Lifestyle Upper-Intermediate Author: Irene Barral, John Rogers Publisher: Pearson Date: Pages: , , Format: PDF, MP3. Japan's biggest specialist store for ELT/ESL textbooks & classroom resources, all at great prices! For kids or adults, self-study or classroom, elementary, junior. 4 days ago Lifestyle Upper Intermediate Coursebook - [Free] Lifestyle Upper [PDF] [EPUB] 57 Market Leader Specialist Titles B1 INTERMEDIATE –.
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The principal eyes are also the only ones with eye muscles, allowing them to move the retina. Having no muscles, the secondary eyes are immobile.
They achieve this by a telephoto -like series of lenses, a four-layer retina and the ability to swivel their eyes and integrate images from different stages in the scan. The downside is that the scanning and integrating processes are relatively slow. Of these, those with six eyes such as Periegops suterii are the most numerous and are missing a pair of eyes on the anterior median line ;  other species have four eyes and some just two.
Cave dwelling species have no eyes, or possess vestigial eyes incapable of sight. Other senses As with other arthropods, spiders' cuticles would block out information about the outside world, except that they are penetrated by many sensors or connections from sensors to the nervous system.
In fact, spiders and other arthropods have modified their cuticles into elaborate arrays of sensors. Various touch sensors, mostly bristles called setae , respond to different levels of force, from strong contact to very weak air currents. Chemical sensors provide equivalents of taste and smell , often by means of setae.
Males have more chemosensitive hairs on their pedipalps than females. They have been shown to be responsive to sex pheromones produced by females, both contact and air-borne. Because they are able to tell the sexes apart, it is assumed the blood scent is mixed with pheromones.
In web-building spiders, all these mechanical and chemical sensors are more important than the eyes, while the eyes are most important to spiders that hunt actively. Arthropods' proprioceptors , sensors that report the force exerted by muscles and the degree of bending in the body and joints, are well understood.
Patient and Public Involvement Patients and public were involved during trial design including assessing feasibility of taking part in a lifestyle intervention trial with requirement for internet access, reviewing and providing feedback on the patient information sheet, consent form, and advertisement posters.
Randomization Randomization was performed using an in-house software tool with allocation sequence concealment using two strata. Randomization into the treatment or control group was performed after confirming eligibility see supplementary material for more details.
Participants had personal logins and passwords. Written information was provided on the website with links to other sites and online videos. The HAPPY London web-based tool provided a personalized score for their lifestyle and year CVD risk score, provided tailored advice and information specifically for those suboptimal factors that were relevant to that participants.
Ideal targets were highlighted as goals and then updated following 3 and 6 months visits, providing dynamic tailoring to increase efficacy [ 6 ].
Dynamic tailoring entailed updating the participants lifestyle and risk factor profiles and personalized advice based on the follow-up assessments. Additional regular email reminders were sent to encourage achievement of goals.
The email reminders were correlated to the number of suboptimal factors. Participants received instructions on how to use the website, lasting 5—10 minutes during the baseline visit. The web team web developers and programmers developed the content with input from the research team members MYK and SEP. Standard of Care All participants received personalized face-to-face counselling on suboptimal lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors based on guideline recommendations once during the baseline visit, lasting 10—15 minutes [ 15 ].
All participants completed a lifestyle questionnaire. Advice on factors including blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose readings, smoking, weight, physical activity, fruit, and vegetable intake, alcohol intake and stress was provided by a trained physician MYK.
Outcomes Primary outcome was baseline to 6-months PWV change. Pulse Wave Velocity Carotid femoral PWV and augmentation index, markers of global arterial stiffness, were measured using the Vicorder device. Measurements were obtained by placing a 10cm wide blood pressure cuff around the upper left thigh measuring the femoral pulse and a 3cm partial cuff around the neck at the level of the left carotid artery.
The cuffs were inflated simultaneously to 65 mmHg with 2 high quality waveforms simultaneously recorded for 3 seconds using a volume displacement method. Lifestyle is designed to meet the everyday language requirements of people who need English for work, travel and socialising.
As well as dealing with how people communicate at work, it also helps learners interact effectively outside of the work environment, enabling them to 'get things done' in a variety of situations. As well as dealing with how people communicate at work, it also helps learners interact effectively outside of the work environment, enabling them to 'get things done' in a variety of Louis Harrison. Pearson Education Limited, Lifestyle is designed to meet the everyday language requirements of people who need English for work, socializing and travel.
As well as dealing with how people communicate at work, it also helps learners interact effectively outside of the work environment, enabling them to "get things done" in a variety of situations Jacky Newbrook , Nick Dawson. ISBN Test master CD to Teacher's book Intermediate Lifestyle is designed to meet everyday language requirements of people who need English for work, travel and socialising.
As well as dealing with how people communicate at work, it also helps learners interact effectively outside of the work environment, enabling them 'to get things done' in a variety Longman Format: