Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the "Summary of changes to the Laws of Cricket Code" (PDF). Lords the Home of Cricket. . External links. Cricketat Wikipedia's sister projects. Physical Education Project on Cricket - Free download as Word Doc . doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. ebola. Cricket, initially said to be England's national summer game, has gained This tutorial is meant for anyone who wants to know and learn about cricket. It.

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Cricket Project Pdf

Prepared for The Royal Navy in Association with The National Cricket. Association and produced project please contact Acknowledgements. 1,DOWNLOAD PDF EBOOK here { terney.info }. .. PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROJECT ON CRICKET INTRODUCTION Cricket is a Rules and game-play Summary Cricket is a bat and ball game, played. Cricket is a bat and ball game played between two teams of eleven players on an The basic rule of Cricket such as bat, ball, wicket, pitch dimension, over and.

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If a bowler bowls six balls, not counting wides and no balls, he completes what is termed an over. A new over is then begun by a different bowler at the opposite wicket. The field must also adjust accordingly. If a bowler bowls a complete over without a batsman personally scoring a run, it is called a maiden over. A bowler may bowl either right or left armed, propelling the ball overhand without bending his elbow.

He is allowed any number of steps to give a delivery, but he may not cross the bowling crease. A good bowler must be able to control length and direction, which includes the spin placed on the ball to attempt to deceive the batsman into being dismissed. A batsman may hit either right or left handed, based on a vertical bat with its entire blade faced to the ball.

There are many different batting strokes, including the forward stroke, the back stroke, the leg glance, and the cut. Fieldsmen must be quick runners, with good hand-eye coordination and the ability to throw a cricket ball far. He should be able to guess the batsman's strokes, and act accordingly. The wicketkeeper should have exceptionally good reaction time and sharp sight.

He must concentrate fully on every ball. There are two wickets, which the bowler attacks and which the batsman defends. The creases are lines of whitewash that mark the ground at each wicket. The bowling and return creases mark the area where the bowler's rear foot must be placed when bowling the ball; the popping crease marks the area which is the batsman's ground.

It, including the handle, may not under regulation exceed 97 centimeters in length. The ball is made of a core of cork encased in red leather. The two leather halves are sewn together with a raised seam. A baseball is slightly heavier, softher, and larger than a standard cricket ball.

81153185 Physical Education Project on Cricket

DRESS - The players usually wear white flannel pants and shirt, white canvas or buck shoes, a white woolen sweater often times with their club colours trimming it , and multicoloured club caps.

A batsman wears protective white pads, or leg guards, rubber or leather batting gloves, and a body protector.

The wicketkeeper also wears pads and reinforced gloves. However, the fielders in cricket do not wear gloves when fielding. This term comes from the use of club caps in the game. These players are normally selected from among club teams or minor teams. First, it is the goal, consisting of three stakes, which two sticks lay on top of.

The batsman defends them and the bowler attempts to hit. Secondly, it is a turn to bat. Thirdly, a wicket is, in scoring, if a side is batting last, it is the number of batsmen who have to be put out dismissed when the opponent's score is passed. And lastly, it is the area between two sets of stumps also known as pitch. Any soft soil - turf - makes playing more difficult for a batsman. The first is the time from when the bowler releases the ball to when it is either hit or missed by the batsman.

The second is the time after the collision of the ball with the bat. As the batsman's goal is to score as many runs as possible, most hits are played so that the ball is close to the ground, and is therefore harder to catch by a fieldsman. The bowler's main aim is to pitch the ball so the batsman does not hit the ball to his best ability.

The flight path of the ball is such that the trajectory can be found with a simple equation. However, this does not necessarily apply to slow pitches. There is a small set of critical speeds in which pressure imbalances cause the ball to swing deviate to one side or the other of a bowl.

These speeds are functions of several variables, including the angle of the seam, surface texture of the ball, the spin put on the ball by the bowler, and the air currents. This equation completely ignored. This shows the relationship of distance and velocity after a hit by the bowler.

