Information Technology Project. Management, Sixth Edition. Note: See the text itself for full citations. Visit terney.info for more courses. Chapter 2 The Project Management and Information Technology Context. 43 files will be in Microsoft Word, Excel, Access, Project, or in HTML or PDF format. Information Technology Project Management, Revised, 6th ed. 44 Pages · · MB Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers (6th Ed)(gnv64).pdf.
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Information Technology Project Management,. REVISED Sixth Edition. Kathy Schwalbe. Executive Vice President and Publisher: Jonathan. Information Technology Project Management. Page ISBN: Specifically qouted, the book states: "The staffing management plan often. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECT MANAGEMENT Structured Approach to Systems Development 16 Rapid Applications Development (RAD) 16 The.
Project schedule management: the project schedule is defined first by the working hours of the project, any project milestones , and ultimately a project deadline. The project manager will work with the project team to identify the project tasks and task duration estimates in order to create a project timeline.
Project costs management: the costs of the project are estimated so that a budget for the project can be assigned. Project costs include materials, services, facilities, software licenses , and other expenses attributed directly to the project.
Project quality management: what constitutes quality in the project is defined in specific metrics and agreed upon among the stakeholders as early in the project as possible. Quality assurance programs and policies direct the project work, while quality control inspects the project work to confirm that quality has been ascertained in the work. Project human resources management: the project manager works with the project team to verify that each team member is completing their assignments, working well with others, and that their participation and performance is reported to their respective managers.
Project communications management: stakeholders will need information from the project manager will need to provide information to the project manager throughout the project life cycle. This knowledge area create a communications management plan that address who will need what information, when the information is needed, and the best modality for the communications.
Project risk management : risks are situations, events, conditions that can threaten, and sometimes benefit, the objectives of the IT project. Risks must be identified, analyzed, and a response created for the risk event. The probability and impact of each risk event is evaluated to create a risk score to justify the costs needed to manage the risk event.
Project procurement management: should the project need to download goods or services, a formal process for procurement will need to be created. Project stakeholder management: stakeholders are anyone that has a vested interest in the project.
Stakeholder management is the identification, inclusion, and communication with the groups of project stakeholders. It manages the anxieties and concerns the stakeholders may have about the project work. Project integration management: this special knowledge area is the coordination of the events in all of the other knowledge areas. How well the project manager performs in one knowledge directly affects the performance of the other knowledge areas.
Project integration management examines the interactions and contingencies among the knowledge areas to ensure that the project is adequately planned, executed, controlled and closed.
These ten knowledge areas are to be managed iteratively throughout the project. With the exception of procurement, a project manager will likely encounter all ten of these knowledge areas in every project.
Organizations can select one of these popular approaches to help reduce the risk of expensive rework, risks from quickly changing technology, or expansive planning at the launch of the project. The project life cycle of a typical IT project moves through iterations of planning, executing, and controlling until the project is ultimately closed and transferred into operations.
However, there are three distinct IT project management life cycles: Predictive life cycle: this is the most common and traditional project life cycle for IT projects. In this approach the project manager and the project team first define the project scope, project schedule, and expected project costs before the project execution begins. In order for the project to move from its initiation to its closure each phase must be started and completed in the specific order as planned.
Iterative life cycle: this approach to IT project management requires that the project management be defined early in the project, but the cost estimates and activity duration estimating are planned at a higher level early in the project. As the project execution occurs costs and duration estimates are created for the most imminent work through iterations of planning.
The iterative life cycle also plans for iterations of benefits released to the organization. For example, an iterative life cycle may create a new software with more features with each new release as part of the project. Adaptive life cycle: this project life cycle also uses an iteration of planning and executing, but the planning that typically last for two weeks. After the system users, managers, and sponsors have reviewed and approved the work document.
After the project sponsor has accepted the statement of work, and the project is within the proposed budget. When consensus has been reached by the project manager and the sponsor that project criteria are reasonable. After the project manager and the sponsor understand and agree that project objectives will be met by the statement of work.
