English for academic purposes an advanced resource book


download English for Academic Purposes: An Advanced Resource Book (Routledge Applied Linguistics) 1 by Ken Hyland (ISBN: ) from site's. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES Routledge Applied Linguistics is a series of comprehensive resource books, providing students and researchers with. Routledge Applied Linguistics is a series of comprehensive resource books, providing students and researchers with the support they need for advanced study.

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English For Academic Purposes An Advanced Resource Book

English for Academic Purposes: An Advanced Resource Book (Routledge Applied Linguistics) [Paperback] [] 1 Ed. Ken Hyland on terney.info * FREE*. Written by an experienced teacher and researcher in the field, English for Academic Purposes is an essential resource for students and researchers of Applied. English for academic purposes: An advanced resource book. London: Routledge. Pp. , $ (paper). Article in Canadian Modern Language Review/ La.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Tira Nur Fitria. Each book in the series guides readers through three main sections, enabling them to explore and develop major themes within the discipline. This enables readers to engage more actively with the subject matter and encourages them to develop their own research responses. English for Academic Purposes: He has written or edited over publications and co-edits the Journal of Applied Linguistics. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. English for academic purposes:

Such experiences underline for students that writing and reading are not homo- geneous and transferable skills which students can take with them as they move across different courses and assignments.

This means that some literacies, such as those concerned with legal, scientific and political domains, for example, become more dominant and important than others.

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The complexity and prestige of certain professional academic literacies work to exclude many individuals, preventing their access to academic success or membership of academic communities. Gee Discourses are connected with displays of identity — failing to display an identity fully is tantamount to announcing you do not have that identity — at best you are a pretender or a beginner.

Academic success means representing yourself in a way valued by your discipline, adopting the values, beliefs and identities which academic discourses embody. This approach therefore builds on the socialization perspective to take a more critical view of the extent to which we can see disciplines as uncontested, homo- geneous institutional practices and power as equally distributed.

This concerns the ways language used in particular circumstances is influenced by the social structures, the institutional and disciplinary ideologies and the social expectations which surround those immediate circumstances. These issues will be taken up in relation to academic activity in Unit A1.

In those contexts activities are focused less on the individual than on the transactions and collaborations of working in teams and groups, and for second-language speakers often with less engagement with native English- speaker interlocutors and texts. One major difference between instruction for academic and workplace contexts is that there is less consensus on the skills, language and communicative behaviours required in this world St John, It is also possible that text expectations may be linked not only with the values and conventions of particular discourse communities but with either national or corporate contexts e.

Garcez, , so that communication strategies, status relationships and cultural differences are likely to impact far more on successful interaction Thralls and Blyler, ; Pogner, These are among the key issues which are emerging as important challenges for EAP professionals. A third issue which shapes and confronts EAP is the consequences of the dominance that English has assumed in higher education and research throughout the world.

This growth has, inevitably, been at the expense of other languages Balduf and Jernudd, so that now more than 90 per cent of the journal literature in some scientific domains is printed in English and the most prestigious and cited journals are in English.

These developments are largely the result of historical circumstances, particularly the legacy of US and British colonialism, the expansion of a single market across the world, and the promotion of English by US and UK governments and private companies. Phillipson , for instance, has charted the role of political and economic interests in making English-language teaching a multi-billion-dollar industry.

The increase in the number of world organizations, transnational corpo- rations and the internet has accelerated this process in recent years Gray, and its growth in higher education has been particularly dramatic, changing the conditions under which language learning takes place.

Commenting on the political and economic roots of EAP, Benesch SECTION A conferences, publications, and faculty exchanges, ensuring that markets and labor would be available to promote their economic interests.

These developments have been accompanied by an enormous expansion of second- language speakers studying academic subjects in English around the world. By the early s, for example, foreign nationals outnumbered American students studying science and engineering in US graduate schools Jenkins et al. At the same time, the expansion of higher education in postcolonial territories such as Hong Kong, South Africa, India and Singapore has meant that more teachers are using English as a medium of instruction.

