pattern along the railway track, and help in planning mitigation measures.
Realignment of a portion of the track The existing track can be realigned so as to avoid passing through the Buxa Tiger Reserve West Division and the Jaldapara National Park, where a large number of accidents has taken place. The Southern line between New Jalpaiguri and New Alipurduar can be doubled to handle the increased traffic.
There are four possibilities for realignment of the Northern line Fig. Green line Southern sector railway track New Jalpaiguri—New Alipurduar Junction that does not pass through any forest. Besides these technical recommendations, it should be kept in mind that limiting accidents to elephants from train collisions is extremely challenging, requiring the active participation of a number of stakeholders that include the Indian Railways, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change Govt.
We suggest that various solutions be implemented at an experimental level, and then monitored over a reasonable time frame for testing their efficacy. The most cost-effective solutions should then be selected and implemented on a larger scale, thereby reducing collision risks and ultimately contributing to the conservation of elephants in India and elsewhere in Asia Open image in new window Photo credit Debopratim Saha Notes Acknowledgements We thank the International Elephant Foundation, the primary agency that funded this project; the Asian Nature Conservation Foundation for the work place and administration of the project; the Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, for office space, Internet and report writing; the West Bengal Forest Department for permissions and help in the field to carry out the study; the Indian Railways North Frontier Railway for permissions to survey along the track; the Dooars Branch of the Indian Tea Association for permissions to survey elephant paths within their tea gardens; and the Environmental System Research Institute for providing online software as well as Arc GIS We also thank Mr.
Santosh Chhetri, Mr. Sapwan Chhetri, Mr. Sushil Manger, Mr. Rohit Munda and Mr. Bikash Kairala for their help in the field, often under difficult conditions. References Andersen, R. Moose—train collisions: Effects of environmental conditions.
Alces, 27, 79— Google Scholar Ando, C. The relationship between deer—train casualties and daily activity of the sika deer, Cervus nippon. Mammal Study, 28, — Wildlife Ecology and Management. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science. Google Scholar Child, K. Moose mortality on highways and railways in British Columbia. Alces, 27, 41— Google Scholar Chowdhury, A.
Conservation of Asian elephant in north-east India. Gajah, 25, 47— Google Scholar Clarke, G. Effects of roads on badger Meles meles populations in south-west England. Biological Conservation, 86, — Review of human injuries, illnesses, and economic losses caused by wildlife in the United States.
Wildlife Bulletin, 23, — Google Scholar Das, K. Man Elephant Conflict in Northern Bengal. Elephant—railway conflict in a biodiversity hotspot: Determinants and perceptions of the conflict in Northern West Bengal, India.
Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 20, 81— BAGER ed. Lavras: UFLA, pp. Google Scholar Fahrig, L. Effect of road traffic on amphibian density. Biological Conservation, 73, — The ecological road-effect zone of a Massachusetts USA suburban highway. Conservation Biology, 14, 36— Washington: Island Press. Google Scholar Ghosh, L.
Tracking death. India today. Sixth working plan of the reserved forests of Jalpaiguri Division —58 to —67 , Vol. So air gaps are not generally necessary for AC traction. The impedance of the bond to the signalling current can be further increased by adding a secondary coil and a capacitor across it, in what is known as a resonated impedance bond.
The secondary coil steps up the voltage and allows the use of a smaller capacitor than would otherwise be required. Auto-coupled impedance bonds are a modification of the resonated impedance bond idea. Here the winding across the rails in the track circuit zone forms one part of the winding of an auto-transformer, the other part having the capacitor in series. On one side of the track circuit, the other part of the auto-transformer is connected to the supply V thereby being stepped down for the track circuit current, and the auto-transformer winding on the other side of the track circuit is connected to the track relay such that the track circuit current is stepped up to operate the relay.
Thus, the current flowing in the bonds is usefully employed in operating the relay. Many frequencies are used. In early systems, Hz, Hz, Hz, Hz, and Multiples of 50Hz were avoided so that there is no interference from harmonics of the common line frequency for other electrical equipment or the AC traction supply. Today, there are many different systems. Siemens equipment uses 4. Siemens equipment uses Hz, Hz, Hz, and Hz.
