The art of saxophone playing pdf


 

(Sax. Met) Teal, Larry - The Art of Saxophone Playing - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Larry Teal - The Art of Saxophone Playing - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. larry teal - the art of saxophone terney.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

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The Art Of Saxophone Playing Pdf

(Saxophone) Larry Teal - The Art Of Saxophone terney.info DownloadReport. Published on Oct View Download AddThis Sharing Buttons. According to Larry Teal, the best method of learning to play the saxophone is to study with a competent teacher. Teal's studies were mostly of instruments other. The Art of Saxophone Playing - Kindle edition by Larry Teal. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like.

Learn how and when to remove this template message Saxophone vibrato is much like a vocal or string vibrato, except the pitch variations are made using the jaw instead of the player's fingers or breathing organs. The jaw motions required for vibrato can be simulated by saying the syllables "wah-wah-wah" or "tai-yai-yai. Many classical players look to violinists as the models for their sound. Jazz vibrato varies even more amongst players. Fast and wide vibrato is used by Swing music players, while some modern jazz saxophonists use almost no vibrato except in slow ballads. Typically, less vibrato is used at faster tempos. Players just starting out with vibrato will usually start out slow with exaggerated jaw movements.

He played bass clarinet with the Detroit Symphony, but he continued to be absorbed by the saxophone. As a result of his acquired expertise and growing reputation, he was appointed to a full-time faculty position as a saxophone teacher by the University of Michigan -- the first ever to receive such an appointment from a major university. During his year tenure, he attracted students from all over, thus exerting an ever widening influence on saxophone teaching and performing.

By Willis Coggins in collaboration with Fred Weber. By Willis Coggins in collaboration with James D.

Join Our Email List. We use cookies to analyze site usage, enhance site usability, and assist in our marketing efforts. Participate Alfred Cares: Choral Music Download Tools for School: Also Available Digitally site Kindle. The mouthpiece that 1s supplied with a standard instrument should suffice for the beginner, until his own individuality asserts itself.

These mouthpieces are usually of medium Iactng and chamber, which Is desirable for the new student. If there is any reason for a cbange, the teacher or an experienced saxophonist will be able to discover this immediately.

Young students should not run to the music store and download a new one unless they have specific tnstructjons as to both make and facing. Often this download is exactly the wrong one for him, and will do more harm than good. Another trap to. The mouthpiece is one of the most important elements in the building of an embouchure, and should not be treated casually. It is not a gift that your aunt should download you for Christmas, unless she has obtained the exact specifications from an expert who is acquainted with the musical status of the prospective user.

A preference as to material uaed is up to. Mouthpieces of various materials which have exactly the same dimenstons, including the chamber and outside measurements as well as the facing, play very nearly the same. The feel of the various materials undoubtedly has a psychological effect on the player, but it is difficult for the listener to differentiate between them if the dimensions are the same.

The glass mouthpiece for aaxophcne is more or less a rarity at present, although it has many adherents among clarinetists. It is quite fragile, and a slight bump on the tip may cause it to chip.

Its chief structural advantage is the permanence of the facing. Metal mouthpieces have the advantage of ruggedness and can be tooled to fine tolerances. The outside dimensions can be made smaller, since metal need not be very thick to have the necessary strength. This is an advantage to tenar and baritone players who have a small mouth and prefer the feel of a smaller mouthpiece. Plastic bas proved to be a good material and is in wide use. The quality has been improved, and it no longer has a tendency to crack.

Plastic has a high degree of permanence and strength, and is popular in student mouthpieces, where ruggedness and precision are required at low cost.

The rod rubber, or ebonite, mouthpiece, which baa been the standby for many years, is still universally preferred. It can be refaoed and tooled easily, will not crack under ordinary circumstances, and is permanent in holding a facing. The tip and facing will be injured if bumped or dropped, and it should always be handled with care. All mouthpieces should be wiped dry with a soft cloth after each use, both inside and aut.

Regular washing ia important not only because of the obvious fact that an unclean mouthpiece is an excellent breeding ground for germs but also because a calcified sediment, which is almost impossible to remove, collects in the inside chamber and changes the inner dimensions. THE DESIGN Mouthpiece design is a matter for serious consideration, since its dimensions and shape have a definite effect on tone quality, pitch, volume, equality of registers, flexibility, and ease of playing.

A knowledge of the factors that control these aspects of tone production is helpful in the selection of a satisfactory mouthpiece. Tone quality has its birth in the inner chamber of the mouthpiece, with the reed and mouthpiece acting as the generating mechanism.

This mechanism sets up the relationship of the fundamental tone 10 its various partials, which affects the nature of the tonal quality. It might be well to clarify "medium facing" before proceeding.

The accepted usage of this term defines the measurements with which most aaxophonfate can get the best results. This has been determined by trial and error, which does not imply that it is the perfect deaign, but only a starting point from which the discriminating musician can proceed. With this in mind, we will dtscuss the factors which control the performance of a rhouthpiece.

The Facing. The shape of the curve which leaves the flat table of the mouthpiece. Its extent controls the distance between the tip of tbe reed and the tip of the mouthpiece, known as the tiP opening.

The distance from the tip to the beginning of the curve is known as the length of the facing. The long faCing induces biting, as more pressure is needed to close the reed to the point where it will vibrate. It requires a shorter bite and a soft reed, which weakens the high notes. The short facing reduces embouchure control and flexibility. The tone is thin and the low tones are Jinclined to break.

It is comparatively easy on the embouchure, but lacks dynamic range. The wide tiP opening makes soft playing difficult, the tone coarse, and gives a false sense of volume. A soft reed is required unless the embouchure muscles are powerful. The narrow tip opening requires the use of a harder reed, produces a thin tone, and the high register is apt to be sharp.

The general consensus seems to be that the curve of the facing should be tbe arc of a perfect circle. This view is supported by scientific findings, discussed in the chapter on reeds, which indicate that the reed actually closes the tip opening.

The following diagram, shown to illustrate this principle, emphasizes the point that an i. The Baffle. The portion of the mouthpiece directly baek of the tip which receives the first shock of the vibrations as they leave the reed.

A high baffle leaves little space at this point between the reed and mouthpiece, and reinforces the upper partials, giving an edge or buzz to the sound. It is likely to be the cause of squeaks. Tone projection is good, but quite rough. The low baffle produces a dark, dead sound that lacks carrying power. It creates resistance too close to the tip of the reed and is bard to blow. The Tip Rail. The broad rail might be descrihed as a defensive device.

It is excellent for soft playing but incapable of projection, emits a pure sound with an absence of higher partials and no edgy quality, but has very little flexibility. The narrow rail is a dangerous one, and is probably the main cause of chirps or squeaks. The reed must fit perfectly since 19 the narrow ran offers so little resistance that it is difficult to control. Fine for a buzzy type of projection, and sometimes used by those who are willing to risk an occasional squeak to produce this type of sound.

It should be used only by an experienced player. The Chamber. This is the primary resonance chamber of the tone. While the facing is of great importance, it is axiomatic that a well-designed chamber will produce good results with any reasonable facing. A small chamber leading directly into the mouthpipe will give more volume and more edge to the sound than a large chamber. Straight side walls allow for more of the higher partials; curved side waUsproduce a more mellow tone.

There are so many shapes of the inner chamber that it is impossible to make valid generalizations. The selection of the ideal mouthpiece for you is a difficult and lengthy process. It is best to start with the so-called medium or standard type mouthpiece. As your ability on the instrument improves, your style and taste will take definite paths.

Moderation and caution is urged so that you do not have to retrace the se paths. Bad habits 0 r conditions resulting from improper procedure can be long and costly in their correction. A mouthpiece that is too radical can set your playing back more than you imagine.

Consider the case of a young person who, in his early stages of playing, downloads a long, open facing. The only way he can get the upper notes is by biting, and he has to drop his jaw considerably to produce the low tones.

Soon this becomes a habit which may take years to correct, even though he bas changed to a more moderate type of mouthpiece. This type of situation is not unusual, as any experienced teacher will bear out. The self-taught student is prone to bad habits, but some of them can be eliminated through the use of a moderate or "medium" type mouthpiece.