Fee-paying foreign students are increasingly important to universities in the anglophone world to compensate for shortfalls in government funding. This dependence on generating income from students has led to plans by the leading UK institutions to restrict admissions of home students to accommodate more international students Henry, , and so perhaps inevitably increasing the demand for EAP provision.

Task A3. Is the growth of English as the international language of academic communication a force for expanding participation in global knowledge networks or a means of restricting such access and tying it to vested corporate and academic interests? What arguments might persuade you of the opposite view to your own?

The first concern is the loss of linguistic diversity. English has superseded Russian as the academic language of the old Eastern bloc since the Cold War, Swedish has virtually disappeared in academic publications Swales, and there is evidence that many doctoral students internationally are completing their Ph.

With libraries increasingly encouraged to subscribe to online versions of journals, the impact of English-language journals becomes self-perpetuating as it is in these periodicals that authors will be most visible on the world stage and receive the most credit for recognition and promotion.

They are also likely to find their English-language publications are cited more often. References to English-language publications, for example, have reached 85 per cent in French science journals Navarro, and, more generally, English makes up over 95 per cent of all publications in the Science Citation Index. Clearly a lingua franca facilitates the exchange of ideas and the dissemination of knowledge far more effectively than a polyglot system is able to, but equally there is a danger that many L2 writers may be excluded from the web of global scholarship Gibbs, , so depriving the world of knowledge developed outside the metropolitan, and anglophone, centres of research.

There is evidence, however, which strongly points in the opposite direction. The Science Citation Index, for instance, has been criticized for a bias towards English- language journals and, in particular, to those published in the US. Swales Similarly, Tomkins et al. In other words, while research may be largely communicated through English, it is increasingly coming from countries where English is a foreign language. Perhaps more serious barriers to research visibility are the structural divisions between the advantaged northern and disadvantaged southern hemispheres Wood, These difficulties are compounded by the need to pay for appearance in some journals, especially in the sciences.

It is important to recognize, however, that cost is still a limiting factor for libraries in many parts of the world. Another challenge is that of the rhetorical standards demanded by editors, referees and other gatekeepers who frequently reject non-standard varieties Flowerdew, ; Gosden, Second-language academics often lack confidence in their ability to meet these standards, and in many disciplines editors insist on having submissions vetted by native English-speakers, often requiring writers to pay editors to correct or rewrite their prose before it is accepted.

Clearly EAP has a major role to play here in assisting academics in developing the rhetorical skills they need to publish their work in English.

Ken Hyland

Perhaps more immediately relevant for EAP teachers, English can also have potentially negative consequences for students as they find it hard to bridge the domains of English in the classroom and their vernacular language in everyday life. Tardy similarly found that L2 post- graduate science students felt frustrated at having to spend time mastering a second language to communicate in English.

The task of teachers is to bridge these linguistic worlds, not by privileging the home literacy of learners against the literacy of academic study, but by helping them to see the discourses of academic engagement as central to the study of their disciplines. They see it as a movement towards a common language for science which allows individuals to enter networks beyond their locality Graddol, and which facilitates the worldwide exchange of ideas and growth of knowledge Glaze, For other writers, the spread of English is an insidious and destructive force, eliminating other languages, imposing the cultural dominance of the nations which speak it, and straitjacketing L2 academics into the rhetorical conventions of a single variety.

Is English a way for countries and individual scholars to move into global academic and research forums or a Trojan horse of imperialist values and interests perpetuating reliance? While the case for diversity may seem self-evident, there are obvious problems in institutionalizing a plurality of languages as an academic lingua franca, as the majority of languages will obvi- ously still be excluded.

Nor should we assume that only native speakers of English have the expertise to participate in academic forums. Clearly, a more nuanced view is necessary to understand what is a complex situation. As Wallace While local language and literacies tend to serve horizontal, contingent and solidary functions, global English spans a wider range of contexts, and has universal applicability and resonance.

