PDF | Publicly Available Specification (PAS) Crisis management. Guidance and good practice, recently published by the British Standards Institution. PDF | On Oct 15, , Andrea Manzoni and others published Crisis Management. Crisis Management: Theories and Methods. Decision making in crisis situations. Definitions, models, methods and research issues. Symposium ARPEGE.

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Crisis Management Pdf

New forms of crises are calling for new and innovative crisis management responses. . Strategic Crisis Management Exercises: examples from Germany and. Crisis. Management. Protecting your people, assets and brand. Aon Risk Solutions Organisations that introduce robust crisis management plans ahead of a. essence of crisis management is cultivating the potential successes lurking Crisis management requires careful and thoughtful planning for a disaster that.

A sudden and unexpected event leading to major unrest amongst the individuals at the workplace is called as organization crisis. In other words, crisis is defined as any emergency situation which disturbs the employees as well as leads to instability in the organization. Crisis affects an individual, group, organization or society on the whole. Characteristics of Crisis Crisis is a sequence of sudden disturbing events harming the organization. Crisis generally arises on a short notice. Crisis triggers a feeling of fear and threat amongst the individuals.

It is a definite yes that in one time or another crisis may occur but how well are our organizations prepared, to deal with this form of problem when it occurs. According to Schar , she comes up with a series of questions like if a crisis happens who will be in charge of decision making and communication?

What if scandals that could ruin the organizations image in the public domain occurred what would be done to protect the organization? This then leads us to crisis response which is an approach to dealing with an event in a professional manner that addresses the critical needs of the time. The planning is designed to address the worst-case scenarios.

The goal is to establish protocols and procedures to guide management decision-making, employee actions, and client expectations.

After all, crises can be fertile opportunities for learning and change if an organization is equipped with the right tools to handle them.

There are two sides to managing any crisis: planning and response. Aktouf, Crisis and crisis management are normal and inevitable occurrences in organizations. Even with the need to excel, attain perfection and maintain an ethical code, something always goes wrong. We are going to critically discuss crisis and how well to handle it or rather respond when it occurs.

According to Regester. This means that the more organizations try to hide secrets of a crisis, the deeper the media will dig for them. Regester advises organization to tell it all, tell it fast and tell it truthfully. Different crises call for different response strategies.


Lerbinger identifies these types as: a Natural disasters b Technological crisis c Confrontational crisis d Crisis of Malevolence e Crisis of Organizational Misdeeds f Workplace violence g Rumors. They are percent nature-oriented with dire results to life, organizational and personal property as well as the environment.

Examples include earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, landslides, storms and droughts. This usually comes from human use of science and technology. It usually occurs when human error or natural disasters disrupts the normal routine during technology applications. People can blame such technological mishaps to human manipulation while not heap a similar claim to natural crises. Examples of such technological crises are industrial mishaps, oil spills and software failures.

Such examples include boycotting products, picketing also known as holding demonstrations or protesting , blocking or occupying a building forcefully, resisting arrest or defying police and sit-ins that make claims to those in authority. They can also seek to gain from it so as to destroy its functions or destabilize its operations.


Crisis of skewed Management Values-occurs when a manager in the organization gives special attention to short-term economic gains from investors over wider social values of the organization and its shareholders. This practice goes against the interests of the customers, the community and employees of the organization. Crisis of Management Misconduct- It is usually on another scale of wrongdoing where deception, skewed values are part.

The managerial department of an organization decides to be deliberately illegal in its customer dealings and without a sense of morality in its operations. It defies all ethical codes of operation. The latter argued that the product contained genetically modified organisms GMO , after Unilever ran a successful campaign to promote Aromat. This declaration by the National Biosafety Authority resulted in a withdrawal of the product from supermarket shelves and retail stores countrywide.

Internet mishaps such as a poor internet connection, virus infection in computers resulting in slow computer functions password errors all end up in a crisis. The management of the organization should handle its personnel appropriately and not entertain a casual attitude at work.

He stopped to watch black smoke pour from the place of impact—an awful lot of smoke, it seemed, for what was probably a small plane that had lost its way.

Failure can result in serious harm to stakeholders, losses for an organization, or end its very existence. Public relations practitioners are an integral part of crisis management teams Coombs, 9 According to Aktouf. Unlike the lengthy pre-planned solutions to predictable problems, which incidence managers use, the crisis manager has to work out the unexpected problem in an organization, with professionalism, care and creativity.

This helps to avoid deepening the problem. In Kenya today, the active use of social media as a means to lobby for rights against injustice, for instance the Kenyans On Twitter hash tag KOT , has kept organizations and government departments on their toes as far as accountability is concerned Twitter, Crisis management is designed to prevent or lessen the damage a crisis can inflict on an organization and its stakeholders. It is divided into three phases: a. Pre-crisis -: Prevention and preparation of a crisis b.

Crisis response -: Crisis management team responds to a crisis c.

Crisis Management - Meaning, Need and its Features

Post-crisis -: Crisis management team looks for ways to avoid another crisis from happening and how to handle it if it occurred. Effective communication during a crisis requires a good ability to communicate before, during and after the crisis. Communication is very vital in an organization and when a crisis occurs, the art of communicating should be carefully looked at, to avoid misguidance or miscommunication, especially from the media and the public.

Communication requires coordination, cooperation and a great deal of internal communication. Everyone in the organization should have great communication skills to achieve organizational goals and objectives.

This will minimize the possibility of the crisis from occurring.

In reference to Reynolds. In other words, crisis is defined as any emergency situation which disturbs the employees as well as leads to instability in the organization. Crisis affects an individual, group, organization or society on the whole. Characteristics of Crisis Crisis is a sequence of sudden disturbing events harming the organization.

Crisis generally arises on a short notice. Crisis triggers a feeling of fear and threat amongst the individuals. Why Crisis? Crisis can arise in an organization due to any of the following reasons: Technological failure and Breakdown of machines lead to crisis. Problems in internet, corruption in the software, errors in passwords all result in crisis.

Crisis arises when employees do not agree to each other and fight amongst themselves. Crisis arises as a result of boycott, strikes for indefinite periods, disputes and so on. Violence, thefts and terrorism at the workplace result in organization crisis.

Neglecting minor issues in the beginning can lead to major crisis and a situation of uncertainty at the work place. The management must have complete control on its employees and should not adopt a casual attitude at work. Illegal behaviors such as accepting bribes, frauds, data or information tampering all lead to organization crisis. Crisis arises when organization fails to pay its creditors and declares itself a bankrupt organization.