D Vendor terms and conditions This constraint can arise as a result of a vendor's ability to deliver a needed product or service in a certain way at a given time. You need ten servers, configured in a specific way, for example. The vendor is able to deliver six now but won't be able to deliver the rest for two weeks. How does this affect the project? The statement of work SOW that a vendor provides is a document that the project manager must clearly understand and interpret before the project sponsor signs it.
In the SOW, the vendor clearly delineates what they will do and, more importantly, what they will not do. Therefore, it's important to make sure the SOW aligns with the scope of the project.
A charge for the rental of a room that will be used for a project meeting is an example of what kind of cost? Unavoidable B. Fixed C. Variable D. Unforeseen Answer: Formal stakeholder acceptance of project deliverables occurs during which process?
Scope verification B. Project scheduling PK C. Quality checking D. Project budget creation Answer: Which will be detailed in the project planning document s with respects to the project manager?
How performance will be evaluated B. Technical certifications held C. Vacation schedule D. Names of the project team members Answer: D The project plan should include a table of contents, an executive overview, the sponsors, the team members, the requirements, the scheduled tasks WBS accounts for this , expected resources, environmental issues, business requirements, implementation, support, and training plans.
It does not include the budget part of your initiation documents and included in the charter , nor does it talk about potential marketing plans or corporate managers unaffiliated with the project. Which of the following is an effective outcome of a change management process?
Minimizes productivity loss during the project. Strictly prohibits any change of scope during the entire project. Encourages frequent change during the project life cycle. Balances project risk and cost Answer: An organization is faced with choosing from a number of projects and creates an evaluation matrix. Cost B. Degree of Change within business C.
Alignment to business needs D. Training Answer: Project sponsors have the greatest influence on the scope, quality, duration and cost of a PK project during which phase? Planning phase B. Execution phase C. Close Out phase D. Development phase Answer: A Obtain sponsor sign-off Once the project plan has been through the full revision process and you feel that you've obtained and addressed all concerns, submit the plan to the project sponsor for final approval.
Which of the following groups would BEST define who the stakeholders are in a project? The project team members, the executive staff of your company, the client's executive staff, and the functional department heads of your company. The project team members, sponsors, the executive staff of your company, and the client's executive staff. The project team members, suppliers, and representatives from the client's company who will use the deliverable.
The project team members, sponsors, suppliers, representatives from the client's company who will use the deliverable, and your company's functional department heads. C Recall that a stakeholder is defined as someone who has a share or an interest in your project. A stakeholder might not directly interact with the deliverables of your project.
For example, the manager of a marketing department might never use the demographic software that you created for use by his marketing personnel, but he is a stakeholder because he will benefit from or be hurt by the project. Your customer is a stakeholder. The project sponsor is a stakeholder. Your team members are stakeholders. The users of the deliverable are stakeholders. Those affected by the project, whether they'll use the deliverable or not, are stakeholders.
For example, suppose you're working on a project that's going to require heavy use of the company's telephone system. Even though the telecommunications department may not be using your new deliverable, they will nevertheless be involved in the project and are thus stakeholders. A stakeholder could be a vendor who has a keen interest in seeing a project succeed. I've seen this in very large and very small companies, so there seems to be no company size boundary that gets in the way of a vendor being a stakeholder.
You are a stakeholder. Identification of all the stakeholders of the project is critical. If you do not identify all of them, you could harm the project plan by not identifying a given stakeholder's needs early on. In PK the preceding telecommunications example, suppose that you had not identified the telecomm area as a stakeholder in your project. When the time arrives that you need their assistance, they might have far more pressing items to be concerned about, or they might be very put out to learn so late about your project and its goals.
Having been there before, I can tell you firsthand that stakeholders don't like finding out they're involved at the very moment that their services are needed, especially if they require resources to assist you.
So, how do we figure out who the stakeholders are? Probably the best way is to have a brainstorming session with the people already assembled on the project. Perform your brainstorming early and ask, "Who do you think the stakeholders are in this project? As new stakeholders come on board, ask them same question.
What is one mission of the project steering committee? Provide project management support. Provide assistance with completion of tasks.