SECTION A In academic contexts, therefore, the use of English means that language is no longer a barrier to knowledge as ever larger numbers of people can access the products of research and participate in networks which go beyond the local. As the language of globalization English can be said to empower its users Pakir, The fact that non-native speakers of English now outnumber native speakers Firth, This is referred to as English as a Lingua franca ELF , a variety of English which does not assume adherence to all anglo communication conventions and where traditional native- speakerness holds no advantages.

What matters is clarity and comprehensibility and L1 English speakers may need to adjust their language to new norms of international academic communication. While we may be cautious of seeing English as eventually becoming a universal, culture-free language which privileges no particular group, it is not the case that languages are abstract and monolithic, imposing homogeneous ideologies and identities on passive users.

Canagarajah calls such a deterministic view a reproduction orientation. He contrasts this with a resistance perspective which: The intention is not to reject English, but to reconstitute it in more inclusive, ethical, and democratic terms. Canagarajah, We cannot see English as a hermetically sealed system unconnected with social, political and cultural issues, but equally it is unhelpful to regard EAP teachers as the unwitting agents of colonialist reconstruction.

The final issue in this theme is also central to the nature of EAP, influencing how we understand and practise it. It follows closely from the themes discussed above, particularly in Unit A2 and the issue of whether EAP should be concerned with skills, disciplinary socialization or literacy practices.

Here we are concerned with the ethics of EAP and the charge that in helping learners to develop their academic communicative competence we reinforce conformity to an unexamined educational and social order.

Task A4. What arguments might you use to persuade someone of each position?

As we have noted earlier, this has typically been seen as one of the core principles of EAP: It urges teachers to investigate contexts and learners to make decisions about what to include in their syllabus, what readings and tasks to set and how to deliver their classes. A pragmatic orientation to teaching ensures that action is informed by understanding Widdowson, , so that curricular decisions are underpinned by a sensitivity to the contexts of teaching and to the most urgent needs of learners.

Students and academics alike are judged by their control of the discourses of their disciplines: EAP teachers recognize that there are dangers in this approach. Prestigious genres are often associated with precedent and proper procedure and this means that they represent an elite of expertise and power.

But while academic study privileges certain ways of making meanings and marginalizes others, this is a large part of what disciplinary engagement and participation in the work of an academic community actually mean. Ideas are negotiated within discoursal constraints which help define the boundaries of disciplines and establish valid contributions and argument.

We can also argue, however, that an understanding of the genres of the powerful not only provides access to those genres, and so redistributes valued literacy resources, but also allows users to see how they represent the interests of the powerful Christie, ; Hyland, A pragmatic stance does not, therefore, exclude criticism or imply conformity Allison, How far are you, as an EAP teacher, responsible for students to understand their learning in this way?

Of particular interest in EAP is the idea of critical language awareness, as this aims to: Clark and Ivanic, Critical theorists such as Benesch and Pennycook , in Section B argue that there is a political quietism in the EAP literature.

Pennycook A critical approach thus involves questioning these goals and practices, as Benesch There are clearly two issues here: In some ways it might be more helpful to treat them separately as a way of moving forward to explore the most effective and nuanced ways of harnessing critical activity and creating an independent EAP.

One aspect of a critical approach is consideration of the wider context of culture in which EAP operates: So by pro- viding students with socially authorized ways of communicating, critical theorists argue that the genres we teach buttress disciplinary hierarchies and promote the values of powerful social groups by reinforcing particular social roles and relation- ships between writers and readers.

What do you think are the most important of these for your own context and what kinds of tasks, topics and instructional approaches might best address them? Some of the criticisms of EAP practice seem far too broad and sweeping, ignoring the fact that EAP is not a single monolithic ideology or set of assumptions but a plurality of practices and possibilities in different contexts. Many practitioners already take an inquiring attitude towards the activities of the disciplines and content courses and encourage such questioning among their students.