As with the low-frequency AC track circuits, a band-pass filter and a rectifier are used to extract the signal; however, in many cases an amplifier is needed to strengthen the signal. This kind of track circuit operates a little differently from the other AC track circuit types.
Impedance bonds are not used. Instead, at either end of the track circuit, rail-to-rail shorts are provided. A signal transmitter that generates the high frequency signal is connected to the rails at one end using an adapting transformer, which has one winding across the rails with a capacitor in series, while the transmitter is connected across the other winding.
Similarly, a receiver is connected across the rails at the other end using another adapting transformer. The transmitter and receiver connections are a little distance 5m or so inside from the rail-to-rail shorts. The receiver usually includes a tuned filter, rectifier, and amplifier for the signal frequency.
Electrically, the track circuit zone inside the rail-to-rail shorts looks like two tuned LC circuits in parallel, with the inductance of the enclosed section of track in between them in series. The capacitors are adjusted so that the enclosed section of track is tuned to the track circuit frequency. When no train is on the track, the signal from the transmitter is received and detected at the receiver, and is used via generation of a DC control voltage to keep the track relay energized.
When a train approaches the track circuit, it shunts the track circuit and - depending on the positions of the wheels - either de-tunes the circuit or shorts the transmitter or receiver or both. Any of these cause the track relay to be de-energized. In a variation on the above, the transmitter may generate pulse trains of specified duration and patterns with the high frequency signal. These are detected and converted to square waves which activate a peak detector, which in turn controls the generation of the DC control voltage to energize the track relay.
In this scheme, different coded pulse trains can be used to control different signalling aspects. The rail-to-rail shorts define the limits of the track circuit and therefore the circuit is immune to interference from adjacent track circuits.
Also, the LC circuit on the receiver side can be tuned very specifically to the track circuit frequency, so that other signalling applications that use other frequencies can be used on the same section of track without compromising the track circuit's operation. Jeumont Track Circuit The Jeumont Track Circuit or Jeumont-Schneider track circuit is a design that has been tried in areas where environmental conditions make it hard to get good contact between rails and wheels, reducing the shunting effect of a train on the track.
Often, in such conditions, a higher track circuit voltage helps as the track circuit current can break down and go through thin films of oxides, salts, coal dust, scale, etc. However, constant or steady AC high voltages lead to higher leakage currents and therefore waste power.
In the Jeumont design asymmetric high voltage pulses with a small duty cycle are used - with a high peak on the positive side 3ms , and a low amplitude negative cycle 17ms.
The pulses are emitted at about 3Hz frequency. The low duty cycle keeps power consumption low. A specialized detector rejects symmetric signals as from the traction currents and detects the asymmetric pulses.
These track circuits were in use at the Tambaram yards of SR, and in some areas around Kolkata. They are especially suitable in areas with DC traction but can be used where both DC and AC traction are used because of the corrosion problems in DC traction areas.
They are also suitable for use in tunnels and other areas where oxidation of rails is more intense. As with DC track circuits, slight variants are possible for single-rail or double-rail returns in electrified or unelectrified sections.
Jointless Track Circuits The Aster Track Circuit also referred to as Jointless Audio Frequency Track Circuit is a design suitable for use in areas with long welded rail where impedance bonds or insulated joints cannot be provided. It uses signalling frequencies around 2.
An 'electric boundary joint' is created by connecting two capacitors in series across the rails at either end of the track circuit zone. A 'rejector' cable is connected from one rail about 11m outside the track circuit to the point between the two capacitors, and then to the other rail about 18m inside the track circuit. The capacitors in conjunction with the inductances of the rails and the rejector cable form tuned circuits. In addition, the transmitter for the track circuit frequency is connected across one of the capacitors.
This leads to the impressed voltage being available in full inside the track circuit zone, but reduced usually by half outside the track circuit.
The receiver for the track circuit is connected across the capacitor at the other end of the track circuit, on the side connected to the other rail.
Adjacent track circuits use the same principle the next track circuit has its receiver across the other capacitor at the end where the transmitter of the first circuit is connected.
This cross-connection forms the 'rejector circuit' or 'electric boundary joint'. The equivalent circuit is shown at bottom right in the diagram. This circuit can therefore be set up so it offers high impedance to the signal frequency, preventing it from propagating it to the track circuit section on the right.
