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DVM, Head of Pharmacology & Pharmacy Depts. to Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Timisoara. Introduction in Veterinary Pharmacology. Electronic Course . by Jim E. Riviere, Mark G. Papich December Veterinary Pharmacology and Pharmacology & Therapeutics PDF MB Password: terney.info Help. Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology PDF · Perinatal pharmacology in ruminant models Ruminant Pharmacology. Front Matter. Pages PDF.
Thalidomide: Current and potential clinical applications. American Journal of Medicine , — Thalidomide is an inhibitor of angiogenesis. Diggle, G.
Thalidomide: 40 years on. International Journal of Clinical Practice 55, — Grabstad, H. Clinical experience with thalidomide in patients with cancer.
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 6, — Rajkumar, S. Thalidomide: Tragic past and promising future. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 79, — Riviere, J.
The future of veterinary therapeutics: A glimpse towards The Veterinary Journal , — Rogerson, G. Thalidomide and congenital abnormalities.
Clorsulon is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. When Fasciola hepatica ingest it in plasma and bound to RBCs , they are killed because glycolysis is inhibited and cellular energy production is disrupted. Neuromuscular Coordination: Interference with this process may occur by inhibiting the breakdown or by mimicking or enhancing the action of neurotransmitters. The result is paralysis of the parasite. Either spastic or flaccid paralysis of an intestinal helminth allows it to be expelled by the normal peristaltic action of the host.
Specific categories include drugs that act via a presynaptic latrophilin receptor emodepside , various nicotinic acetylcholine receptors agonists: imidazothiazoles, tetrahydropyrimidines; allosteric modulator: monepantel; antagonist: spiroindoles , glutamate-gated chloride channels avermectins, milbemycins , GABA-gated chloride channels piperazine , or via inhibition of acetylcholinesterases coumaphos, naphthalophos.
Organophosphates inhibit many enzymes, especially acetylcholinesterase, by phosphorylating esterification sites. This phosphorylation blocks cholinergic nerve transmission in the parasite, resulting in spastic paralysis. The susceptibility of cholinesterases by host and parasite varies, as does the susceptibility of these different species to organophosphates. The imidazothiazoles are nicotinic anthelmintics that act as agonists at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of nematodes.
Their anthelmintic activity is mainly attributed to their ganglion-stimulant cholinomimetic activity, whereby they stimulate ganglion-like structures in somatic muscle cells of nematodes. This stimulation first results in sustained muscle contractions, followed by a neuromuscular depolarizing blockade resulting in paralysis. Hexamethonium, a ganglionic blocker, inhibits the action of levamisole.
Monepantel, the only commercially available amino-acetonitrile derivative, is a direct agonist of the mptl-1 channel, which is a homomeric channel belonging to the DEG-3 family of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Binding of monepantel to the receptor results in a constant, uncontrolled flux of ions and finally in a depolarization of muscle cells, leading to irreversible paralysis of the nematodes.
These receptors are unique in that they are found only in nematodes. Derquantel, a semisynthetic member of the spiroindole class of anthelmintics, is an antagonist of B-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located at the nematode neuromuscular junction; it inhibits pS channels, leading to a flaccid paralysis of nematodes.
Piperazine acts to block neuromuscular transmission in the parasite by hyperpolarizing the nerve membrane, which leads to flaccid paralysis. It also blocks succinate production by the worm.
The parasites, paralyzed and depleted of energy, are expelled by peristalsis. The macrocyclic lactones act by binding to glutamate-gated chloride channel receptors in nematode and arthropod nerve cells.
This causes the channel to open, allowing an influx of chloride ions. Different chloride channel subunits may show variable sensitivity to macrocyclic lactones and different sites of expression, which could account for the paralytic effects of macrocyclic lactones on different neuromuscular systems at different concentrations. The macrocyclic lactones paralyze the pharynx, the body wall, and the uterine muscles of nematodes.