Glasovi engleskog jezika (Fonetika) Samoglasnici - Vowels - i primeri Dvoglasnici - Diphthongs - i primeri Suglasnici - Consonants - i primeri. predmeta engleski jezik koji obuhvaća najvažnije programske sadržaje iz engleskog Cilj i svrha učenja engleskog jezika je učenika osposobiti za aktivno i. Vodič A za učenike gimnazija—Engleski jezik (šk. / UBA4/Emails/ terney.info (posljednji put posjećeno. ).
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OBAVIJEST za student-ic-e I godine terney.info Communication at the hotel - Contemporary English terney.info INFOdokument Savremeni engleski jezik terney.info Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development. terney.info terney.info S3 Platform. PDF | Abstract: As a global lingua franca, English language is the main and necessary standard in Ključne reči: Moodle, učenje na daljinu, engleski jezik.
Neodreeni lan se upotrebljava sa reima: Neodreeni lan se stavlja ispred rei: Neodreeni lan se upotrebljava s imenskim predikatom: Neodreeni lan se moe upotrebiti uz apoziciju koja se dodaje nazivima knjievnih dela: Neodreeni lan upotrebljen iza "not" pojaava negaciju: I have not a single penny nemam niti jedan jedini peni.
Neodreeni lan se upotrebljava u mnogim idiomatskim izrazima, dok se u nekim isputa: Neodreeni lan se izostavlja: Pomoni glagol "to be" - Auxiliary Verb "to be" Pomoni glagoli slue za sloenih glagolskih vremena perfekta, futura itd.
Pomoni glagoli su: Glavni delovi glagola be su: I am surfing. The bridge was built. Be kao glagol punog znaenja znai postojati, iveti, stii itd. To be, or not to be. I was in Spain last year. Be se vrlo esto upotrebljava kao dio imenskog predikata.
He is ill. His brother was a sailor. Be se upotrebljava za starost, udaljenost i cenu. It is ten miles.
She is twenty. This building is twenty years old. Kada govorimo o osobi kaemo samo broj She is twenty. Present Simple - Prezent I am - I'm ja sam you are - you're he is - he's, she's, it's we are - we're you are - you're they are - they're. I'm not ja nisam you're not he's, she's, it's not we're not you're not they're not.
Past Simple - Preterit Prosto prolo vreme I was ja sam bio I wasn't ja nisam bio you were you weren't he was he wasn't. Past Perfect - Pluskvamperfekt Pluperfekt I had been ja bijah bio I had not been you had been you had not been he had been he had not been.
Futur Simple - Futur I shall be ja u biti you will be he will be Futur Perfect - Svreni futur I shall have been ja u biti you will have been he will have been. Present Conditional - Pogodbeni nain sadanji I should be ja bih bio I should not be you would be you would not be he would be he would not be Past Conditional - Pogodbeni nain proli I should have been bio bih bio you would have been he would have been.
Pomoni glagol "to have" - Auxiliary Verb "to have" Pomoni glagoli slue za graenje sloenih glagolskih vremena perfekta, futura itd.
Have kao pomoni glagol: S pomonim glagolom have grade se sledei glagolski oblici: They had to leave. Nisu morali otii. I have spoken I had spoken to have spoken to have spoken having spoken. Did they have to leave? Had they have to leave? They did not have to leave. They had not to leave. Her brother has a motor-boat. I have got znai isto kao i have. He has got a TV set. Takvo have se u gramatikama obino zove causative have.
Last week I had a new suit made. Iz tih prijevoda vidimo da se takvo have prevodi na na jezik glagolom 'dati'. U ovim reenicama osobito je vaan poredak rei: I have weeded my garden. The Past Perfect Tense - Pluskavamperfekt I had had ja bejah imao I had not had you had had you had not had he had had he had not had.
Futur Simple - Futur I shall have ja u imati you will have he will have Futur Perfect - Svreni futur I shall have had ja u imati you will have had he will have had. Present Conditional - Pogodbeni nain sadanji I should have ja bih imao I should not have you would have you would not have he would have he would not have Past Conditional - Pogodbeni nain proli I should have had bio bih imao I should not have had you would have had you would not have had he would have had he wuold not have had.
Does he drive a car? You do not understand me.
They did not arrive in time. Takvo do se zove emfatino do Emphatic do. Do sit down! I do like this cakes. Do se esto upotrebljava da bi se izbeglo ponavljanje glavnog glagola, i to: Do you read? He swims well, and so does his sister. You know what I mean, don't you? They did their job very well. He did not do what he had promised.
When does she do the room? Simple Present Tense - Prezent I do ja inim you do he, she, it does we do you do they do Past Simple Tense - Preterit I did ja uinih you did he did we did you did they did Imperativ do oni su vrlo dobro obavili svoj posao nije uinio to je obeao kada ona sprema sobu. I do not - I don't you do not - you don't he do not - he don't we do not - we don't you do not - you don't they do not - they don't.
I did not - I didn't you did not - you didn't he did not - he didn't we did not - we didn't you didnot - you didn't they did not - they didn't. Bezlini glagoli - Impersonal Verbs Bezlini glagoli su glagoli koji se upotrebljavaju samo u 3. Oni obino oznaavaju vremenske uslove. Infinitiv to rain pada kia to hail pada grad to freeze mrznuti se to snow pada snijeg to thunder grmeti Present Simple it rains it hails it freezes it snows it thunders.
Neki glagoli u treem licu jednine mogu imati bezlino znaenje. To su sledei glagoli: Nepotpuni glagoli - Defective Verbs Nepotpuni glagoli su: Zajedniko za nepotpune glagole je da: Nepotpuni glagol "can" moi, umjeti, znati oznaava fiziku ili umnu sposobnost.
Ima oblik "could" za prolo vreme Past Tense i za pogodbeni nain sadanji Present Conditional: I can swim I could swim Could you show me the way, please? Glagol "can" se ne moe upotrebiti s etvrtim padeom bez nekog drugog glagola, tako ne moemo rei: I can that - ve I can do that ja to umem.
Odrini oblik glasi "can not" ili skraeno saeto, contracted "can't" i "could not" ili "couldn't". Umesto glagola "can" u vremenima koje on nema upotrebljava se izraz "to be able" moi, biti u stanju: I shall be able to this for you. Nepotpuni glagol "may" moi, smeti oznaava odobravanje, doputanje, verovatnou, mogunost i elju: U prolom vremenu "may" ima svoj drugi oblik "might": He might have arrived earlier.
He might be present. Might izraava takoe i pogodbu. Odrini oblik glasi "may not" ili "mayn't" i "might not" ili "mightn't". Nepotpuni glagol must morati ima samo taj jedan oblik. Izraava primoravanje, dunost, nunost. I must take leave now. The soldiers knew that they must die.
U vremenima koje glagol must nema upotrebljava se glagol to have sa infinitivom bilo kog glagola sa obaveznim "to": I had to go at once. We shall have to work hard. U odreenom obliku "must not" ne prevodimo sa "ne morati" ve "ne smeti": You must not to do this. Skraeni oblik od "must not" je "mustn't". Nepotpuni glagol "ought" trebati je jedini koji se upotrebljava u infinitivu sa "to": You ought to learn more seriously.
You ought to know this. Glagol "ought" izraava obavezu, dunost prevodi se sa "treba", "mora" i sl. Odrini oblik glasi "ought not", skraeno "oughtn't". Kako ovaj glagol nema prolog vremena, misao o onome to je trebalo da se dogodi izraavamo sa "ought" i infinitivom prolim infinitiv proli glasi: You ought to have gone. Pravilni glagoli tvore preterit i particip perfekta tako da se infinitivu doda nastavak "-ed".
Ako se glagol u infinitivu zavrava na "-e" dodaje se samo "-d". Nepravilni glagoli tvore preterit i particip perfekta na razne naine. Preterit i particip perfekta imaju isti oblik: Sva tri oblika jednaka: Lista najeih nepravilnih glagola: Base Form hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay lead learn leave lend let lie lose make mean meet pay put read ride ring rise run say see sell send show shut sing sit sleep speak spend stand swim take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear win write.
Prelazni i neprelazni glagoli - Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Prelazni glagoli su oni uz koje moe stajati objekt u akuzativu tj. He speaks English. We are watching TV.
I saw an elephant. He has arrived. She speaks fast. John goes to school. Povratni glagoli - Reflexive Verbs Povratni glagoli su oni kod kojih se radnja vraa na subjekt. Uz takve glagole stoje povratne zamjenice. Povratnih glagola u engleskom jeziku nema mnogo. Najei su: Povratni glagoli se mijenjaju ovako: I dress myself you dress yourself he, she, it dresses himself, herself, itself we dress ourselves you dress yourselves thes dress themselves Upitni oblik: Do I dress myself?
Odrini oblik: I do not dress myself Upitno-odrini oblik: Do I not dress myself? Frazalni glagoli Frazalni glagoli spadaju u grupu vierijenih glagola, tj. Frazalni glagoli se grade od: Frazalni glagol neprelazni frazalni glagol prelazni frazalni glagol get up break down put off turn down Znaenje ustati iz kreveta prestati sa radom odgoditi odbiti Primeri I don't like to get up.
He was late because his car broke down. We will have to put off They turned down the meeting. Direktni objekat. Kada su frazalni glagoli prelazni tj.
They turned down my offer. They turned my offer down. Dat je primer sa frazalnim glagolom "switch on": John John John John switched switched switched switched on on on on the radio. Predloni glagoli se grade na sljedei nain: Predloni glagoli believe in look after talk about wait for Znaenje verovati u postojanje brinuti se o razgovarati o ekati Primjeri I believe in He is looking after Did you talk about John is waiting for Direktni objekat God. Predloni glagoli se ne mogu razdvajati, to znai da ne moemo umetnuti direktni objekat izmeu.
Na primer, moramo rei: Primeri frazalnih predlonih glagola: Frazalni predloni glagoli get on with put up with attitude. Poto se frazalni predloni glagoli tvore sa predlozima, uvijek imamo direktni objekat, i poput predlonih glagola ne smeju se razdvajati. We run out of fuel. We run out of it. Hunting lions is dangerous. This building is our school. Gerund - The Gerund Gerund je glagolski oblik koji ima osobine glagola i imenice. Glagolske osobine gerunda su: He is fond of walking quickly.
I don't like reading books. Imenike osobine gerunda su: She's good at painting. His being nervous is due to his illness. John's being lazy makes me nervous. Iako izgleda kao glagol, gerund ima istu funkciju kao imenica, i koristi se: Eating people is wrong. Flying is dangerous. One of his duties is attending meetings.
Ako posle predloga treba doi glagol moramo koristiti gerund: She is good at painting. She always puts off going to dentist. It's no use trying to escape. I am working he was singing they have been walking. She was shopping. I heard someone singing. It was an amazing film. He was trapped inside the burning house. Glagol "catch" sa participom prezenta izraava neku ljutnju ili pretnju: Don't let him catch you reading his letters.
We found some money lying on the ground. They found their mother sitting in the garden. Kada se dve radnje deavaju u isto vreme, od strane iste osobe ili stvari, koristimo particip prezenta da ih opiemo: They went out into the snow. They laughed as they went. They went laughing into the snow. He whistled to himself. He walked down on the road. Whistling to himself, he walked down on the road. Kada jedna radnja sledi odmah iza druge, od strane iste osobe, moemo prvu radnju izraziti participom prezenta: He put on his coat and left the house.
Putting on his coat, he left the house. She dropped the gun and put her hands in the air. Dropping the gun, she put her hands in the air. Particip prezenta se moe koristiti umesto poetnih as, since, because, i izraava razlog radnje: Feeling hungry, he went into the kitchen and opened the fridge.
Being poor, he didn't spend much on clothes. Knowing that his mother was coming, he cleaned the flat. Direktni i indirektni govor - Direct and Indirect Speech Ako ponavljamo neije rei tano onako kako ih je neko rekao to je direktni govor upravni govor, Direct speech , npr: Ako izvetavamo ono to je neko rekao onda koristimo indirektni govor neupravni govor, Indirect Speech or Reported Speech , npr: Indirektan govor se uvodi reima kao to su: Pri pretvaranju direktnog u indirektan govor treba potivati pravila o slaganju vremena: Prema ovim pravilima: He said: He said that he didn't understand this letter.
She said: She said that she was going to come soon again. She said to her brother: She asked her brother what he was doing. They asked me: They asked me whether I speak Spanish. Father said to his son: Father told his son to be careful of himself. Klauze - Clauses Klauza je grupa rei koja sadri vezu subjekat-glagol za razliku od fraza koje ne sadre vezu subjekat-glagol.
Klauze se dele na: Takoe, dele se i na: Neophodne klauze su kljune za znaenje reenice i ne mogu se izbaciti, jer bi u tom sluaju znaenje reenice bilo promenjeno. All students who do their work should pass easily. Nebitne klauze nisu neophodne za znaenje reenice i mogu se izbaciti iz nje. Obino se odvajaju zarezima ako se nalaze u sredini: Professor Villa, who used to be a secretary for the President, can type words a minute.
Giuseppe said that the plantar wart, which had been bothering him for years, had to be removed. Nezavisne i zavisne klauze Nezavisne klauze mogu stajati samostalno, kao reenica, dok zavisne moraju biti udruene sa nezavisnom klauzom.
Dve nezavisne klauze mogu biti povezane sa: Today is Tuesday and our papers are due Wednesday. I need to study for my test; in fact I am going to the library now. This is one of English classes; Shakespeare is my other. She received the assignment: Zavisne klauze mogu biti: Veina pridevskih klauza poinje sa: Ponekad se ove rei ne moraju nalaziti u reenici ali se podrazumevaju. The book that is on the floor should be returned to the library. Oni kau zato, gde ili pod kojim uslovima se radnja odvijala.
Za razliku od pridevskih klauza, priloke klauze se esto mogu pomerati u reenici. When the timer rings, we know the cake is done. We know the cake is done when the timer rings. Priloke klauze uvek poinju sa zavisnim veznikom, koji uvodi klauzu i izraava njenu vezu sa ostatkom reenice.
When the movie is over, we'll go downtown. John wanted to write a book because he had so much to say about the subject. U reenici funkcioniraju kao subjekat, direktni objekat ili predloki objekat. Imenika klauza obino poinje sa: Takoe, mogu poinjati i sa zavisnim veznicima: What he knows [subjekat] is no concern of mine. Do you know what he knows [objekat]? In fact, he wrote a book about what he had done over the years [objekat predloga]. Whoever wins the game will play in the tournament.