Meanwhile, the circuit Q-W-T-P can be set up allow the signal frequency to propagate to the left. Adjacent track circuits can use different frequencies and reduce interference by means of these rejector circuit arrangements. The same applies to the voltage Vb applied by the track circuit transmitter for 'B' to the left.
The voltage from track circuit 'A' starts at about zero on the left end, and rises to its full value Va on the right. Other kinds of jointless track circuits exist, where the detection of the section occupancy by a train is done by measuring the attenuation of the signal which is at a frequency about 10kHz, usually which undergoes significant attenuation in rails over the distances of interest and whose propagation characteristics are known. This also means that the entrance of a train into the track circuit section is not determined precisely based on its position -- instead, safety factors are incorporated in the calculations to yield zones within which train occupancy can be determined in a guaranteed fashion.
The system can be made even more reliable by coding the signal in a pulse train allowing the receiver to distinguish between signals of different track circuit sections see below. In a variation of the jointless track-circuiting scheme, trackside units can be used to set up a resonant circuit and constrain the signal usually between 1. The advantage of jointless AFTC is clear in that insulated joints are not required, reducing maintenance, allowing the use of long welded rail sections, and eliminating the problems of insulated joint failures.
Jointless AFTC sections can be Coded Jointless AFTC This system uses a mechanism such as the Aster design see above where insulated rail joints or impedance bonds are not needed. In addition, rather than using single frequencies for the track circuit current, coded pulse trains are used, which further reduces interference between adjacent track circuits.
What kinds of axle counters does IR use? Axle counters may be of the single or multiple entry type. Axle counters today are mostly of the electronic variety. They use piezoelectric sensors on the tracks, which are triggered by the weight of a pair of wheels moving over them. Older models with electromechanical treadles actuated by the wheels of a passing train are also seen, as are some variants which use photoelectric detectors or magnetic detectors using the Hall effect to sense the perturbation of magnetic flux to count axles.
Digital circuits are more compact and far more reliable than the older electromechanical counters. Usually two sensors are installed, at either end of the track section to be monitored - one that counts up as axles enter the section, and the other which counts down as axles leave the section. The section is deemed to be clear only when the resultant count is zero. More complex installations with additional sensors are sometimes used, where the counts of axles registered by each sensor are compared with logic taking into account the direction of motion, etc.
Signals and points are interlocked with the occupancy indication from the axle counter so as to prevent trains from being routed to occupied sections. As with much other trackside equipment, the sensors are usually powered by a 24V DC supply; there may be battery back-ups for reliability. In the case of solid-state equipment, there are even redundant computation paths provided so that the final decision of track occupancy is done with a '2 out of 2' or 'best of 3' choice from multiple logic units.
A typical axle counter is usually able to handle track sections up to a few kilometers in length, and all typical train speeds seen today in India. Maximum counts registered by sensors may be quite high, as much as 16, not for long trains!
One sometimes sees small rooms marked 'Axle Counter Room' near the station master's office where the equipment for reading the axle counts is housed.
The use of axle counters was pioneered by WR and CR. Over 65, are now used across India . Does IR use any other method of Last Vehicle Proving Apart from axle counters or track circuits that indicate that a train has passed out of a section of track, in some places magnetic detectors are used for last vehicle proving. A permanent magnet suspended a few inches above the track from the last vehicle of a train passes right over a sensor which is positioned in the center of the track.
The sensor works on the principle of the Hall effect, detecting and amplifying the Hall e. In other sensors, the passage of the magnet may also change the reactance of a saturable reactor, thereby triggering a relay or tripping a circuit.
Does IR use automatic track-side hot-spot detectors, trailing equipment detectors, etc.? IR does not appear to have begun using any hotspot detectors or trailing equipment detectors or other methods for automatic detection of mechanical problems in rolling stock, apart from some isolated experiments. Axle counters or track circuits are the primary means of ensuring that a section of track is clear - problems from broken or detached equipment are detected by human vigilance.
Train Working with Power Signalling Power signalling i. See the section on block working for more details on this, including Lock and Block , Open Block working , and Controlled Manual Block working. Are there any in-cab signalling methods, ATP, etc. AWS provides prior in-cab notification of distant or home signals that are displaying danger or 'on'. ATS provides for a locomotive to be brought to a halt in case it overshoots an 'on' signal that it should not have.