It may make playing easier and thus have a psychological advantage for 20 the user. The tone quality depends largely on the mouthpiece chamber and the baffle. A good refacing job will also include the tip rail and the baffle. It also opeqs the mouth more and makes the tone more mellow. It is best to have a repairman do this for you. This, even if approximate, would eliminate some of the confusion. At present it is impossible to sort out the meaning of some of the hieroglyphics pertaining to facings and tip openings.

Some mouthpieces are longer than others, and require a different placement on the cork. However, because of the differences in mouthpiece size, you need not always use the same facing and make of mouthpiece if you are doubling.

It will not compensate for a poor embouchure or insufficient air support. THE The principal task of the reed is its function as an air valve which opens and closes on the mouthpiece at various speeds. The rate of speed, or frequency. A large air chamber will vibrate slower than a small one, since it creates a greater work load on the reed.

The steady pressure of the air column in front of the reed is converted into a series of short spurts of air as it passes through the mouthpiece tip, somewhat in the following manner: In addition, the reed must be so versatile as to alter speed quickly and efficIently on each new tone, vary amplitude On every change of volume, start and stop with each articulation, plus having the characteristics necessary to produce the best possible sound.

McGinnis and C. Gallagher, who had succeeded in photographing the time and motion of a single reed while in the process of tone production. The results REED of this experiment showed the reed functioning as a valve which emits "puffs" of air into the instrument, and also forms an air tight seal during 1uJ if oj the time oj each vibrating cycle.

Larry Teal – The Art Of Saxophone Playing

To quote from this article: Consider the chink is just on the point of closing. With the aperture closed, the reed appears motionless to the eye for about half of the time of the complete cycle.

It then leaves the mouthpiece with relatively high velocity and reaches its position of maximum displacement in a series of short spurts. The time spent motionless at maximum displacement is roughly a quarter of the fundamental period. The tip of the reed now returns to the mouthpiece in a series of short spurts, and the fundamental cycle is complete.

Thus, the actual motion of the reed occupies only about a quarter of the period. The importance of these findings lies in the fact that the reed must close along the jacing as well as the tiP of the mouthpiece, and that both sides must seal Simultaneously. This explains the need for "balancing" the reed along the curve of the facing, so that the reed will curl around the facing with a sealing effect.

Practically all saxophone reeds are made from cane. While other materials have been tried and marketed, the lone survivor at present is the plasttc reed, which is in limited use.

The main value of the plastlc reed is its durability, but it has neither the tone qual- "'Used by permission of the Acoustical Society of America. Continued experimentation may one day produce a material wht ch win have both the mustcal possibUities of a cane reed and permanency.

This indeed will be a historic event for all single and double reed instrumentalists! Until this pot of gold Ues at our feet, we must commit ourselves to coping with the reed problem in the best manner possible. The finest cane comes from an area known as the "Vax" region, which lies along the Mediterranean coast in southern France. Fifteen to twenty years are required from the planting of the cane to its peak of maturity, Plants transplanted from France to other areas do not have the same quality ,so most efforts in thIs direction have been abandoned.

Cane, l1ke wtne, bas its good and bad years, depending on the weather, and there is no assurance of uniformi. While a few players are commendably making their own, the practice is not widespread.

Chappell and Compa. Commercial reeds are ordinarily packaged in boxes of 12 or 25,. Once the desired strength and make Is determined, it is prefe,rable to download them by the box rather than selecting a few at a time, for the open package may have been picked over and the best looking ones removed.

Many dealers refuse toaHow reeds to be examined by the young atudent, but wi. Since r,eds are unpredictable, this is often a disappoInting situation.

Students and parents should realize that a percentage of reeds bought simply do not work, whereas others that. A few suggestions may improve your batting average in chooamg playable reeds: Select a medium or medium soft strength until you determine what ts best for you, Grade markings are not uniform for all brands, so seek advice in this matter.

A reed that is slightly hard will usually weaken after a short period of playing, so be w. If you have tbe privilege of selecting reeds from the box, look fo'r a fine-gral. Beware of dark streaks in the grain of the cut part. These can be seen by holding the reed up to light.

Dark flecks in the smooth bark of the reed are, no indication that the reed is poor. However, if there. A slightly golden or cream color in the vamp of the reed is a sign. When you find an off-color reed 10 a box which has been downloadd, do not immediately throw it away. It just might work, and you have nothing to lose. Look for an even taper on both sides, with greater thickness in the center, the dark shadow blending into light in the form of an inverted U.