Relativne klauze Relativne klauze relative clauses se zavisne klauze koje dopunjuju menjaju imenice ili zamenice. Uvode se relativnim zamjenicama: Mogu biti neophodne restrictive or essential ili nebitne nonrestrictive or nonessential klauze. U relativnoj klauzi, relativna zamenica je subjekat glagola i odnosi se na neto s im je klauza u vezi. U ovoj reenici podvuene rei ine neophodnu klauzu, s toga nee biti odvojene zarezima.
Nakoena italic slova ine relativnu nebitnu klauzu, zbog ega su odvojene zarezima od ostatka reenice, a u ovom sluaju dopunjuje re "wart" Ponekad relativne klauze mogu da se donose na vie od jedne rei u tekstu, tj. Charlie didn't get the job in administration, which really surprised his friends. Charlie didn't get the job in administration, and he didn't even apply for the Dean's position, which really surprised his friends.
Relativna klauza koja dopunjuje celu klauzu ili vie njih se naziva reenina klauza sentential clause. Eliptine klauze Eliptine klauze elliptical clauses su gramatiki nepotpune, u smislu da im nedostaje relativna zamenica zavisna re koja inae uvodi takvu klauzu. Rei eliptine klauze koje nedostaju se mogu naslutiti iz konteksta i veina italaca ne osea da neto nedostaje.
U stvari, eliptine klauze su tane ali i korisne, jer su esto elegantne i efikasne u izrazu. Coach Espinoza knew [that] this team would be the best [that] she had coached in recent years. Though [they were] sometimes nervous on the court, her recruits proved to be hard workers.
Sometimes the veterans knew the recruits could play better than they [could play]. Kondicionali - The conditionals Kondicional se gradi od pomonog glagola "should" i "would", i infinitiva bez "to" glagola kojeg menjamo. Sadanji kondicional se gradi sa should i would i infinitivom prezenta, a proli kondicional se gradi sa should i would i infinitivom perfekta glagola kojeg menjamo. I should have taken - bio bih uzeo you should have taken - ti bio uzeo itd.
Odrini oblik se gradi tako to se iza should i would stavi "not": I should not take. I should not have taken. Upitni oblik se gradi inverzijom: Sadanji i proli kondicional se koriste pri gradnji pogodbenih reenica. Struktura veine pogodbenih reenica je veoma jednostavna, i izgleda ovako: To znai ako if je odreeni uslov zadovoljen, onda then e doi do neke posledice.
Pogodbene reenice se takoe zovu i kondicionalima, a ponekad ih nazivamo "if reenicama", jer esto ali ne i uvek u njima se upotrebljava re "if". Ovdje e biti obraene tri osnovna tipa kondicionala i tzv. Razmiljamo o nekom uslovu ili situaciji u budunosti, i njenoj posledici. Postoji stvarna mogunost da e se uslov ispuniti. Na primer, jutro je, kod kue ste i planirate igrati tenis popodne. Meutim na nebu se javljaju oblaci, zamislite da pone padati kia. If it rains, I will stay at home.
Treba primetiti da kia jo nije pala, meutim nebo je oblano i postoji realna mogunost real possibility da e kia pasti. Kao to vidite da bi izrazili mogui uslov koristili smo sadanje prosto vreme Present Simple Tense. Za izraavanje mogue posledice koristili smo futur. Najvanije je zapamtiti da kod prvog kondicionala postoji realna mogunost da e se uslov ispuniti.
Ponekad moemo koristiti: If you are good today, you can watch TV tonight. Drugi kondicional - nevjerovatna mogunost Second conditional - unreal possibility or dream Kod drugog kondicionala, kao i kod prvog, razmiljamo o nekom uslovu u budunosti, i rezultatu tog uslova, meutim, za raziliku od prvog kondicionala, ovde ne postoji realna mogunost da e se uslov ispuniti. Na primer: Ali moda ete kupiti listi do veeras, i onda postoji ansa, ali je to neverovatna mogunost, jer su izgledi opet jako mali da izvuku va listi.
I would by a car. Primjetite, da kod drugog kondicionala koristimo prosto prolo vrijeme za izraavanje uslova, a sadanji kondicional za izraavanje eventualne posledice.
Bitna stvar kod drugog kondicionala je da ne postoji realna mogunost da e se uslov ispuniti, tj. Ponekad, umesto glagola would koristimo should, could or might: If I won a million dollars, I could stop working. Trei kondicional - bez mogunosti Third conditional - no possibility Kod prvog i drugog kondicionala govorimo o budunosti, meutim kod treeg govorimo o prolosti, govorimo o uslovu u prolosti koji se nije dogodio.
