I have the instructions for this test clearly in mind. a. Yes b. Uncertain c. No. am ready to answer each question as truthfully as possible. a. Yes b. Uncertain c. PDF | The introduction of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) in This article provides an overview of the 16PF and its applications in and Keywords: diagnostic methods; personality; self-reports; testing. PF traits' prediction accuracy for intra-subject tests based on test sample induced .. of the 16PF traits as the 16PF questionnaire can be faked.
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SCORING/INTERPRETATION: The 16PF requires about 30 minutes to score by terney.info NAME: 16 PERSONALITY FACTOR QUESTIONNAIRE (16PF). items per factor or three-quarters of an hour of test time per form, i.e., an hour the items on the combined A and B forms of the 16 PF, then /(is better. the 16PF Questionnaire shown in Table From the the 16PF plus new items written by the test characteristics are improved, hand scoring is easier, and.
It is obvious that if you go for a job as a salesman, then you must score well on extraverted, and if you go for a position as a caseworker in an IT development firm, you must score on introverted. If you apply for a career position in one of the major international companies, it is wise to score well on extraversion.
In this kind of firms, extraversion is almost synonymous with leadership potential. They prefer handsome young men, who give a good experience when they talk to them; it gives a sense of a streamlined modern organization. Level of Anxiety Most people know the feeling of anxiety and nervousness in an exam situation. The problem of overly anxious people is that they feel that they are in exam all the time.
And not only that. They do not know what they are examined in. They feel they have lost track of their life. In Kafka's novel "The Process" the main character Josef K is summoned for a court, which he neverheard had about before. He is never told what he is charged for. He's just being informed that it is a very serious matter. He ends up realizing that there must be something about it, although he did not find out what was his crime.
Eventually, he is executed by two polite gentlemen dressed in black suits. It must be something like that overly anxious people feel. Woody Allen has represented the neurotic and overly anxious personality on film. He tries desperately to orientate himself in life and argue his way out of any responsibility.
Companies and human resources consultants will make considerable efforts to weed out candidates with a high level of anxiety. It is one of the main purposes of a personality test. It would be a disaster for a human resources company if they by mistake should recommend an applicant who later shows up to have such personal problems.
It would get about throughout the industry and among the consumers. Therefore, they will properly not take any chances in this regard. If there are any suspected high levels of anxiety, they will point on another candidate, regardless of the qualifications of the first applicant. We believe that the test report will be filed for years.
Excessive anxiety. It is very important for candidates that they are able to identify statements that will score on excessive anxiety and as good as possible to avoid them. Statements that scores on anxiety will be something with a certain flight from responsibility and the feeling that all the others, in reality, are much better than yourself.
A statement, that the reason for poor grades was nervousness, or that the teacher did not like you, will most likely score on anxiety. A statement, that you have not received a fair treatment in connection with this and that, will certainly score on excessive anxiety.
A football coach can say, that it was not fair that his team lost the match, as they had the ball most of the time.
But the rules of football says loudly and clearly, that the team, that scores the most goals, is the winner. It says nothing about the nature of the artistic presentation.
And this the trainer knew in advance. Just as the ball passes unpredictably back and forth on the field, when the two teams of lousy players meet each other, in the same way, it can be quite random, who are employed and who is promoted in companies.
Leaders employ and promote those, they like, and those, they believe that their own chief executives best can accept. Being able to identify statements, that scores on anxiety may create a more favorable personality test and thus influence the delicate difference between success and failure in the chaotic career game. Concerning anxiety see also: "2. Level of Self-confidence A tough-minded person is a self-confident person.
It is not an either or. It can be described as a continuous scale from totally dominating to totally self-doubting. Adolf Hitler and Mohammed must be assumed to have been one hundred percent dominant persons. They received a revelation early in their life and thereafter they had a patent on truth. They were completely sure that they were always right. A very self-confident young businessman.
Completely dominating people are impervious to any form of logic, reasoning or empirical data.
They may have heard about arguments and logic - in theory, but basically, they do not know, what it is good for.
They already know the truth, why make it so complicated? Mohammed did not have the slightest doubt, that the whole world in the very end would profess to his beliefs. Adolf did not have a shred of doubt that he would win. It was their extreme self-confidence, which gave them their impressive mental power over their followers.
Completely dominating persons spell binds their many supporters thanks to their intense ardent beliefs. They have only little use for actual arguments. You will often see a kind of symbiosis between a highly dominant type and a large group of anxious and less self-confident persons. They need each other.
The anxious persons feel that the dominant's unshakable certainty in all matters, gives them a fixed point in life, and the dominant needs to be admired and applauded. This short-circuits the organization, and analytical and constructive initiatives are suppressed. Highly dominant types can be found everywhere. Adolf and Mohammed had some limited success, but it is not the rule.
They see the light, seize the power in their union, parish, faculty, company or nation, and in sovereign contempt for the cruel merciless reality with its ruthless laws of nature, they lead their devoted followers and their entire organizations towards stagnation and defeat. A self-confident and a less self-confident person got senseless drunk together.
They went to a bar, threw off all their clothes and danced naked on the tables singing dirty songs. The next day they could not remember anything. When the worst headache was gone, they met some of their friends, who told them about the evening's events.