Clearly, such broadly theoretical arguments continue to need classroom situated exploration. Allison , for instance, points to the struggles that teachers often face in their institutions, and, despite their often vulnerable working conditions, many EAP teachers try to engage with a variety of critical issues in helping learners to under- stand texts and disciplines and to improve the conditions of their learning.

They acknowledge that students often take a pragmatic view of their studies, yet at the same time hear them complain about the apparently arbitrary conventions of academic writing, of the vagueness of course assignments, of the obscurity of their readings and of the lack of fit between their home and academic experiences.

Clearly critique requires understanding, and Johns suggests various ethno- graphic explorations that students can undertake to gain this understanding by exploring their own courses and faculty practices. Students can, for example, interview subject tutors on their reasons for selecting certain readings, textbooks, assignment topics or assessment procedures, or they can ask lecturers about their writing preferences, teaching practices, professional experiences and beliefs about the discipline.

In addition, it is often possible for students to participate in the negotiation of classroom pedagogies to take greater control of their learning experience Breen and Littlejohn, ; Canagarajah, or for teachers to engage learners in a critical dialogue about topics or teaching Benesch, These issues will be taken up in Unit A3.

At postgraduate level, Cadman offers ways that EAP teachers can question dominance in research education by opening discussions with supervisors, giving greater responsibility to learners and establishing a co-operative EAP classroom. These strategies rely on reconceptualizing the roles of teacher, learner and classroom through a structured process of individual and group activities to gradually take up management of their own learning.

This is achieved by articulating and prioritizing their personal situations and goals and by negotiating with EAP staff, their super- visors and their classmates for an appropriate curriculum, thereby foregrounding and debating issues of power, authority and ownership of knowledge. Learning about genres does not preclude critical analysis. In fact it provides a necessary basis for critical engagement with cultural and textual practices, as Hammond and Macken-Horarik Systematic discussion of language choices in text construction and the development of metalanguage — that is, of functional ways of talking and thinking about language — facilitates critical analysis.

It helps students see written texts as constructs that can be discussed in quite precise and explicit ways and that can therefore be analysed, compared, criticised, deconstructed, and reconstructed. Understanding how texts are socially constructed and ideologically shaped reveals the ways they work to represent some interests and perspectives and neglect others. By focusing on the literacy practices writers encounter at school, at work and at university, EAP pedagogies help them to distinguish differences and provide them with a means of understanding their educational experiences in relation to their home experiences.

It undermines a view of writing as a universal, naturalized and non-contestable way of participating in communities so that what appear as dominant and superior forms of writing can be seen as simply different practices, thereby opening them to scrutiny and challenge.

Providing learners with ways of talking about language and how it works as communication in particular contexts can therefore assist them with the means of both communicating effectively in writing and of analysing texts critically.

Teachers are responsible professionals, not simply technicians applying procedures. They pursue wider curriculum development in the contexts in which they work and contribute their expertise to understand the social, conceptual and communicative demands that their students face. They recognize that their students often have pragmatic goals yet encourage them to greater critical awareness of the discourses they use.

The greater challenge is applying this in practice — reconstructing pedagogy to engage with and promote this more critical stance.

In other words, even though the educational and social issues surrounding EAP classrooms are complex and often hostile to innovation and critique, they can be places of awareness and change while meeting learning and subject course objectives. Are there, for instance, particular texts you might use to help learners consider the wider role of their discipline or its practices? Are there tasks or assignments which might help to encourage such a view? We have noted that while language is often understood, in the EGAP and skills views of EAP, for example, as a transparent and autonomous system, this fails to account for how language is actually used by individuals acting in social contexts.

The concepts of literacies, referring to language use as something people do when they interact with one another, and practices, the idea that these language activities are bound up with routine, everyday activities in the real world, provide ways of re-establishing this link. This means looking more closely at the ways individuals participate in academic life and the theoretical and analytical tools we use to understand these forms of participation.

The sections focus on the following key issues: Why are they plural forms and what are the consequences of this plurality for EAP teachers? What counts as a worthwhile study, an effective argument and adequate evidence all depends on the disciplinary community the student is acting in. Because knowledge produced by the academy is cast largely in written language, variation in spoken genres such as lectures, seminars, peer discussions and con- ference presentations across disciplines has tended to be neglected until recently Hyland, This unit introduces these issues.