Zbog toga ne postoji mogunost da se uslov ispuni. Prole sedmice ste kupili loto listi ali niste dobili. If If If If If If uslov sloeno prolo vreme past perfect I had won the lottery I had seen Mary it had rained yesterday Tara had been free yesterday posledica kondicional proli I would have bought a car.
I would have told her. I would have invited her. Da bi smo izrazili uslov u prolosti koji se nije ostvario koristili smo sloeno prolo vreme past perfect , dok za izraavanje posledice koja se nee dogoditi smo koristili kondicional proli. Bitna stvar kod treeg kondicionala je da ne postoji sada nikakva ansa da se uslov i posledica dogode.
Ponekad umesto would have koristimo should have, could have, might have: If you had bought a lottery ticket, you might have won. Nulti kondicional - sigurno ispunjenje uslova Zero conditional - certainty Tzv. Na primer, ako zagrevamo led iznad 0 stepeni on e se poeti topiti. If If If uslov prosto sadanje vreme you heat ice posledica prosto sadanje vreme it melts. Vano je napomenuti da kod nultog kondicionala ne govorimo ni o prolosti, ni o sadanjosti ni o budunosti, ve jednostavno priamo o nekoj opepoznatoj injenici.
Da bi izrazili uslov i posljedicu koristimo prosto sadanje veme. Najvanije kod nultog kondicionala je zapamtiti da uslov ima uvek istu posledicu.
If if If If If uslov prosto sadaenje vreme I miss the 8 o'clock bus I am late for work people don't eat posledica prosto sadanje vreme I am late for work. Takoe, umesto if moemo koristiti when: When I get up late I miss by bus. Kondicionali - ukratko glavna reenica budue vrijeme kondicional sadanji kondicional proli prosto sadanje vrijeme "if" reenica sadanje vrijeme prosto budue vrijeme sloeno prolo vrijeme prosto sadanje vrijeme.
Sledea tabela daje prikaz kondicionala po verovatnosti ispunjenja uslova. Naravno, procenti za prvi i drugi kondicional su dati samo orijentaciono za poreenje. If I won the lottery, I would download a car. If I had won a lottery, I would have bought a car.
Pasiv pokazuje da subjekat ne vri radnju, ve da se radnja vri na subjektu: The road has been repaired. Pasivni oblici se grade tako to se uzme ono vrijeme glagola "to be" koje nam je potrebno i doda se particip proli glagola kojeg menjamo.
To znai, da se pasivni prezent gradi od prezenta glagola "to be" i participa prolog glagola koji menjamo. Aktivnu reenicu moemo pretvoriti u pasivnu ako se glagol stavi u trpno stanje, subjekat aktivne reenice postaje objekat pasivne, i ispred njega se stavlja predlog "by": Everybody drinks water. Water is drunk by everybody. I wrote this letter. This letter was written by me. Trpno stanje se upotrebljava mnogo ee u engleskom jeziku nego u naem, koristi se: My car has been stollen.
She was given a nice birthday present. I have been told that you are engaged. She was said to have left her husband. Mistakes are always made. The "Tower" was written by Mea Selimovi. Roman "Tvrava" je napisana od strane Mee Selimovia The boy was punished by his father. Aleksu je njegova sestra negovala za vreme bolesti Bezlini oblici u naem jeziku kao to su "kae se", "razume se", "podrazumeva se" u engleskom jeziku se iskazuju u treem licu jednine srednjeg roda: Slaganje glagolskih vremena Tabele ispod pokazuju ispravno slaganje vremena u reenicama kod kojih je vreme od vitalnog znaaja.
Vreme u glavnoj reenici Vreme u zavisnoj reenici Da se izrazi istovremena radnja, koristite sadanje prosto vreme. Da se izrazi prola radnja, koristite prosto prolo vreme. Sadanje prosto Simple Present Da se izrazi radnja koja je poela u trenu u prolosti i traje do danas, koristite present perfect.
Da izrazite radnju koja e se desiti, koristite prosto budue vreme. They believe that they have elected the right candidate. Primer I am eager to go to the concert because I love the Wallflowers. I know that I made the right choice. Da izrazite drugu zavrenu radnju, koristite prosto prolo vreme.
Prosto prolo vreme Simple Past Da izrazite radnju koja se desila prije druge radnje koristite past perfect. Da izrazite ope poznatu injenicu koristite sadanje vreme. She has grown a foot since she turned nine. The crowd had turned nasty before the sheriff returned. Da izrazite istovremenu radnju koristite sadanje vreme.
Da izrazite radnju koja se desila ranije, koristite prolo vreme. Da se izrazi radnja u budunosti koja e se desiti prije radnje u nezavisnoj reenici, koristite prezent perfekt. I will be so happy if they fix my car today. You will surely pass this exam if you studied hard. The college will probably close its doors next summer if enrollments have not increased Most students will have taken sixty credits by the time they graduate.