This has been tried out on the Mughalsarai-Howrah section ER but is not in wide use although it was installed in the s. Pilferage of the track equipment is said to have been one reason for slow adoption by the railways.
The system also halts the EMU rake if a signal at danger is passed. The lineside transmitter for this is placed in between the rails a short distance before the signal, and the receiver for this is placed on the leading truck of the loco.
AWS systems usually work by means of electromagnets placed on the track that are activated by the signal aspects and whose magnetic fields are sensed by the AWS sensor mounted on the loco. In this scheme, each loco would carry a beacon that transmitted its identification, including the train number, direction, etc. Ground-based receivers would pick up the beacon signals and relay the information to traffic control centres. Also, if there were other locos within a short distance 2km? This same system or a similar one?
These were developed by Konkan Railway. These depend on computing the 'crossing number', a measure that takes into account the converging and diverging routes encountered by a train in order to figure out whether two trains that appear dangerously close detected by means of radio beacons are in fact safe because they are on different adjacent tracks, or not.
Some WCAM-1 locos have a transceiver that is supposed to alert the driver of a derailment or other problem ahead. Very few locos seem to be equipped with this. How extensive is this? ETCS level 2 equipment allows for communication of target speeds, safe braking distances, etc.
It includes a measure of ATP Automatic train protection in that it can slow down or stop a train if required when the driver exceeds the safe speeds for given signal aspects; but it does not include full ATC automatic train control. When deployed expected some time in this will allow for automated routine operations, and reduced headway of 8 or even 5 minutes between the trains currently headway is 10 minutes on the metro. This is an older analog system dating to the s, which allows the Traction Loco Controller to talk by radio to train crew that are carrying a receiver with them in the locomotive cab.
GSM-R is a set of standards for railway-specific communications, integrating voice, data, and control communications, which is based on the popular GSM standard for mobile telephone communications.
Signal aspects will be available in the EMU cab, and EMUs will be automatically braked if its speed is in excess of the safe speed appropriate for the signal aspect. Anti-collision Device ACD Konkan Railway has developed a system involving radio receivers and transmitters fitted on locomotives, which aims to prevent or minimize the chances of collisions. The transmitter sends out a coded signal that identifies the train and its direction, route, etc.
Some versions of the ACD are also said to include the use of GPS to provide accurate information on the location of each train. The ACD equipment has been put to use in several sections. What other methods of communication with train crew are used on IR? Handheld radios walkie talkie sets are widely used now since the late s by train crew, yard crew, etc. Some stations have transmitters allowing them to broadcast to all walkie talkies in the vicinity.
Often, because of their higher power they are able to transmit to walkie talkie sets carried by crew that are farther away than the distance the walkie talkies can normally operate within, so that they cannot receive any messages in the reverse direction in such cases! The Rajdhani Expresses still use a primitive though reliable form of communication. A pair of wires are connected to a telephone socket on the end of the first Rajdhani coach, usually a generator van. This telephone line then goes through the entire rake to the last coach where the guard has a telephone instrument.
The driver also has a portable instrument which he plugs into this wire and communication between the guard and driver becomes possible even if the walkie talkies cannot function for some reason.
What systems does IR use for control and reporting of signals and related equipment? Panel Interlocking or Route Relay Interlocking are common in most busy stations. Usually, with these the aspects of all signals and positions of trains in various track sections is shown on a control panel.
The control circuits usually use underground cables along the track, and sometimes overhead cables. Trackside cables are not used much because of the possibility of pilferage and sabotage. Many areas have data logging equipment for each piece of signal equipment, which records information on the functioning of the signal and sends it to a computer at a central point usually the division headquarters where reports can be generated and alarms raised for various kinds of malfunctions power failure, signal passed at danger, train entering without line clear, signal lamp failure, loose packing of points, etc.
A typical data logger used in such a system monitors all signal equipment and track circuits times a second and signal power supplies every second. History of interlocking in India Historically, before the advent of block instruments, access to sections of railway tracks was done by the issuance of 'Line Clear' certificates analogous to the use of track warrants in the USA by the station-masters of the stations to which the sections belonged.
The GIPR and EIR were in the forefront of mechanizing this process by installing block instruments, semaphore signals, and interlocking.