Tbeshoulder of the reed should break aWay from the stock uniformly on both sides. A cut that is off-center indicates wrong stae or out-of-round cane tbat should have been rejected by the manufa. Examine the shape of the arc on the butt of the reed. This Indtcates the size. Neither a high nor a flat arc will produce satisfactory results. Reeds will last longer and play better if given proper care.

The chemicals in human saliva react on the soft inter-fibre structure and upset the proper relationship between the hard and soft materials. This ultimately results in the reed wearing out. This deterioration can be postponed if the open ends of the tubes are sealed by polishing the vamp of the reed, forming a hard surface that protects the soft pithy material from excessive moisture. Massaging this area with an improvised tool such as the back of a teaspoon or the handle of an automatic pen or pencil until the vamp feels hard and smooth is an effective method of producing this seal.

Some saxophonists use the thumb and forefinger to stroke the vamp of the reed toward the tip. Never handle the reed by the tip.

This is the most common cause of reed injury, and often occurs during the placement of the reed on the mouthpiece. The ligature should be loosely put on the mouthpiece first, then the reed slipped under the ligature and adjusted on the mouthpiece. Hold the mouthpiece and ligature in the left hand. Slide the reed in position with the right thumb. The reed should be well centered on the mouthpiece table and faclng with the tip adjusted so that, when in closed poaltlon, it reaches the pomt wbere the mouthpieoe breaks to the facing.

Too much tension tends to stifle the vibration. When removing the reed, loosen the ligature first and slip the reed from under it, in the direction of the tip. This 1s caused by the soft material between the fibres absorbing moisture at varying rates, and has nothing to do with the reed's quality. It is a good plan to have three or four playable reeds on hand and alternate the use of them si.

The flat side of the reed should be placed against a flat surface when it is not in use. There are several good reed holders on the market, such as the Maier "Reed Guard, rr which are very satisfactory. The glass should be ground on the edges for safety.

The reed should then be rinsed with water and left to dry before using. A very light scraping with a knife or razor blade will remove much of the surface sediment that may collect on the vamp but must be done with caution to prevent changing the balance. This habit should be developed from the first day of saxophone study. Press the thumb nail into the stock of the reed. If it resists altogether, the cane is old and overcured. If it feels soft and marks easily, it is still green.

A light mark that has a springy feeling indicates properly a. Another excellent test involves recognition of the "maturity arch. This streak should be brownish-orange in color. If it has a green or yellow caste, or if there is no streak at all the cane is not ready for adjustment, and should be put away for a year or more before retesting. It is wasteful to throw these reeds away, as they may turn out to be your "pets" when properly aged and adjusted. If, after wetting the butt of the reed as described above, you blow on the butt end, small bubbles will appear along the vamp of the reed.

These bubbles should not be large or profuse, as this indioates a reed that is too porous. One must be reminded, however, that the large reed will have bigger tubes than the small reed.

It is a good idea to select a reed that resists the passage of air through its tubes, but does not completely close it off. A little experimentation as to the proper amount will prove helpful. These tests w9rk with new cane only. A minimum list of tools necessary for saxophone reed adjustment includes: The edges should be ground smooth to prevent cutting the hands. A reed trimmer. ThIs should be selected with care, for in the long run it is more eoonomical to download the best obtainable. The shape of the cut must match your mouthpiece tip.

If there is any indication of a ragged edge in the cut, the trimmer should be rejected. It is a good idea to take some old reeds and your own mouthpiece to the store to determine a matching shape of out. A scraping YY "burring" knife. This can be obtained at a jew. The shape of the edge prevents gouging the cane. A satisfaotory substitute can be made at home by downloading a small three-cornered file with a wood handle.

The sides are then ground smooth and finished by hand on a stone. Dutch Rush, for finishing and sensitive alterations. This can be found along streams and marshy lands in certain parts of the country. It is quite taexpenslve, and uniform quality is assured if it is downloadd from a wind instrument supply house.

Number Sandpaper. A few sheets will last a long time. A single-edged razor blade. Fingernail emery boards. If a reed is reasonably playable, the finer balancing and adjusting should be postponed until the cane has gone through a "breaking-in" period.