Provide oversight and governance. Provide cost benefit analysis for the project manager. C Explanation: Sometimes the project sponsor is a group of people called a 'project steering committee.
Committees can get bogged down in disagreements, resulting in lack of decision-making ability, inactivity on the project, and sometimes sabotage of the project by one unhappy committee member. If at all possible, push for a single executive leader when formulating a project. Periodic corporate communication on project milestone successes.
Frequent informal project checkpoint meetings with stakeholders on project status and progress. Detailed hands-on consulting assistance to the project team.
Confirmation of alignment of project within business plan. A Forcing conflict resolution mode is characterized by: A give-and-take attitude. De-emphasizing areas of difference. Retreating or withdrawing from an actual or potential disagreement. A win-lose scenario. Which of the following graphical presentations of a project plan is MOST appropriate for presenting to upper management? Gantt - Bar chart C. B Note: Gantt chart This is the default view in Microsoft Project.
A Gantt view is pretty cool because you're given a series of bars that show the project tasks rendered over time. The graph gives you a good visual of how long each task lasts, notes predecessors and successors, and is able to instantly give you a grasp of the length of the project and even a little about the depth of each task.
PERT charts, such as the one displayed below, can be likened to software development flow charts. Some tasks' outcomes have such a large influence on the outcome of a host of other tasks that it's critical to be able to monitor these tasks and their flows.
You'll use PERT for large projects with many tasks and activities, especially when some key tasks are of extreme importance to the rest of the tasks in the project, when tasks have multiple dependencies, or when some task dependencies only show up far down the road in the project's development stages. PK Most projects will utilize a Gantt chart-basically a grouping of task blocks put together to reflect the time that each task is going to take relative to a calendar, along with any precursors or successors the task may have.
If you were to take some sticky notes and stick them on a flip chart, writing on each note the task, the date it starts, the date it ends, the duration it'll take, along with all precursors and successors, you'd essentially have a PERT chart. PERT charts are capable of showing interrelationships between tasks that a Gantt chart cannot. You'll use PERT charts on very large projects, whereas most small to medium-sized projects will work fine with Gantt charts.
Which assumption would be the MOST important in creating a high level budget? The use of open source programming. The members of a project team.
The quality plan. The hourly rate for project members. That the project relies on a "cookie cutter" approach, duplicating a prior, successful project plan. Aggressively managing the critical path during the execution phase of the project. That project activities which are normally done in a series are done in parallel. Replacing team members with higher quality to finish the project ahead of schedule. PK Answer: The column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time is called a: Resource list B.
Resource responsibility chart C. Resource histogram D. Resource allocation Answer: C Source: Schwalbe, Kathy. Information Technology Project Management. Page A checkpoint review in the project plan indicates a: Status report is due. Change control meeting. Planned date for user sign-off. B Explanation: Checkpoints serve as a method where you stop to see what you've accomplished so far; the more numerous the checkpoints, the more likely you are to arrive at a finely tuned product, but the longer the product is going to take to conclude.
What is a reason for reviewing the user requirements document with the client? To gain the client's acceptance of the detailed design. To verify mutual understanding of project resources. To verify mutual understanding of the detailed project plan. To verify mutual understanding of targeted product performance. To verify understanding of tests that will be done after the product is completed.
The first step for initiating the planning process of a project is to: Establish a project schedule. Plan the scope of the project. Identify project risks. Prepare the project budget. In the planning phase, you develop a scope document that details the scope of the project and a project plan that stipulates how you're going to go about getting the project done.
Q A Quality Assurance plans must include: An analysis of the system architecture, design and implementation path for each requirement. The management of changes in requirements, architecture, design and source code.
The activities of defect tracking, unit testing, technical reviews, integration testing and system testing. A determination of the extent and ease with which parts of a system can be put to use in other systems.
While reviewing the progress of a given project during a weekly project team meeting, the project manager recognizes the team is running behind schedule. The project manager realizes it is still early in the life cycle and realizes that this project can not run late. Which control mechanism or method can the project manager use to still get the project completed on time without over scheduling resources?