It involves learning a specialized discourse for reading and writing, for presenting orally, for reasoning and problem solving, and for carrying out practical research activities.

The key concepts of a discipline, its methods of persuasion, its ways of negotiating interpretations and its practices of constructing knowledge are all defined through and by language. Learning a discipline thus means learning to communicate as a member of a community. Student communication is at the centre of this activity, as learning is largely mediated through written language, and con- trol of disciplinary writing has important consequences.

This is the main way that students consolidate their learning in a subject area, the means by which tutors judge the extent students have understood material, and the main instrument for assessing success or failure.

They create, or construct, knowledge itself by securing community agreement for claims Bruffee, ; Geertz, The view that knowledge is created through the discourses of social communities has its roots in the theory of social constructivism. In other words, our knowledge does not result from objective descriptions of what the world is really like, but emerges in part through our perceptions of that world during our interactions.

No matter how careful our experiments or rigorous our armchair reasoning, they always involve interpretation, and interpretation always depends, at least in part, on the assumptions researchers bring to the problem they are studying. As the physicist Stephen Hawking Persuasive potency is not grounded in rationality, exacting method- ologies, dispassionate observation or informed reflection as there will always be more than one plausible interpretation of any piece of data.

These competing interpretations shift attention from what happens in the lab or the library to what happens on the page. Social constructivism thus sees the agreement of community members at the heart of knowledge construction, and the language used to reach that agreement as central to the success of both students and academics.

Task A5. This means that successful academic writing and speaking means projecting a shared context, and as we have become more sensitive to the ways language is used by individuals acting in social groups, the concept of community has become a key idea in EAP. This community-based orientation to literacy focuses on the importance of writing and speaking, and learning to write and speak, as an insider of the community one wishes to engage with.

The concept of community draws attention to the idea that we use language to communicate not only with the world at large, but with other members of our social groups, each one with its own norms, categorizations, sets of conventions and modes of inquiry Bartholomae, Barton A discourse community is a group of people who have texts and practices in common, whether it is a group of academics, or the readers of teenage magazines.

In fact, discourse community can refer to the people the text is aimed at; it can be the people who read a text; or it can refer to the people who participate in a set of discourse practices both by reading and writing.

Is, for example, a student cohort, a university department, a specialism or a discipline the best example of a community? Are they, in other words, local and made up of people who regularly work together or global and composed of those who have a commit- ment to particular actions and discourses.

The idea of a disciplinary community, for instance, suggests a relatively dispersed group of like-minded individuals, while Swales has more recently opted for a narrower version in his idea of place discourse communities.

This draws attention to groups who regularly work together and have a sense of their common roles, purposes, discourses and history.

Essentially, it draws together a number of key aspects of context that are crucial to the ways spoken and written discourse is produced and understood. Cutting These community conventions both restrict how something can be said and authorize the writer as someone competent to say it.

But the concept also has its critics. Some see it as a static and deterministic notion which overemphasizes conformity to shared values and practices and ignores diversity and conflict e. Prior, In fact, discourse communities are not monolithic but hybrid, often inhabited by varied values and discourses and by individuals with diverse experiences, interests and influence. The experiences of many multilingual students, for example, point to the stress which can be created in shuttling between home and academic communities Canagarajah, But this diversity is inherent in all groups and need not create antagonisms and tensions.

We are typically members of several communities simultaneously — of the home, the workplace and of the academy — and so our commitment to them and partic- ipation in them can vary tremendously.

The idea of community therefore remains useful, but vague. Nor, as Swales reminds us, does a community have to be supportive, congenial or democratic, although the most dysfunctional ones are likely to collapse. How central is your participation in each one? Try to draw a sociometric diagram with you in the middle. This may help you to see how these communities of which you are a member overlap. Through repeated experiences we develop preferred genres and patterns of communicating which come to seem natural and automatic.