Cane changes its character rapidly when first used, and an adjustment made before it is properly broken in may be difficult to correct later. The suggested procedure is to use the reed only a short time at its first playing, then set it aside for a day. Try playing for a little longer on the second day and on successive days until you feel that the cane has stabilized its character.

Usually the reed will be softer after the first few playings, but this does not always follow. Sometimes It will become stiffer! It is presumptuous to assume that specific directions can be given for solving the reed problem, since it is a matter of trial and error for each individual, which may seem mostly error at first. Much can be learned over a long period of time, however, and if one considers his first efforts as part of his schooling, he will be rewarded. Then check the balance of the two sides with the forefinger, as indicated in Fig.

Moisten the reed thoroughly before clipping, and make sure that it is centered properly. Most clippers have a spring which holds the reed, but in some the reed must be held by hand. If the latter is true, be sure that the grip is firm as you press the cutting lever. Haste in this procedure often ruins the reed; it is easy to take a little more off the tip of a reed, but impossible to add. One should also bear in mind that each clip shortens the vamp of the reed, so there is a point at which further clipping is useless.

Usually about one-sixteenth of an inch is the limit that a reed can be trimmed successfully. After the reed has been clipped, the corners should be rounded and the curve adjusted to the mouthpiece. For this, use the emery board, stroking very lightly toward the center portion of the reed. Proper shaping in this area will improve the chance of perfect balancing.

If the reed is strong enough so 26 FIGURE 2 that no trimming of the tip is indicated, it is still desirable to match the tip to the mouthpiece before the balancing adjustment is started. After a reed bas been in use for a long time and starts to become soggy, it may be iplproved temporarily by trimming, but usually the cane has lost much of its resiliency and any rejuvenation will be short lived. The download of a proper strength reed will eliminate the necessity of radical adjustment, and save much time.

This type of reed will feel hard to blow and should be balanced. It can be checked by turning the mouthpiece in the embouchure so that only one side of the reed will Vibrate, then alternate to the other side. When both sides are nearly the same, but too stiff, then a general adjustment should begin.

If one side of the reed blows harder, this should be balanced before carrying the adjustment further. A look at the tip in front of a strong light will indicate just where the thinning should begin. Dutch Rush is best for balancing the tip and sides of the reed. Before using, soak the end portion of the rush in water until it is pliable; then pinch one end together and cut it off with scissors or a razor blade.

Use the flattened end of the rush over the forefinger, making sure that the fibres run at a right angle to the reed, as in the following picture. In balancing, tbe portion of the reed to thin is from approximately five-eights of an inch to one-eighth of an inch from the tip.

Shade the cut from the center to the sides so that the heart of the reed is not disturbed. The heart is the start of the resistance area and should rarely be touched. The reed should always be balanced correctly before this area is considered.

If the reed is still too stiff after balanoing, scrape lightly with the burring knife along the sides of the vamp. If this does not accomplish the purpose, take a little off the entire vamp of the reed, but very lightly over the heart.

The Art of Saxophone Playing by Larry Teal

It must be graduated evenly from the center to the sides of the vamp toward the tip. Test aiter each clip. Buzzy or edgy Tip Trimmer Same as above. Blows hard 2 Dutch Rush Thin both sides and balance. Lower register 2 Dutch Rush Balance and thin if necessary. Lacks projection in 3 Dutch Rush Move 3 back from the tip. This may upper register shorten the life of the reed. Lack of resonance in 4 Dutch Rush Lightly on 3 also.

After balancing, reed plays well but Scraper Thin evenly all indicated areas. Table not smooth Table Sandpaper Rub I ightly back and forth, always in on glass the direction of the grain. The saxophone must be considered as a part of the performer, and an intimate and comfortable physical association creates a more unified feeling for the musical performance. When the body assumes a tense attitude during a lengthy rehearsal or practice period, the resultant discomfort retards both the mental and physical aspects of musical progress.