Most students will have taken sixty credits by the time they have graduated. Slaganje vremena sa infinitivima i participima Infinitiv Vreme infinitiva Uloga infinitiva Primer Coach Espinoza is eager to try out her new drills.
Participi Vreme participa Prezent participa Present of Participle, seeing Uloga participa Da se izrazi radnja koja se deava u isto vreme kada i glagol. Primeri Working on the fundamentals, the team slowly began to improve. Having experimented with several game plans, the coaching staff devised a master strategy. Prepared by last year's experience, the coach knows not to expect too much. Sadanje vreme 3.
Sadanje prosto vreme - Simple Present Tense Sadanje vreme svih glagola obrazuje se tako da se uz glagolska vremena uvek stavljaju line zamenice. Jedino se tree lice jednine prezenta razlikuje od ostalih lica, jer dobija nastavak "-s" ili "-es", osim glagola: Nastavak "-s" za sadanje vreme izgovara se kao "s" ako dolazi iza bezvunog suglasnika, ili "z" ako dolazi iza zvunog suglasnika ili samoglasnika: Glagoli koji se zavravaju na s, x, z, sh i ch obrazuju tree lice nastavkom jednine nastavkom "-es": Glagoli koji se u infinitivu zavravaju na "-y", kad pred tim "y" stoji suglasnik, menjaju "y" u "i", u treem licu jednine: Odrini oblik sadanjeg vremena pravi se tako to se uzme sadanje vreme pomonog glagola "to do", pa se zatim doda negacija "not" i infinitiv glagola koji se menja, bez predloga "to": I write ja piem - I do not write, I don't write Upitni oblik sadanjeg vremena pravi se tako pravi se tako to se uzme sadanje vreme pomonog glagola "to do" u inverziji i infinitiv glagola koji se mijenja, bez prijedloga "to".
You write ti pie Do you write? Sadanje prosto vreme se upotrebljava: I write ja piem , I work ja radim ; da potvrdi jednu poznatu istinu: I always rise early uvek ustajem rano ; da oznai radnju koja se ponavlja: I have an English lesson three times a week imam as engleskog tri puta sedmino.
I am speaking you are speaking he, she, it is speaking we are speaking you are speaking they are speaking. Present participle se pravi dodavanjem glagolu nastavka "-ing". Meutim, ponekad moramo malo promeniti re, verovatno udvostruiti ili izostaviti jedno slovo. Ako se glagol zavrava na: Present Continuous Tense sadanje trajno vreme se upotrebljava: I am learning English now. Meutim, radnja se ne mora odvijati tano sada, ali se deavala neto ranije i moda e se deavati poslije trenutka kada o njoj govorimo: She is reading a book.
Ona moda ne ita knjigu tano sada. The Sun is rising constantly. Sunce izlazi svaki dan You are always complaining about your mother-in-law. I'm meeting my girlfriend tonight. Lista glagola koji se veinom koriste u "simple" formi: I can see This coat feels nice and warm. Don se osea mnogo bolje sada, njegovo zdravlje se poboljava ; She has three dogs and a cat. I'm seeing Anthony later. Kada bi smo rekli kada se radnja odvija morali bismo upotrebiti prolo vreme past simple tense.
Sloeno sadanje vreme se koristi: This website has been in existence for 5 years, 10 months, and 20 days. I have been to Novi Sad this week. I have buoght a car. Have you ever been to Serbia? The guests have just entered the hall. Amerikanci ne koriste sloeno sadanje vreme toliko kao Britanci. Amerikanci ee upotrebljavaju prolo vreme umesto sloenog sadanjeg vremena.
Amerikanac bi rekao: I haven't called you haven't called he, she, it hasn't called we haven't called you haven't called they haven't called. Have I been playing? Odrini oblik se pravi dodavanjem rei "not": I have not been playing. Kada piemo present continous, esto se upotrebljavaju skraenice: I have been - I've been itd.
Present Perfect Continous Tense koristimo: I obino imamo sada imamo neku posledicu: I'm tired because I've been running. I'm tired because I've running. Has it been raining? You don't understand because you haven't been listening. I've been reading for two hours. Kako je ranije napomenuto uz present perfect continuous esto koristimo "for" i "since". For koristimo kada priamo o razdoblju vremena: Ako to razdoblje see do sadanjeg trenutka upotrebljavamo uz for perfekt, a ako je to razdoblje zavreno moramo upotrebiti past simple preterit.
Tara hasn't been feeling well for two weeks. Tara se nije dobro oseala ve Tara se ne osea dobro ve dve sedmice. Since koristimo kada znamo od koje vremenske take se odvija radnja: I've been studying for three hours. I've been watching TV since 7pm. Tara hasn't been visiting us since March. I have not been calling have not been calling he, she, it has not been calling have not been calling you have not been calling they have not been calling have I been calling?
