PDF | On Oct 1, , Debosree Ghosh and others published Air Pollution and India: Current Scenario. DALYs – Disability Adjusted Life-Years. GBD – Global Burden of Disease. PM – Particulate Matter. GDP – Gross Domestic Product. LPG – Liquefied Petroleum. terney.info Air Pollution in India. Impact, policy analysis and remedial measures by governments. Today, air pollution has emerged as a global public health.
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() estimated that ambient particulate matter air pollution accounts ambient air pollution alone may cost India more than trillion dollars per year (OECD. due to outdoor air pollution in India in to lakh. On the pdf. In , severe air pollution has disrupted everyday life, especially during the winter. congestion, atmospheric pollution and unwise water and solid waste Air pollution in India has been aggravated over the years by developments that typically.
Environmental awareness campaigns are also carried out at regular intervals. Subsequently, a second Industrial policy — was issued by the Department of Industries, Government of Delhi. It is a comprehensive document envisioning higher industrial development in Delhi, with one of its mandates being to develop clean and non-polluting industries and details of steps to be undertaken in this direction have been described.
There are many other organizations that work synergistically with the government efforts to reduce air pollution. Government agencies like Factories Inspectorate are also involved in the control of pollution. Benefits Accrued as a Result of Control Measures Since the first act on pollution was instituted, huge progress has been made in terms of human resource, infrastructure development and research capability. Some studies tried to gather evidence for the effectiveness of control measures by comparing pre- and post-intervention health status.
The study conducted by the Central Pollution Control Board demonstrated that spending h in clean indoor environment can reduce health effects of exposure to chronic air pollution.
But, considering the context that demanded the research, these were probably the best available designs to produce preliminary and,sometimes, policy-influencing evidences, as any other methodology would be unethical or operationally impossible. Conclusion The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years.
The benefits of air pollution control measures are showing in the readings. The already existing measures need to be strengthened and magnified to a larger scale. The governmental efforts alone are not enough. Participation of the community is crucial in order to make a palpable effect in the reduction of pollution. The use of public transport needs to be promoted.
The use of Metro rail can be encouraged by provision of an adequate number of feeder buses at Metro stations that ply with the desired frequency. More frequent checking of Pollution Under Control Certificates needs to be undertaken by the civic authorities to ensure that vehicles are emitting gases within permissible norms.
People need to be educated to switch-off their vehicles when waiting at traffic intersections. The ever-increasing influx of migrants can be reduced by developing and creating job opportunities in the peripheral and suburban areas, and thus prevent further congestion of the already-choked capital city of Delhi. Health, as we all know, is an all-pervasive subject, lying not only within the domains of the health department but with all those involved in human development.
Many great scholars from Charaka to Hippocrates have stressed the importance of environment in the health of the individual. Therefore, all those who play a role in modifying the environment in any way, for whatever reason, need to contribute to safeguard people's health by controlling all those factors which affect it. Footnotes Conflict of Interest: None declared. References 1. Dec, [last accessed on September 20]. WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, Global update , Summary of risk assessment.
Goyal R, Khare M. Indo air quality modelling for PM 10, PM 2. Environ Monit Assess. Kumar A, Scott Clark C. Lead loadings in household dust in Delhi, India. Indoor Air. Environ Sci Technol. Particle size distribution and its elemental composition in the ambient air of Delhi. Environ Int. Aug, [last accessed on September 20].
Ambient air pollution and chronic respiratory morbidity in Delhi. Arch Environ Health. Assessing respiratory morbidity through pollution status and meteorological conditions for Delhi.
Jayaraman G, Nidhi Air pollution and associated respiratory morbidity in Delhi. Health Care Manag Sci. Firdaus G, Ahmad A. Indoor air pollution and self-reported diseases - a case study of NCT of Delhi. Indoor air pollution and respiratory function of children in Ashok Vihar, Delhi: An exposure-response study.
Asia Pac J Public Health. Indoor air quality assessment in and around urban slums of Delhi city, India. Exposure of infants to outdoor and indoor air pollution in low-income urban areas - a case study of Delhi.
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. Indoor air quality and acute lower respiratory infection in Indian urban slums. Environ Health Perspect. Association of indoor and outdoor air pollutant level with respiratory problems among children in an industrial area of Delhi, India. Arch Environ Occup Health. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children chronically exposed to high level of vehicular pollution.
Eur J Pediatr. Some reports, including one by the World Health Organization, claim , to , people die of indoor air pollution and carbon monoxide poisoning in India because of biomass burning and use of chullahs.
