Business and Technical English Writing (ENG). Handouts (pdf) / Powerpoint Slides (PPTs). Handouts / Power Point Slides. Lessons () (pdf Format). Business and Technical English Writing (ENG). Handouts | Lectures | Contents | Books. Handouts / Power Point Slides. Lessons () (pdf Format). Handouts Business and. Technical. English. ENG Written communication will cover planning, structures, and stylistic issues. The students will.
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Business and Technical English-ENG VU. © Copyright Given a choice, people would rather talk to each other than write to each other. Talking takes less . Download VU Business and Technical English Writing - ENG Lectures Handouts. Business and Technical English Writing - ENG terney.info VUTube. Technical and Business English - ENG VU Video Lectures, Handouts, Power Point Slides, Solved Assignments, Solved Quizzes, Past Papers and.
Find a piece of writing that you believe to be ineffective. You might look for an unclear set of instructions or an unpersuasive advertisement of any business of technical products. Write a brief analysis of three or four reading moments in which your interaction with the text is in a way that inhibits the authors desired results. Now analyze an effective piece of writing. This time, write about three or four reading moments in which you interact with the text in a way that helps the author bring about the desired result.
He has analyzed a group of pistons that broke when used in an experimental automobile engine. His skillful analysis is of no use unless he communicates the results to someone else, such as the engineer who must redesign the pistons. Oral Presentations Oral presentations can be formal or informal, depending upon their explicit and implicit purposes and the delivery situation. An oral presentation can be almost any report type, such as a design review, a proposal, or a conference talk.
Whatever the specific type, however, an effective oral presentation is carefully planned with your objectives in mind and pays close attention to the demands of your audience. Effective oral communication is a combination of many skills: Outlining and planning Preparing overheads or other display media Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 11 Business and Technical English-ENG VU Rehearsing Delivery Formal and Informal Oral Reports An oral report may be delivered around a small table with just a few listeners or in a large auditorium to hundreds of people.
Formal Oral Reports are usually prepared well in advance of presentation and are therefore well rehearsed. Your manner of delivery is extremely important in a formal oral report situation. Formal oral reports may follow an outline similar to the parts of any formal written report and may be presented to an audience of one's peers or to an interested general or a mixed audience in a setting such as a large auditorium or hall.
Informal Oral Reports are generally characterized by small- group settings with a high degree of audience interaction and a relaxed manner of delivery and dress. Informal oral presentations can foster the free exchange of ideas and can be important for producing action items.
Oral presentations in a professional environment generally fall into two categories: Informative Speaking Persuasive Speaking a. Informative Speaking Informative Speaking has audience learning as its primary goal. An informative speech may explain a concept, instruct an audience, demonstrate a process, or describe an event.
Persuasive Speaking Persuasive Speaking is used to influence what an audience thinks or does. Some of the goals of persuasive speaking include to: Reinforce the attitudes, beliefs, and values an audience already holds. Inoculate an audience against counter persuasion.
Change attitudes. Motivate an audience to act.
Delivery Methods There are at least four methods for making an oral presentation: 1. Extempore 2. Impromptu 3. Memorization 4.
Reading Extempore In this method of delivery the thought is planned before starting to speak either in a few hurried minutes or in the course of long, elaborate and exacting preparation; but the exact wording is left to the moment of speaking. The extemporaneous method involves significant effort but results in a degree of quality that tells your audience that you care about them.
Doing your homework to fill in your knowledge gaps. The use of 3 x 5 cue cards or similar method to jog your memory on the specifics and keep your presentation on track. Impromptu The impromptu method is characterized by poor organization and incompleteness. It tells the audience that you are indifferent about them. Memorization The memorization method is risky; you can lose your place or leave something out and, in a panic, you might revert to the impromptu method, resulting in disaster.
Reading The drawback of reading is that when you read your speech, you're communicating with the text instead of the audience. Novice speakers often believe that if they memorize their speeches by reading them over and over word for word; they'll be able to stand up and deliver the speech verbatim without reading.
It's a great idea, but it just doesn't work. And if you practice by reading from a written manuscript, you will become so wedded to the paper that it is virtually impossible to break away from it. You also lose most of the expressiveness and engaging body language that make speeches work in the first place.
Preparation for the Presentation Irrespective of the method of delivery, the presenter must consider the following parameters in preparing for the presentation: Knowledge of the audience Knowledge of subject Use of time Rehearsal Personal appearance and grooming. Additionally, the preparation and use of visual aids is an important element of any effective presentation.
Knowledge of the Audience: Do not patronize your audience! Neither speak down nor speak up to your audience. How much do they already know about your subject? Know the age level of the audience as well as its members' level of educational sophistication and special interests.
Tailor your presentation accordingly. Knowledge of the Subject Whether you use notes, manuscript, or strictly memory, you must know your subject well. If gaps exist, fill them up!
Use of Time and Rehearsal Time limits are to be observed! Even if no time limit is given, you should strive to do justice to your subject in as little time as possible, but not at the price of an incomplete presentation.
Personal Appearance: Your personal appearance affects your credibility. Informal clothing is rarely appropriate for a professional presentation. Pay significant attention to personal grooming. Delivering an Oral Presentation A well planned and well-structured presentation can almost be ineffective because of the bad presentation delivery.
Poise and Enthusiasm Be well prepared and strive for muscle control, alert attention, vibrant interest in the subject, and an eagerness to communicate. Avoid distracting mannerisms, but don't stand in a "frozen" position. Moving about, if not excessive, can accentuate your enthusiasm. Eye Contact During your presentation, try to make eye contact with most and if possible every person in the room. Avoid fastening your gazes on your notes, on your chart or screen, or on some point in space above the heads of your listeners.
Use of Voice Don't speak too softly, too fast, or mumble! Your audience must be able to: Hear what you say Understand what you say d. Use of Pace Without adequate preparation, it is easy to become nervous and start rushing through a presentation. Instead, use the pacing established during your many rehearsals. Making a Formal Presentation The material of your presentation should be concise, to the point and tell an interesting story. In addition to the obvious things like content and visual aids, the following are just as important as the audience will be subconsciously taking them in: Voice - how you say it is as important as what you say.
Body Language - a subject in its own right and something about which much has been written and said. In essence, your body movements express what your attitudes and thoughts really are. Appearance - first impressions influence the audience's attitudes to you. Dress appropriately for the occasion. As with most personal skills, oral communication cannot be taught.
Instructors can only point the way. So as always, practice is essential, both to improve your skills generally and also to make the best of each individual presentation you make.
What are the objectives of the talk? What are the main points you want to make? Make a list of these two things as your starting point. Write out the presentation in rough, just like a first draft of a written report. Review the draft. You will find things that are irrelevant or superfluous - delete them. Check if the story is consistent and flows smoothly. If there are things you cannot easily express, possibly because of doubt about your understanding, it is better to leave them unsaid.
Never read from a script. It is also unwise to have the talk written out in detail as a prompt sheet - the chances are you will not locate the thing you want to say amongst all the other text. You should know most of what you want to say - if you don't then you should not be giving the talk! So prepare cue cards which have key words and phrases and possibly sketches on them.
Postcards are ideal for this. Don't forget to number the cards in case you drop them. Remember to mark on your cards the visual aids that go with them so that the right OHP or slide is shown at the right time.
Rehearse your presentation - to yourself at first and then in front of some colleagues. The initial rehearsal should consider how the words and the sequence of visual aids go together and how you will make effective use of your visual aids. Making Your Presentation Greet the audience for example, 'Good morning, ladies and gentlemen! Good presentations then follow this formula: tell the audience what you are going to tell them, at the end tell them what you have told them.
Keep to the time allowed. If you can, keep it short. It's better to under-run than over-run. As a rule of thumb, allow two minutes for each general overhead transparency or Power Point slide you use, but longer for any that you want to use for developing specific points.
However, the audience will get bored with something on the screen for more than 5 minutes, especially if you are not actively talking about it. So switch the display off, or replace the slide with some form of 'wallpaper' such as a company logo. Stick to the plan for the presentation, don't be tempted to digress - you will eat up time and could end up in a dead-end with no escape!
Unless explicitly told not to, leave time for discussion - 5 minutes are sufficient to allow clarification of points. The session chairman may extend this if the questioning becomes interesting. At the end of your presentation ask if there are any questions - avoid being terse when you do this as the audience may find it intimidating i.