The self-confident person gave a tough smile and shook his head. We were really that drunk? Together with the night's spectators, he could laugh at the details. The less self-confident nude dancer turned glowing red in his face, when he realized, what he had done. He turned around and ran back to his room.
He locked his door from inside and did not come out the next several days. A self-confident person does not think that he has any personal secrets that the others may not know about.
This means apart from passwords and this kind of stuff. He feels that he's actually very nice and clever and intelligent and everything. It can not hurt to show it a little. Well, he had really danced naked on the tables in a bar. I have better not do too often, he will think. Highly self-confident people do not think there is any contradiction between what they think about themselves and what others think about them.
They do not mind that others are interested in them. A less self-confident person thinks that he has his own ways and quirks and his own thoughts.
He fears that if others knew them, they would not accept him. Most companies are interested in candidates, who have the confidence to take action as necessary. They must be able to deliver a speech and in all to represent the company in a dignified manner.
But they are often afraid that very dominant persons will make troubles and irritate the customers. Therefore, one should score of self-confidence, but with caution. Do you like to talk to strangers? It is easy to see that a yes scores on extraversion, and no scores on introversion. Do you consider yourself to be shy?
A yes scores evidently on low self-confidence and introverted, and a no scores on self-confidence and extraverted. Do you like parties? They studied personality data from different sources e. Cattell, , He believed that in order to adequately map out personality, one had to utilize L-Data life records or observation , Q data information from questionnaires , and T-data information from objective tests. Cattell used the emerging technology of computers to analyze the list of adjectives through the statistical technique of factor analysis, which seeks to identify constructs that underlie observed variables.
He organized the list of adjectives into fewer than items and asked subjects to rate people whom they knew on each of the adjectives on the list an example of L-data because the information was gathered from observers. This allowed Cattell to narrow down to 35 terms. Ratings of the 35 terms were factor-analyzed, revealing a 12 factor solution.
After the 35 terms were made into self-rating items Cattell found that there were 4 additional factors, which he believed consisted of information that could only be provided through self-rating. This process allowed the use of ratings by observers, questionnaires, and objective measurements of actual behavior.
Cattell called these global factors. The search resulted in the sixteen unitary traits of the 16PF Questionnaire. These traits have remained the same over the last 50 years of research. In addition, the 16PF Questionnaire traits are part of a multi-variate personality model that provides a broader framework including developmental, environmental, and hereditary patterns of the traits and how they change across the life span Cattell, , , The US version of the test was also re-standardized in , along with the development of forms for children and teenagers; versions for the UK, Ireland, France and the Netherlands were re-standardised in Additionally, there is a shortened form available primarily for employee selection and the questionnaire has been adapted into more than 35 languages.
The questionnaire has also been validated in a range of international cultures over time[ dubious — discuss ]. Next they factor-analyzed these numerous primary traits to see if these traits had a structure of their own—i.
For example, the first global trait they found was Extraversion-Introversion.
It resulted from the natural affinity of five primary traits that defined different reasons for an individual to move toward versus away from other people see below.
They found that there was a natural tendency for these traits to go together in the real world, and to define an important domain of human behavior—social behavior. Liveliness Factor F : the tendency to be high-energy, fun-loving, and carefree, and to spontaneously move towards others in an animated, stimulating manner.
Low-scorers tend to be more serious and self-restrained, and to be cautious, unrushed, and judicious. Social Boldness Factor H : the tendency to seek social interaction in a confident, fearless manner, enjoying challenges, risks, and being the center of attention. Low-scorers tend to be shy and timid, and to be more modest and risk-avoidant. Forthrightness Factor N : the tendency to want to be known by others—to be open, forthright, and genuine in social situations, and thus to be self-revealing and unguarded.
Low-scorers tend to be more private and unself-revealing, and to be harder to get to know. Affiliative Factor Q2 : the tendency to seek companionship and enjoy belonging to and functioning in a group inclusive, cooperative, good follower, willing to compromise. Low-scorers tend to be more individualistic and self-reliant and to value their autonomy.
In a similar manner, these researchers found that four other primary traits consistently merged to define another global factor which they called Receptivity or Openness versus Tough-Mindedness. This factor was made up of four primary traits that describe different kinds of openness to the world: Openness to sensitive feelings, emotions, intuition, and aesthetic dimensions Sensitivity — Factor I Openness to abstract, theoretical ideas, conceptual thinking, and imagination Abstractedness — Factor M Openness to free thinking, inquiry, exploration of new approaches, and innovative solutions Openness-to-Change — Factor Q1 and Openness to people and their feelings Warmth — Factor A.
Another global factor, Self-Controlled or conscientious versus Unrestrained, resulted from the natural coming together of four primary factors that define the different ways that human beings manage to control their behavior: Rule-Consciousness Factor G involves adopting and conscientiously following society's accepted standards of behavior Perfectionism Factor Q3 describes a tendency to be self-disciplined, organized, thorough, attentive to detail, and goal-oriented Seriousness Factor F involves a tendency to be cautious, reflective, self-restrained, and deliberate in making decisions; and Groundedness Factor M involves a tendency to stay focused on concrete, pragmatic, realistic solutions.
Because the global factors were developed by factor-analyzing the primary traits, the meanings of the global traits were determined by the primary traits which made them up. In addition, then the global factors provide the overarching, conceptual framework for understanding the meaning and function of each of the primary traits.
Thus, the two levels of personality are essentially inter-connected and inter-related.