Once each of these equations is solved using the known variable s , the deviation of the ball from the visible path can be traced. Even the slightest variation can trick a batter's eye into missing the ball or mistiming a hit.

There are currently 42 laws, which outline all aspects of how the game is played. Law 1: The players. A cricket team consists of eleven players, including a captain.

Outside of official competitions, teams can agree to play more than eleven-a-side, though no more than eleven players may field.

Law 2: Substitutes. In cricket, a substitute may be brought on for an injured fielder. However, a substitute may not bat, bowl, keep wicket or act as captain. The original player may return if he has recovered. A batsman who becomes unable to run may have a runner, who completes the runs while the batsman continues batting.

Alternatively, a batsman may retire hurt or ill, and may return later to resume his innings if he recovers. Law 3: The umpires. There are two umpires, who apply the Laws, make all necessary decisions, and relay the decisions to the scorers. While not required under the laws of cricket, in higher level cricket a third umpire located off the ground and available to assist the on-field umpires may be used under the specific playing conditions of a particular match or tournament.

Law 4: The scorers. There are two scorers who respond to the umpires' signals and keep the score. Only one ball is used at a time, unless it is lost, when it is replaced with a ball of similar wear. It is also replaced at the start of each innings, and may, at the request of the fielding side, be replaced with a new ball, after a certain number of overs have been bowled 80 in Test matches, 34 inODIs.

The gradual degradation of the ball through the innings is an important aspect of the game. Law 6: The bat. The bat is no more than 38 inches 97 cm in length, and no more than 4. The hand or glove holding the bat is considered part of the bat. Ever since the Heavy Metal incident, a highly publicized marketing attempt by Dennis Lillee, who brought out an aluminium bat during an international game, the laws have provided that the blade of the bat must be made of wood and in practice, they are made from White Willowwood.

Law 7: The pitch. The pitch is a rectangular area of the ground 22 yards 20 m long and 10 ft 3.

The Ground Authority selects and prepares the pitch, but once the game has started, the umpires control what happens to the pitch. The umpires are also the arbiters of whether the pitch is fit for play, and if they deem it unfit, with the consent of both captains can change the pitch.

Professional cricket is almost always played on a grass surface. However, in the event a nonturf pitch is used, the artificial surface must have a minimum length of 58 ft 18 m and a minimum width of 6 ft 1.

Physical Education Project on Cricket

Law 8: The wickets. The wicket consists of three wooden stumps that are 28 inches 71 cm tall. The stumps are placed along the batting crease with equal distances between each stump.

They are positioned so they are 9 inches 23 cm wide. Two wooden bails are placed on top of the stumps. The bails must not project more than 0. There are also specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail.

There are different specifications for the wickets and bails for junior cricket. The umpires may dispense with the bails if conditions are unfit i.

Cricket: Definition, Rules & History

Law 9: Bowling, popping, and return creases. This law sets out the dimensions and locations of the creases. The bowling crease, which is the line the stumps are in the middle of, is drawn at each end of the pitch so that the three stumps in the set of stumps at that end of the pitch fall on it and consequently it is perpendicular to the imaginary line joining the centres of both middle stumps.

Each bowling crease should be 8 feet 8 inches 2. The popping crease, which determines whether a batsman is in his ground or not, and which is used in determining front-foot no balls see law 24 , is drawn at each end of the pitch in front of each of the two sets of stumps.

Cricket project files : Cricket

The popping crease must be 4 feet 1. Although it is considered to have unlimited length, the popping crease must be marked to at least 6 feet 1. The return creases, which are the lines a bowler must be within when making a delivery, are drawn on each side of each set of the stumps, along each sides of the pitch so there are four return creases in all, one on either side of both sets of stumps. The return creases lie perpendicular to the popping crease and the bowling crease, 4 feet 4 inches 1.