We gradu- ally gain control of the genres and communicative practices we take part in by actually engaging in those genres and practices, remembering what genres are best suited to achieve which purposes and how they are set out to best say what we want to say. This kind of knowledge is sometimes referred to by literacy theorists as a schema, or system for storing and retrieving past knowledge. It includes knowledge about particular text features, about how a genre is used, about the contexts it occurs in, and about the roles and values associated with it.

This allows us to participate in particular real-world communicative events. Language and learning are therefore closely bound up with culture.

This is partly because our cultural values are carried through language, but also because cultures make available certain taken-for-granted ways of organizing our under- standings, including those we use to learn and communicate. In other words, they involve interpretation as well as performance Such differences potentially include the following: By recognizing these potential differences teachers can ensure their classroom expectations, teaching practices and assessment procedures are fair and effective.

Ballard and Clanchy point out that these attitudes spread along a continuum from respecting knowledge to valuing its extension. Educational processes in Western contexts reinforce an analytical, questioning and evaluative stance to knowledge, encouraging students to criticize and recombine existing sources to dispute traditional wisdom and form their own points of view.

Many Asian cultures, however, favour conserving and reproducing existing knowledge, establishing reverence for what is known through strategies such as memorization and imitation. So by ignoring cultural considerations, teachers may see this as plagiarism or repetition, and be misled into recasting such respect for knowledge as copying e.

Pennycook, or as naive and immature writing. One potential problem area is that of peer review. Carson and Nelson Are these factors only likely to impact the writing of L2 students? How might you accommodate these differences in your teaching and assessments? Connor, ; Hinkel, In a review of seventy-two studies comparing research into first- and second- language writing, for example, Silva These conclusions have been supported by a range of studies comparing features of academic genres across cultures, producing the generalization that, compared with other languages, Anglo-American academic English tends to: It is unwise, however, to attribute all aspects of L2 performance to L1 writing practices.

There is a tendency in this research to identify cultures with national entities, thus emphasizing a predictable sharedness within cultures and differences across them e. Atkinson, Students have identities beyond the language and culture they were born into and we should avoid the tendency to stereotype them according to cultural dichotomies.

We cannot simply read off cultural preferences from the surface of texts: Students are not merely cultural types and it is perhaps a major task of EAP teachers to disabuse subject teachers of such assumptions. Teachers can take a number of different insights from contrastive rhetoric.

This encourages us to see the effects of different practices where we might otherwise only see individual inadequacies. Essentially, genre is a term for grouping texts together, representing how writers typically use language to respond to recurring situations. This is because writing and speaking are based on expectations: This unit introduces some of the key ideas of genre in EAP teaching and research, beginning with a brief characterization of the term. Now group them in various ways, such as whether they are spoken or written, their degree of formality, similarity of purposes, type of audience, etc.

Similarly, analysts have opted to examine either the actions of individuals as they create particular texts or the distribution of particular features across a range of texts to see genres as collections of rhetorical choices Hyland, One way of characterizing genres is in terms of the ways broad social purposes are systematically linked with context through lexical and grammatical features Christie and Martin, Parentheses indicate an optional stage.

SECTION Introduction A seen as narratives, recounts, arguments and expositions, and each genre is composed of a series of stages which contribute to the overall purpose of the genre. Table A6. Thus a research article might comprise several elemental genres such as an exposition, a discussion and a rebuttal.

This allows teachers to gradually expose students to more complex ways of expressing a genre. A procedure, for instance, consists of a series of steps which shows how to achieve a goal and may be based on simple imperative clauses using familiar action verbs and everyday objects.

Explanations, on the other hand, are more demanding because they typically require students to use sequential, causal and conditional conjunctions. Each genre in Table 6.

Hyland k 2006 english for academic purposes an

Not only are these kinds of meanings more highly valued in academic settings, but students need to draw on more complex resources to write them effectively.