A relaxed and efficient playing position leaves the performer free to concentrate on the artistic and technical problems involved. Weight and balance dictate the manner of holding the instrument, which is determined by: In considering the various types of saxophones, the soprano is always held in front, out from the middle of the body in much the same manner as the clarinet or the oboe , except that the bell of the instrument is farther away from the body. This is dictated by the more horizontal posttton of the saxophone mouthpiece, which is at an approximate angle of 45 degrees as compared with 30 degrees for the clarinet.

The tenor saxophone is best held against the body at the right side. In the case of a small player, the right hand may be as far back as the hip, but as he grows and his arms lengthen, the instrument should be pushed forward gradually. This Situation also requires an alteration of the head position in order to maintain the same angle of the mouthpiece. The baritone, while sometimes held with the neck strap, is more corn- Hortable when supported by a sax stand, which carries the entire weight and also positions the horn at the correct angle.

The bass saxophone must be played from the sax stand, as it is much too heavy and cumbersome for a performer to hold. The alto seems to be the wrong size for generalization, and the holding position must be governed by the size of the individual. An adult usually holds the instrument in front, whereas a smaller person must UBe the side position. The length of the arms is a determining factor when one decides on his particular placement. Good posture, both sitting and standing, should not be neglected.

The head should be erect and the back straight, but avoid a stiff, military appearance. Keep both feet flat on the floor when Sitting. When standing, distribute the weight of the body equally between both feet, which should be spread slightly for stability and balance.

The neck strap should be adjusted to support the entire weight of the instrument, eliminating any possibility of stress on the hands and arms.

The hands must steady the saxophone but should not support it. The angle of the head in relation to the music rack should be conSidered. A great number of students form the habit of looking at the music out of one eye, owing to crowded rehearsal conditions that prevent placing the music stand directly in front of the player. When two or sometimes three people are forced to use the same music rack and at the same time watch the conductor, in addition to sitting in chairs that must be kept in a.

Points to bear in mind in the establishment of a good playing position are: Stand or sit erect, but relaxed. Keep both feet flat on the floor. Place the music rack so that when looking straight ahead the music can be read clearly with either eye.

Adjust the neck strap so that it supports the weight of the instrument. Hold the saxophone at the side or in front, depending on the size of the instrument and its relation to your body and arms. Tone quality t intonation, technique, and interpretation are affected if the playing position causes discomfort. While just "getting comfortable" will not solve all the problems, it will set up a condition which encourages alertness, and a physical climate conducive to improvement.

Under ordinary circumstances the respiratory organs adjust their activity to the needs of the human body in an efficient and unassuming manner.

Conscious use of the breathing apparatus is a non-normal situation. If we consider the year-old child who attempts to blowout the candle on his first birthday cake, we will note that there is no concept of blowing, and that he has to be taught this skill, just as he has to be taught to walk and talk. Any use of the respiratory apparatus for activities which are beyond the scope of supplying the blood stream with the correct amount of oxygen requires a conscious effort, and this ts a most important element in the field of wind instrument playing.

The nature of a musical sound involves uniformly vibrating waves in the air which exert pressure on the human ear. Creating these waves requires the use of a device which will in some manner start the air in motion at the desired rate of speed. Stringed instruments are either plucked or bowed. The use of the bow allows the tone to be sustained, since it keeps the string vibrating at a uniform amplitude, whereas a string that is struck or plucked will have its greatest volume on the initial impact, followed by a gradual diminuendo.

Bras8 players set up a lip vibration by forcing an air stream through a small opening in the lips. Reed instruments are divided into two categories. The double reeds, such as oboe and bassoon, have two small pieces of cane vibrating against each other.

The Single reeds. The air stream which sets this reed in motion is as critical to its correct performance as is the carburetor in an automobile to a sm. Anyone who has observed the practice methods of student Violinists is well acquainted with the emphasis and time spent in the development of proper bowing procedures.

The importance of this phase of violin playing continues throughout the life of the serious violinist. A fine performer draws the bow slowly with proper tension and produces a beautiful tone, whereas the novice uses much more bow length with a scratchy, unmusical result.

The preceding applies directly to the saxophone.

The player blames the mouthpiece, the reed, and most of all the embouchure. All of these are very important. They will in no case function properly if the breath is unable to activate the vibrating medium in a controlled manner. It is questionable whether the Creator had in mind the blowing of a saxophone when he invented that intricate machine known as man.