Each return crease terminates at one end at the popping crease but the other end is considered to be unlimited in length and must be marked to a minimum of 8 feet 2. Law Preparation and maintenance of the playing area. When a cricket ball is bowled it almost always bounces on the pitch, and the behaviour of the ball is greatly influenced by the condition of the pitch. As a consequence, detailed rules on the management of the pitch are necessary.

This law contains the rules governing how pitches should be prepared, mown, rolled, and maintained. Law Covering the pitch.

The pitch is said to be 'covered' when the groundsmen have placed covers on it to protect it against rain or dew. The laws stipulate that the regulations on covering the pitch shall be agreed by both captains in advance. The decision concerning whether to cover the pitch greatly affects how the ball will react to the pitch surface, as a ball bounces differently on wet ground as compared to dry ground.

The area beyond the pitch where a bowler runs so as to deliver the ball the 'run-up' should ideally be kept dry so as to avoid injury through slipping and falling, and the Laws also require these to be covered wherever possible when there is wet weather. Before the game, the teams agree whether it is to be over one or two innings, and whether either or both innings are to be limited by time or by overs.

In practice, these decisions are likely to be laid down by Competition Regulations, rather than pre-game agreement. In two-innings games, the sides bat alternately unless the follow-on law 13 is enforced.

An innings is closed once all batsmen are dismissed, no further batsmen are fit to play, the innings is declared or forfeited by the batting captain, or any agreed time or over limit is reached.

The captain winning the toss of a coin decides whether to bat or to bowl first. Law The follow-on. In a two innings match, if the side batting second scores substantially fewer runs than the side batting first, the side that batted first can force their opponents to bat again immediately. The side that enforced the follow-on risks not getting to bat again and thus the chance of winning.

For a game of five or more days, the side batting first must be at least runs ahead to enforce the follow-on; for a three- or four-day game, runs; for a two-day game, runs; for a one-day game, 75 runs.

The length of the game is determined by the number of scheduled days play left when the game actually begins. Law Declaration and forfeiture. The batting captain can declare an innings closed at any time when the ball is dead. He may also forfeit his innings before it has started. Law Intervals. There are intervals between each day's play, a ten-minute interval between innings, and lunch, tea and drinks intervals. The timing and length of the intervals must be agreed before the match begins.

There are also provisions for moving the intervals and interval lengths in certain situations, most notably the provision that if nine wickets are down, the tea interval is delayed to the earlier of the fall of the next wicket and 30 minutes elapsing.

Law Start of play; cessation of play. Play after an interval commences with the umpire's call of "Play", and at the end of a session by "Time".

The last hour of a match must contain at least 20 overs, being extended in time so as to include 20 overs if necessary. Law Practice on the field. There may be no batting or bowling practice on the pitch except before the day's play starts and after the day's play has ended. Bowlers may only have trial run-ups if the umpires are of the view that it would waste no time.

Law Scoring runs. Runs are scored when the two batsmen run to each other's end of the pitch. Several runs can be scored from one ball. Law Boundaries.

A boundary is marked round the edge of the field of play. If the ball is hit into or past this boundary, four runs are scored, or six runs if the ball didn't hit the ground before crossing the boundary. Law Lost ball. If a ball in play is lost or cannot be recovered, the fielding side can call "lost ball". The batting side keeps any penalty runs such as no-balls and wides and scores the higher of six runs and the number of runs actually run.

Law The result. The side which scores the most runs wins the match. If both sides score the same number of runs, the match is tied. However, the match may run out of time before the innings have all been completed. In this case, the match is drawn. Law The over. An over consists of six balls bowled, excluding wides and no balls. Consecutive overs are delivered from opposite ends of the pitch.

A bowler may not bowl two consecutive overs. Law Dead ball. The ball comes into play when the bowler begins his run up, and becomes dead when all the action from that ball is over. Once the ball is dead, no runs can be scored and no batsmen can be dismissed. The ball becomes dead for a number of reasons, most commonly when a batsman is dismissed, when a boundary is hit, or when the ball has finally settled with the bowler or wicketkeeper.