But because genres are seen as guiding frameworks rather than recurring linguistic structures, these theorists are sceptical about their pedagogic potential. They also see classrooms as distorting genres by transforming them into artefacts for study rather than resources for communication Freedman and Adam, Swales argues that these metaphors offer a rich and multifaceted view of genre which captures its complex and varied nature.

Task A6. Can you elaborate this metaphor and say why you have chosen it? How easy do you think it would be to operationalize the metaphor in your EAP practice? Focusing on the communicative needs of particular academic groups involves examining what these groups do with language, starting with the names members themselves give to their practices, such as essays, dissertations and lectures.

In this way they combine some of the aspects of the approach to genre taken by SFG, by the New Rhetoricians and by Swales. Some of these genres are shown in Table A6.

Citation Styles for "English for academic purposes : an advanced resource book"

These recurrent classes of communicative events are the genres that orchestrate verbal life. These genres link the past and the present, and so balance forces for tradition and innovation. They structure the roles of individuals within wider frameworks, and further assist those individuals with the actualisation of their communicative plans and purposes. Swales, It therefore offers teachers a powerful way of understanding and, hopefully, addressing the communicative needs of their students.

Some genre analysis in EAP operationalizes these ideas about genre by examining representative text samples to identify salient text features, such as recurring tenses, cohesion, modality, etc.

Both moves and steps may be optional, embedded in others, repeated, and may have constraints on the sequence in which they occur.

A simple example of this structure is shown in Table A6. Which of them would be useful to your students? What would you like them to know about this genre? Hyland One example is the extent to which writers typically employ self-mention. While impersonality is frequently cited as a key feature of academic discourse, not all disciplines observe this convention.

Similarly, the ways research is presented orally can differ across disciplines, with different argument structures employed by engineers and biologists, for instance Dudley-Evans, By exploring these conventions with students, teachers can help them see the options available to them when communicating in their disciplines. Academic texts, particularly in the sciences, have always been multimodal, but textbooks and articles are now far more heavily influenced by graphic design than ever before and the growing challenge to the page by the screen as the dominant medium of communication means that images are ever more important in meaning making.

This more integrated perspective, which deals with all the means we have of making meanings, is called multimodality. Researchers adopting this view consider the specific ways of configuring the world which different modes offer and draw attention to consequent shifts in authority, in forms of reading and in forms of human engagement with the social and natural world Kress, ; Kress and Van Leeuwen , The examples in Figures A6.

Like verbal communication, visual representation is a semiotic system, or system of signs, which varies with language, culture and genre. Kress and van Leeuwen note that: Simplicity is. Miller , for example, shows that while visual elements in the popular press function largely to attract the reader to the article and to explain rather than prove, visuals in academic texts are mainly arguments, following formal conventions organized for maximum persuasion and access to new information.

This is because while arguments are based on plausible, and well constructed, interpretations of data, they ultimately rest on findings, and these are often pre- sented in visual form.

Visuals thus buttress arguments and signal the importance of the article itself. Some analyses take an SFL approach and claim there is a grammar inherent in images, just as there is in writing, based on choices to communicate particular meanings.

Kress and Van Leeuwen , for instance, show how visuals com- municate meaning through such forms as point of view whose perspective is taken , given-new structures understood versus new information , visual transitivity who is doing what to whom , deixis then and now , and modality is it true or false?

Spack, R. Initiating ESL students into the academic discourse community: how far should we go? Hyland, K. Specificity revisited: how far should we go now?

Lea, M. Student writing and staff feedback in Higher education: An academic literacies approach. Swales, J. English as Tyrannosaurus rex. Allison, D. Pragmatist discourse and English for Academic Purposes.

Pennycook, A. Vulgar pragmatism, critical pragmatism, and EAP. Hedging in Scientific Research Articles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. The Essential Hyland.

London: Bloomsbury Press. Wong, L. Academic Writing: critical readings vol 1—2. Innovation and Change in Language Education. Discourse Studies Reader. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. Stance and Voice in Written Academic Genres. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Corpus Applications in Applied Linguistics.

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