She played basketball last week. Mary did not go to work last Monday. Did he watch TV last night. Glagol did preterit od "do" u svim licima ima isti oblik. I did not go to London. You did not go to London. He did not go to London. Glagol be nema u svim licima isti oblik, upitnu reenicu pravimo zamenom subjekta i glagola. I, he, she, it was here. You were here. Ako glagol zavrava na suglasnik ispred kojeg stoji kratak naglaen vokal, krajnji samoglasnik se udvostruava: I was in Liverpool last year.
We went to school when we were children. It's time they were back. The policeman told me I drove to much. I didn't call you didn't call he, she, it didn't call we didn't call you didn't call they didn't call.
She was reading. We were playing. Odrini oblik se pravi dodavanjem reice not: She was not reading - She wasn't reading. Upitni oblik se pravi inverzijom: Was she playing?
Were we playing? Nesvreni preterit se upotrebljava:. Obino pria poinje nesvrenim preteritom, a zatim se nastavlja prolim vremenom, npr: It was raining. The wind was blowing hard. Nobody was walking in the streets. Suddenly, Bond saw the killer in a telephone box I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm clock rang. I was going to spend the day at the beach but I've decided to go on an excursion instead. The children were playing while their mothers were chatting.
I knew that he was talking to her about her daughter. Past Perfect Tense pluperfekt se upotrebljava: We had left home before he came. We arrived at 9. The train had left when we arrived.
Mi smo stigli u 9 i Voz je bio otiao kada smo mi stigli. I was not hungry. I had just eaten. I had never seen him before.
U ovom primeru past perfect je upotrebljen u indirektnom govoru umesto past simple u direktnom. He got a headache after he had washed his hair. I wish I had met you before. Past Perfect Continuous upotrebljava se da bi se oznaila radnja koja je trajala u prolosti prije neke druge prole radnje: Ram started waiting at 9am.
I arrived at 11am. When I arrived, Ram had been waiting for two hours. Ram had been waiting for two hours when I arrived. Ja sam stigao u 11 sati. John was very tired. John je bio veoma umoran, trao je cele veeri I could smell cigarettes. Past Perfect Continous se takoe upotrebljava u indirektnom govoru umesto trajnog oblika prolog vremena past continous tense u direktnom govoru.
Peter said: Peter said that some of his friends had been playing cards all night. U prvom licu jednine i mnoine umesto glagola will, moe se koristiti glagol shall, meutim u modernom engleskom will se vie koristi od shall: I shall call - we shall call ja u zvati - mi emo zvati.
I had not been calling you had not been calling he, she, it had not been calling we had not been calling you had not been calling they had not been calling. Prosto budue vreme se upotrebljava da bi oznaila radnja koja e se desiti u budunosti. Prostobudue vreme se naroito esto upotrebljava posle glagola koji oznaavaju oekivanje, nadu itd. Takoe se koristi da bi se izrazila namera, odluka, pretnja ili obeanje. I hope we will have better luck next day.
I expect that he will come tomorrow. I will help her because she is beautiful. I will not call you will not call he, she, it will not call we will not call you will not call they will not call.
Trajno budue vreme oznaava radnju koja e trajati izvesno vreme u budunosti. At 4pm tomorrow, I will be working. Kada koristimo budue trajno vreme, na slualac obino zna ili razume u koje vreme se radnja odvija. I will be playing tennis at 10am tomorrow. I won't be calling you won't be calling he, she, it won't be calling we won't be calling you won't be calling they won't be calling.
The train will leave the station at 9am. You will arrive at the station at 9. When you arrive the rain will have left. Voz dolazi u stanicu u 9 sati. Vi stiete u stanicu u 9 i Voz e otii kada vi stignete. Voz odlazi u 9 sati. Ovo vreme takoer izraava i radnju koja e se desiti i zavriti do odreenog vremena u budunosti: They will have left the Parlament by 12 o'clock.
I will not have called you will not have called he, she, it will not have called we will not have called you will not have called they will not have called. Kada koristimo predbudue trajno vreme obino saimamo contract subjekat i pomoni glagol will: I will - I'll you will - you'll itd.
Kod odrinih reenica saimamo glagol will i reicu not: A less important person is introduced to a more important person. A younger couple is introduced to an older couple.
An untitled person is introduced to a titled person; For example, "Mr. Use titles, unless requested not to, such as in the case of a doctor.
For people who live together, give each person's full name - no explanation need be given. For husbands and wives with different names, introduce the wife first and give their full names. For example, "Anne Walker and her husband John Smith". If you forget someone's name, apologize briefly and wait for the persons involved to volunteer their names.
If you are uncertain how to pronounce someone's name ask them for the correct pronunciation prior to introducing them if possible. If you are introduced to someone and you do not hear the name clearly, simply ask them to repeat it. Introducing Yourself There are occasions in which you need to introduce yourself. For example if you are meeting new colleagues, associates or clients. If you have previously been introduced to someone do not assume that they will remember you.