Law No ball. A ball can be a no ball for several reasons: if the bowler bowls from the wrong place; or if he straightens his elbow during the delivery; or if the bowling is dangerous; or if the ball bounces more than twice or rolls along the ground before reaching the batsman; or if the fielders are standing in illegal places. A no ball adds one run to the batting team's score, in addition to any other runs which are scored off it, and the batsman can't be dismissed off a no ball except by being run out, or by handling the ball, hitting the ball twice, or obstructing the field.

Law Wide ball. An umpire calls a ball "wide" if, in his or her opinion, the batsman did not have a reasonable opportunity to score off the ball. A ball is called wide when the bowler bowls a bouncer that goes over the head of the batsman. A wide adds one run to the batting team's score, in addition to any other runs which are scored off it, and the batsman can't be dismissed off a wide except by being run out or stumped, or by handling the ball, hitting his wicket, or obstructing the field.

Law Bye and Leg bye. If a ball that is not a no ball or wide passes the striker and runs are scored, they are called byes. If a ball that is not a no ball hits the striker but not the bat and runs are scored, they are called leg-byes.

Grace himself was said to have been paid more money for playing cricket than any professional. It is a nostalgic name prompted by the collective sense of loss resulting from the war, but the period did produce some great players and memorable matches, especially as organised competition at county and Test level developed. The inter-war years were dominated by Australia 's Don Bradman , statistically the greatest Test batsman of all time. Test cricket continued to expand during the 20th century with the addition of the West Indies , New Zealand and India before the Second World War and then Pakistan , Sri Lanka , Zimbabwe and Bangladesh in the post-war period.

In cricket, the rules of the game are specified in a code called The Laws of Cricket hereinafter called "the Laws" which has a global remit. There are 42 Laws always written with a capital "L". The earliest known version of the code was drafted in and, since , it has been owned and maintained by its custodian, the Marylebone Cricket Club MCC in London. Each wicket is made of three wooden stumps topped by two bails.

The three stumps are aligned centrally on the bowling crease, which is eight feet eight inches long. The popping crease is drawn four feet in front of the bowling crease and parallel to it; although it is drawn as a twelve-foot line six feet either side of the wicket , it is in fact unlimited in length. The return creases are drawn at right angles to the popping crease so that they intersect the ends of the bowling crease; each return crease is drawn as an eight-foot line, so that it extends four feet behind the bowling crease, but is also in fact unlimited in length.

Before a match begins, the team captains who are also players toss a coin to decide which team will bat first and so take the first innings. A match with four scheduled innings is played over three to five days; a match with two scheduled innings is usually completed in a single day. If the team that bats last scores enough runs to win, it is said to have "won by n wickets", where n is the number of wickets left to fall.

For example, a team that passes its opponents' total having lost six wickets i. The team with the greater score is then said to have "won by an innings and n runs", and does not need to bat again: n is the difference between the two teams' aggregate scores.

If the team batting last is all out, and both sides have scored the same number of runs, then the match is a tie ; this result is quite rare in matches of two innings a side with only 62 happening in first-class matches from the earliest known instance in until January In the traditional form of the game, if the time allotted for the match expires before either side can win, then the game is declared a draw.

Such a match is called a "limited overs" or "one-day" match, and the side scoring more runs wins regardless of the number of wickets lost, so that a draw cannot occur. If this kind of match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula, known as the Duckworth-Lewis method after its developers, is often used to recalculate a new target score. A one-day match can also be declared a "no-result" if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs have been bowled by either team, in circumstances that make normal resumption of play impossible; for example, wet weather.

White balls are mainly used in limited overs cricket , especially in matches played at night, under floodlights left. Red balls are used in Test cricket and first-class cricket and some other forms of cricket right.

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