Fortunately, he left an excess of capacity 8. Strenuous exercise calls for faster and deeper breathing, but this still adheres to the original purpose of supplying oxygen to the blood stream. Performance on a wind instrument requires a slower, but not uniform, respiration rate, deeper breathing and increased pressure of the chest cavity, in addition to maintenance of the correct oxygen-blood stream relationship. If an excess of oxygen enters the blood we will become light-headed and dizzy.

This can be simply demonstrated by standtng perfectly still and taking fast, deep breaths continuously. It is surrounded by the bony structure consisting of the spine, breastbone, and the ribs costals. Between the ribs there are many small muscles known as the intercostals, which function to expand and contract the ribs.

The floor of the chest cavity is a muscular , membranous partition known as the diaphragm. The diaphragm completely shuts off the chest cavity from the abdomen.

It is in the shape of a dome, which tends to flatten out on inhalation, but is disposed to return to its normal state. Once it has assumed this flat position through inhalation, it will foroe air out merely by relaxing. The trachea is a cartfleglnous, membeanous pipe through which the air passes in and out of the lungs. At its upper extremity is the larynx, containing the organs which control the passage of the atr through the windpipe.

The uppermost of these organs is the epiglottis, a valve which directs food into the stomach and air into the lungs.

The trachea divides into two branches, going to the left and right lungs. The esophagus is located behind the trachea and passes directly through the chest cavity into the stomach. Although the use of the chest and intercostal muscles ts apparent, some additional discussion of the diaphragm and its purpose might be in order.

The most natural way to move the diaphragm is by pushing the abdomen forward. This is the action that takes place when we breathe naturally. Anyone who watches a sleeping person will observe that the stomach moves rather than the chest. The average person, however, when asked to take a deep breath, wi.

He will expand his chest as be inhales and push out the stomach during exhalation. This amounts to the same action as squeezing a tube of toothpaste in the middle; the back end of the tube will bulge out, and, even though some of the paste is ejected, about half of the energy is used on the dead end of the tube. Our first task is to get the maximum amount of air into the lungs. It is a funda. When the chest cavi. Wben blowing out, we raise the pressure on the inside of the cavity, thus reversing the precess.

This is thesame prtnctple on which an old-fashioned bellows ora tire pump operates. Posture plays an important part in an efficient breathing action. A slumped position will not allow the chest cavity to expand to its full capacity.

This can be demonstrated if one pushes his shoulders back. He will immediately feel that the chest is larger, even though he has not taken in any air. The first consideration should be to develop the habit of standing or sitting erect. The chest should be held high. Then start the muscular action from the floor of the chest cavity by expanding the muscles whi. Pushing the walls of the abdominal cavity forward and out to the sides is a most natural way to accomplish this.

The back muscles can be brought into play also. Such expansion has but one purpose: This is done simultaneously with expansion of the lower chest in the quick intake of a full breath. In its developmental stage, breathing should be practiced away from the instrument until the action is well under control.

One of the methods for establishing the movement of the proper muscles requires lying flat on the back in a relaxed manner.

(Saxophone) Larry Teal - The Art Of Saxophone Playing .pdf

Inhale, hold the breath for a few seconds, then exhale. This will likely require the lower jaw to push forward just slightly to be in alignment with the upper teeth. A habit that many saxophonists develop very early in their playing is biting into the lower lip with the lower teeth. Many think that the lower lip acts as a cushion into which your teeth can bite; again, this results in a hindrance in the vibration of the reed, not to mention the fatigue and pain that can be caused by the teeth actually restricting blood flow to the lip.

Therefore, the lower teeth should merely REST against the lip, not bite into it, and the chin muscles should be strong enough to support the lower lip see exercises below to prevent the lower teeth from biting into the lip. By the same token, the chin should not be bunched up, but should remain in a firm but relaxed position. There are some good exercises that can help to strengthen the embouchure muscles.

This is an excellent resource for all students and educators. The first exercise begins by casually closing the jaw, allowing the bottom teeth and top teeth to merely make contact; it is very important to not clamp the jaw shut during this exercise. Then, push the upper and lower lips tightly against one another, maintaining a straight line with the lips.

Again, do not clamp the jaw shut!

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