Be prepared to reintroduce yourself should it be necessary. Shaking Hands When you are introduced to someone you should always stand and shake hands and make eye contact. A handshake is the physical greeting that accompanies the verbal introduction.
Not shaking hands could be perceived as a sign of rejection and could be very insulting to the other person. A handshake should be firm but not bone crushing. You should grip the other person's hand so that the web of your thumbs meet. Shake hands a couple of times being sure to perform the motion from the elbow not from the shoulder. If you are wearing gloves you should remove them before shaking hands.
Some of the situations in which you should shake hands: When meeting a person for the first time or when saying good-bye When greeting a host or hostess or being introduced to someone When ending a transaction or leaving a business or social event. If name tags are worn, they should be placed on the right shoulder.
The reason for this is that most people are right handed and when people shake hands, using their right hand, this is where the eye can best see the name tag and the name of the person. If you are leading a meeting and the people at the meeting do not know each other, or even if only a few are not acquainted it is advisable to conduct introductions.
It is most efficient to have people introduce themselves, stating their role or position. You also have the option of introducing those present. If you do so introduce them by name and provide some additional information as their position, role or the reason they are in attendance.
Business Card Etiquette It is essential to have a supply of business cards on hand at all times. They should be in a place that is easy to reach so you don't have to hunt or fumble for them when you need one.
If you are going to be at a meeting or event where you expect you may want to have them available place a few in your jacket pocket, or in a convenient location in your purse. Always have business cards that are clean, neat and accurate.
If you have more than one business, have more than one card and have them filed separately so you can easily find the one you need.
Old, dog-eared business cards with information crossed out or corrected by hand do not portray a professional impression. Present your business card face up and turned so that the person you are giving it to can read it.
Be selective in distributing business cards, don't hand them out as if you were dealing out a pack of cards. Give them to people who express an interest in yours or who offer you theirs. If someone offers you their card don't turn it down. If you don't want it you can always dispose of it later. If you ask for someone's card and they don't want to provide one to you, if you sincerely have a reason for wanting one explain your purpose or let the matter drop. Most people, when they are handed a business card simply slip it into their pocket or folder without looking at it.
When handed a business card, take the time to read it. Say the name of the person out loud to check that you have the correct pronunciation. If you are uncertain of the pronunciation ask them to pronounce it for you. Make note of the company name and the title and if possible comment on previous experience you have had with the company or ask something about the person's company or position there to show your interest.
In addition to using your business card as a means of introduction you can also include it along with business correspondence. The most important point about introductions is - to make them! Introductions are important aspects of our daily business life, make sure to do it right. Always stand for introductions, everyone should stand up to greet new colleagues, associates or clients. In an office, always stand up and come around from behind the desk to greet visitors. Failing to do so causes embarrassment and discomfort.
We prefer better to make an incorrect introduction instead of none, even if you forgot their name, rather than stand there unacknowledged and disregarded. Another important point in any introduction is the order of names. The name of the person being introduced is mentioned last, and the person to whom the introduction is made is mentioned first.
Business Introductions are based on power and hierarchy. Simply, persons of lesser authority are introduced to persons or greater authority.
Gender plays no role in business etiquette; nor does it affect the order of introductions. Responding to Introductions is just as important as making the introduction.
In response to informal introductions, 15 simply say "hello". Add "How do you do? Do not use the first names until the person to who you've been introduced has indicated that the familiarity is preferred. Do's and Dont's of Business Introductions 1. Be prepared Always have a handful with you to present to potential clients or other business associates, even on the weekends. Make sure they are clean and crisp with no frayed edges or pen marks.
You'll find that many important contacts and business card exchanges can take place in the most unlikely places. Local restaurants often hang a bulletin board near the front counter for business cards to be posted.
They're offering you free advertising, so be ready to take advantage. Make it a point to hand out business cards It doesn't take a large convention to bring customers and business owners together. Informal meetings are one of the best times to network and exchange business cards. If the person you are speaking with seems interested in your product or service you represent, offer that person a business card. Exchange business cards smoothly When you first meet someone, it's ok to request a business card from them provided you have offered yours first.
If the person is of a higher position than yourself, you should wait for them to offer their card to you first. Remember if they want you to have a card, they will give you one! Only give one business card to your new contact. Leaving two or three may give the signa1 that you want them to make contacts for you which is tacky and unprofessional.
Unless a prior agreement is made to exchange more than one card, keep the focus on person to-person contact. Receiving a business card properly When accepting a business card, have a good look at it for a few seconds. In your conversation, offer a compliment about the logo, design, etc. Place the business card you receive in a planner or notebook or on the table in front of you.
Never place the card in a wallet that will be put in your back pocket. Inefficient, unproductive meetings may be the single biggest time waster in both business and government.
In one poll, 90 percent of managers said half the meetings they attended were either unnecessary or a complete waste of time. While nobody loves them, meetings are an inescapable part of the modern workplace.