Burning of biomass and firewood will not stop unless electricity or clean burning fuel and combustion technologies become reliably available and widely adopted in rural and urban India. India is the world's largest consumer of fuelwood, agricultural waste and biomass for energy purposes. From the most recent available nationwide study, India used India's national average annual per capita consumption of fuel wood, agricultural waste and biomass cakes was kilogram coal equivalent.
Some Indian taxis and auto-rickshaws run on adulterated fuel blends. Adulteration of gasoline and diesel with lower-priced fuels is common in South Asia, including India. Financial incentives arising from differential taxes are generally the primary cause of fuel adulteration. In India and other developing countries, gasoline carries a much higher tax than diesel, which in turn is taxed more than kerosene meant as a cooking fuel, while some solvents and lubricants carry little or no tax.
As fuel prices rise, the public transport driver cuts costs by blending the cheaper hydrocarbon into highly taxed hydrocarbon. The blending may be as much as 20—30 percent. For a low wage driver, the adulteration can yield short term savings that are significant over the month.
The consequences to long term air pollution, quality of life and effect on health are simply ignored. Also ignored are the reduced life of vehicle engine and higher maintenance costs, particularly if the taxi, auto-rickshaw or truck is being rented for a daily fee.
Air toxin emissions — which fall into the category of unregulated emissions — of primary concern are benzene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons PAHs , both well known carcinogens. Kerosene is more difficult to burn than gasoline; its addition results in higher levels of HC, CO and PM emissions even from catalyst-equipped cars.
The higher sulfur level of kerosene is another issue. Fuel adulteration is essentially an unintended consequence of tax policies and the attempt to control fuel prices, in the name of fairness. Air pollution is the ultimate result.
This problem is not unique to India, but prevalent in many developing countries including those outside of south Asia. This problem is largely absent in economies that do not regulate the ability of fuel producers to innovate or price based on market demand. Traffic congestion is severe in India's cities and towns. Traffic congestion is caused for several reasons, some of which are: Complete lack of traffic sense in Indian public is the main reason for the chaos on the roads.
Traffic congestion reduces average traffic speed.
At low speeds, scientific studies reveal, vehicles burn fuel inefficiently and pollute more per trip. For example, a study in the United States found that for the same trip, cars consumed more fuel and polluted more if the traffic was congested, than when traffic flowed freely.
At average trip speeds between 20 and 40 kilometers per hour, the cars pollutant emission was twice as much as when the average speed was 55 to 75 kilometers per hour. At average trip speeds between 5 and 20 kilometers per hour, the cars pollutant emissions were 4 to 8 times as much as when the average speed was 55 to 70 kilometers per hour.
Traffic gridlock in Delhi and other Indian cities is extreme.
At such speeds, vehicles in India emit air pollutants 4 to 8 times more than they would with less traffic congestion; Indian vehicles also consume a lot more carbon footprint fuel per trip, than they would if the traffic congestion was less. Emissions of particles and heavy metals increase over time because the growth of the fleet and mileage outpaces the efforts to curb emissions. India was the third largest emitter of carbon dioxide in at 6.
The peak in global CO2 emissions is not yet in sight. About 9 percent of India's emissions were from transportation cars, trains, two wheelers, aeroplanes, others. India's coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants are inefficient and offer significant potential for CO 2 emission reduction through better technology. Compared to the average emissions from coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants in European Union EU countries, India's thermal power plants emit 50 to percent more CO 2 per kWh produced.
One of the most important reasons for concern for the growing air pollution in the country is its effects on the health of individuals. Exposure to particulate matter for a long time can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer and heart attacks.
The Global Burden of Disease Study for , published in , had found that outdoor air pollution was the fifth-largest killer in India and around , early deaths occurred from air pollution-related diseases in Over a million Indians die prematurely every year due to air pollution, according to the non-profit Health Effects Institute.
Aasthma is the most common health problem faced by Indians and it accounts for more than half of the health issues caused by air pollution.
Other Indian cities that registered very high levels of PM2.
Air Quality Index AQI is a number used to communicate the level of pollution in the air and it essentially tells you the level of pollution in the air in a given city on a given day.
The monitoring of meteorological parameters such as wind speed and direction, relative humidity and temperature has also been integrated with the monitoring of air quality. The monitoring of these pollutants is carried out for 24 hours 4-hourly sampling for gaseous pollutants and 8-hourly sampling for particulate matter with a frequency of twice a week, to yield observations in a year.
The key findings of India's central pollution control board are: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Very Unhealthy. Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups. Retrieved