𝗣𝗗𝗙 | What Is EAP? English for academic purposes (EAP) has emerged out of the broader fi eld of English for specifi c purposes (ESP), defi ned by its focus on . English for academic purposes: A guide and resource book for teachers. Sihem Bezroud. aptitudes, cognitive styles, and strategies, universalist accounts for lan- . WELCOME TO ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES. .. A number of texts will be provided in PDF form or via links to online sources.
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English for Academic Purposes (EAP) teaches students to use language appropriately to study and publish in the academy. Genres are categories of texts which. English for Academic Purposes – what is it? 2. Opportunities terney.info Publications/IFY%20Standards%20%terney.info EAP 91 Reading for College Success I. A course in English for Academic Purposes for non-native speakers of. English. The course offers advanced English.
FluentU takes real-world videos—like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks—and turns them into personalized language learning lessons. Use authentic classroom materials. A good place for you or your students to find and explore college textbooks at low risk and low cost is VitalSource , a site that specializes in e-textbooks. downloads can be accessed on the convenient Bookshelf app, and you can both download and rent books.
Use real college lectures in class. Your students are going to be attending college, and that means sitting in college lectures. Play them for your students and then use them to practice taking notes, for listening comprehension and for research assignments.
Give assignments similar to those students will receive in college. Have students write research papers, read entire novels or complete projects in student groups. Let students direct their own learning.
Give students some freedom to make their own educational goals. This means that every EAP class you teach will be slightly different from every other, but all of your students are slightly different from every other, too.
EAP students often have very little time to accomplish all their goals before moving on to higher education. So think back to your own college experience and try to recreate that for your EAP students.
By preparing your students for their goals, you can have a huge impact on the rest of their lives. Check out FluentU! The question is whether we regard EAP as essentially skills-based, text-based or practice-based and, as a result, ask what EAP actually is. This unit surveys these three main perspectives through the changes which have led to their emergence.
In the early days, EAP was largely a materials and teaching-led movement focusing on texts e. Candlin et al. Since then a developing research base has emphasized the rich diversity of texts, contexts and practices in which students operate in the modern university. These students, from social groups traditionally excluded from higher education such as working-class, mature, ethnic minority and international students, mean that there is now a more culturally, socially and linguistically diverse student population in universities in many countries.
In the UK, for instance, only 2 per cent of the population went to university in the s compared with more than a third of the eligible age group today HEFCE, While disparities in the participation of certain social groups continue, with individuals from working-class families still massively underrepresented, Study skills or academic literacy?
Students now take a broader and more heterogeneous mix of academic subjects. The diverse learning needs of such students are therefore focused in the challenges to communicative competence presented by disciplinary-specific study, by new modes of distance and electronic teaching and learning, and by changing circumstances both within the academy and in society at large. Diversity therefore takes on a particular importance at the same time as employers demand work-ready graduates equipped with the technical and interpersonal communication skills to cope in the modern workplace.
In sum, many of the old certainties about teaching and learning in higher education are slowly being undermined. This has not only given EAP greater prominence and importance in the academy, but also forced us to evolve and to ask new questions. The responses of EAP to these challenges are discussed below.
What tensions might surround this expansion for students themselves? Robinson, , but they are generally seen more broadly. Richards et al. For example, study skills needed by university students studying from English language textbooks include: 17 SECTION Introduction A adjusting reading speeds according to the type of material being read, using the dictionary, guessing word meanings from context, interpreting graphs, diagrams, and symbols, note taking and summarising.
The basis of the approach is that students need more than linguistic knowledge to be successful in their studies. Interest in study skills, in fact, emerged from a perceived over-emphasis on linguistic forms in early register-based materials.
Halliday et al. Every one of these specialized needs requires, before it can be met by appropriate teaching materials, detailed studies of restricted languages or special registers carried out on the basis of large samples of language used by the particular persons concerned.
When translated into the classroom this view can be seen as an early form of generic skills, but the reaction against register analysis in the s moved interest away from the lexical and grammatical properties of register to the communicative tasks students had to engage in.
Entwistle and Ramsden, The main idea of the study skills approach is that there are common reasoning and interpreting processes underlying communication which help us to understand discourse.
Rather than focusing on linguistic form, it is seen as being more productive to focus on interpretative strategies and other competences.
For example, the life cycle of plants might be used to teach biology students the language of process Bates and Dudley-Evans, Emerging together with a growing interest in needs analysis, the skills approach identified priorities from among the four main language skills for a particular situation.
In particular, this auditing of skills helped clarify the relationship between teaching and target behaviours as well as itemizing the skills contributing to those behaviours, 18 Study skills or academic literacy? Detaching EAP from purely language issues in this way therefore meant that EAP became relevant to native English-speaking students as well as second-language learners, as many new undergraduates were unfamiliar with the requirements of the tasks they faced in this new learning context.
By the late s study skills was perhaps the dominant EAP approach Jordan, Equally important, as our understanding of those target tasks and genres developed it grew increasingly obvious that they were rather more complex than first thought. Teachers came to see that many communicative activities are specific to particular disciplines, and drew the conclusion that the best way to prepare students for their learning was to provide them with an understanding of the assignments they would encounter in their academic classes, leading to an approach geared more to target genres.
How far do you agree with this?
Does it adequately represent the main skills that EAP students must engage in? Select one skill and identify the micro-skills for it.
The language competences required by the disciplines may grow out of those which students practise in school, but require students to understand the ways language forms and strategies work to construct and represent knowledge in particular fields.
A growing body of research into knowledge creation, teaching and learning began to link literacy with 19 SECTION Introduction A a more general understanding of the disciplines e. Hyland, ; Swales, We began to see that the experiences of students, like those of academics themselves, involved interactions with others within the particular social and institutional contexts in which they studied.
Like academics, learners are not independent of either each other or their contexts. As Text B1. This approach draws attention to the homogeneity of disciplinary groups and practices. Each discipline might be seen as an academic tribe Becher, with its particular norms and ways of doing things which comprise separate cultures.
Within each culture students acquire specialized discourse competences that allow them to participate as group members. Wells puts this succinctly: Each subject discipline constitutes a way of making sense of human experience that has evolved over generations and each is dependent on its own particular practices: its instrumental procedures, its criteria for judging relevance and validity, and its conventions of acceptable forms of argument.
In a word each has developed its own modes of discourse. To work in a discipline, therefore, it is necessary to be able to engage in these practices and, in particular, to participate in the discourses of that community.
Unlike the study skills approach, then, disciplinary socialization implies an integrated view which links language, user and context. We can see, then, that this is not simply a minor shift of perspective but a basic reappraisal of EAP and its role in the academy.
This perspective also draws attention to the importance of discourse and its role in defining disciplinary groups.
These two uses are related: by engaging in certain discourses we participate in and build our communities and disciplines. The concept of community will be discussed in more detail in Unit A2.
An important distinction is made between experts and novices in this pecking order, with newcomers socialized into the practices of members Lave and Wenger, ; 20 Study skills or academic literacy? While undergraduates are seen as peripheral, and perhaps only temporary, members of a disciplinary community, they must nevertheless adopt the discourse practices of their professors to be accepted. To a large extent, their academic accomplishments are seen to depend on the success of this induction, shown by their ability to reproduce particular discourse forms.
Belcher , however, points out that this was not the case in a study of three postgraduate students and Candlin and Plum found little evidence from student focus groups that undergraduates in psychology perceived their experience in this way. Introduction to the cultural world of a discipline may well take place in a situated learning context, but this is normally restricted to circumscribed pedagogic tasks, particularly writing assignments.