It may come across as any questions? Delivery Guidelines: Speak clearly. Don't shout or whisper - judge the acoustics of the room. Don't rush, or talk deliberately slowly. Be natural - although not conversational. Deliberate pause at key points this has the effect of emphasizing the importance of a particular point you are making.
Avoid jokes - always disastrous unless you are a natural expert. You can change your delivery method to make the presentation interesting. Example: Unfamiliar assessed valuation Familiar property value for tax purpose Choose precise, concrete and familiar words: With the increased use of e-mail there is the tendency to be concise.
The danger is that you must know the meaning of e-mail acronyms which aid conciseness. Construct Effective Sentences and Paragraphs: At the core of clarity is the sentence Important characteristics to consider are Length Unity Coherence Emphasis Length: Try for an average sentence length of 17 to 20 words.
When the sentence length increases try to chop it down to two sentences. Also if the sentences are too short then the resulting language becomes overly simple and choppy. Unity: In a sentence, unity means that you must have one main idea. In case of other ideas they must be closely related. Coherence: In a coherent sentence the words are arranged so that the ideas clearly express the intended meaning. Eng Virtual University Business and Technical English Writing Place the correct modifier as close as possible to word it is supposed to modify.
In the examples which follow, notice that unclear sentence conveys the wrong meaning. Example: Unclear Being an excellent lawyer, I am sure that you can help us. Clear Being an excellent lawyer, you can surely help us. Example: Unclear His report was about managers, broken down by age and gender. Clear His report focused on age and gender of managers.
Example Unclear After planning 10, berry plants, the deer came into out botanist's farm and crushed them. Clear After our botanists had planted 10, berry plants, the deer came into the farm and crushed them. Emphasis: The quality that gives force to important parts of sentences and paragraphs is emphasis. Most often, put main ideas up front within a sentence. Answer: Page What is a sentence fragment? Answer: Page Sentence Fragments: A sentence fragment is missing a subject, a HverbH, or both, but is punctuated as if it were a complete sentence.
What are the important points of instructions for any documents? Answer: Page Points to Remember When writing instructions, you should keep in mind three points: instructions shape attitudes, good visual design is essential, and testing is often indispensable.
Each of these points is discussed briefly in the following paragraphs. What the role of persuasive speaking? Answer: Page 7 file Persuasive Speaking is used to influence what an audience thinks or does. Some of the goals of persuasive speaking include: to reinforce the attitudes, beliefs, and values an audience already holds to inoculate an audience against counter persuasion to change attitudes to motivate an audience to act 9.
Writer s Block? Lack of information 2. Lack of a well defined purpose 3. Poor knowledge of the audience 4. Lack of confidence.
Open ended question? Narrate difference purpose of conducing interview on a job?
Explain Open ended question? Answer: Page To obtain both factual information and underlying feelings, you ll probably use various types of questions. Open-ended questions invite the interviewee to offer an opinion, not just a yes, no, or one- word answer You can learn some interesting and unexpected things from open-ended questions, but they may diminish your control of the interview.
The other person s idea of what s relevant may not coincide with yours, and you may waste some time getting the interview back on track. Use open-ended questions to warm up the interviewee and look for information when you have plenty of time to conduct the conversation. Close ended question? Answer: Page Closed-ended questions require yes or no answers or call for short responses.
For example Did you make a reservation for the flight? Questions like these produce specific information, save time, require less effort to answer, and eliminate bias and prejudice in answers. The disadvantage of such questions is that they limit the respondent s initiative and may prevent important information from being revealed.
They re better for gathering information than for prompting an exchange of feelings July Q: Write a note on correctness principle of communication? Grammar Punctuation Spelling Q: Difference between latter and memorandum? It reveals the organization s hierarchy, indicating how the smaller units are combined to create larger units. It also indicates who reports to whom and who gives direction to whom.
Q: How will you make favorable response to claim and adjustment request? Capitalize any word, regardless of the part of speech, if it is the first or last word of the title or subtitle or a proper name or if it follows a punctuation mark indicating a break in the title Q: What problems do we face while using staked modifies and nouns, and how can we over comes then?
These stacked modifiers and nouns can be hard to read and sometimes create ambiguity. Add a few words especially prepositions and conjunctions to make the relationships between nouns clear to the reader. Q: How is a diagram created? Create an appropriate means to represent your subject with geometric shapes, or perhaps sketches that suggest their appearance.