Use an Activity Network Method to determine critical path and slack. Use a Gantt chart and resource histogram to determine critical path, slack and resource leadings.
The project manager is tasked with the production of the initial project plan. The project PK manager needs to define the tasks needed for the production of the Physical Design Specification.
Which approach should be taken in planning the production of this deliverable? Include a single task with an estimate of the effort and time to complete production. Assume that the estimates provided for some tasks are higher than actually needed and that they will balance out any low estimates.
Develop a complete list of tasks with estimate of effort, time and resources. What is the BEST approach to conflict resolution? Mutual respect and cooperation B. Flexibility and understanding C. Sincerity with prudent caution D. Strong convictions on the project scope Answer: During the requirements analysis phase a senior business user on a project has requested that a particular function be included in the proposed system.
One of the systems analysts on the team does not agree with the user's request. The project manager has examined the user's requirement and is unsure which option provides the best solution for the company and the user. The project manager discusses the requirements with the user and decides that what the analysts has provided is valid.
The project manager meets with the user a second time, but is unable to persuade them to change their requirement. Which action is the MOST appropriate? Implement the functionality as defined by the senior user's request. Implement the functionality as defined by the systems analyst's recommendation.
Put the issue to the project board for resolution and document the outcome of their deliberations. Hold another meeting to attempt to persuade the senior user to change their view of the way in which their requirement should be met.
A project is performing well under budget, however, in order to meet the customer deliverables, the delivery date to the customer will be over two weeks late. There are no PK additional resources to assign to the project. What should the project manager do? Change the scope of the client specifications in order to deliver a product on the promised delivery date.
Notify the customer of the delay, and get the proper approval documented. Follow the change process outlined in the project charter. Since the project is within budget, you do not have to do anything.
The project manager is assigned to a large project that has been in progress for some time. The project team has just completed the design phase of the project and is working on the implementation stage. At this point, which change is possible without incurring the risk of reworking the entire design phase? Scope B. Mission C. Detailed design D. Delivery date Answer: Under what circumstances would the project manager be required to send a change request to the sponsor and stakeholders?
Any time a change request is submitted. When the costs exceed budgeted allowable variances. When there are no feasible alternatives. When the customer agrees to the changes. Forcing B. Smoothing C. Compromising D. Withdrawing Answer: During the course of a database development project, the project manager conducts a review, and notices that the project is running over budget and over schedule.
What is the MOST common, non-behavioral reason for projects that exceed budget and schedule? Conducting a project with several high risks. A project with a poorly defined scope. Under allocation of needed resources. Focusing on the quality instead of schedule and budget.
When it appears that a technical limitation will interfere with meeting customer performance objectives, the preferred response is to: Develop alternative solutions to the problem. Notify all project stakeholders of the limitation. Update the costs to set a new project baseline. If an issue cannot be resolved and remains a serious threat, it then becomes: An opportunity B.
A critical issue C. Removed from the issue log and put on the project plan as a task D. A challenge Answer: Which management theory assumes that individuals like to work, want to achieve, and can direct their own efforts? Maslow's theory B. Theory X C. Theory Y D. Psychoanalytic theory Answer: The project manager has discovered a problem with the inventory module of the project.
Measurements were specified for American Units, but the overseas programmers used International Units. Where in the project could this problem have been avoided? Project planning B. Project testing C. Project monitoring D. Project turnover Answer: During project execution, a third party, responsible for developing a web utility for a Government project, reports to the project manager.
One of the technologies used in the development has become obsolete. The third party proposes an alternative. Which action should the project manager take first? Determine the impact on the overall project. Negotiate the best price for the alternative. Assign extra resources to the project. Have the management sign-off on the new alternative. A critical vendor has just notified the project manager that due to circumstances outside of their control, they will be delivering critical supplies for the project two weeks later than originally planned.
What is the BEST immediate course of action?
Fire the supplier and find a new vendor. Ask what caused the problem and try to solve it for the vendor. Adjust the project schedule, and seek approval for the changes from the major stakeholders.
Renegotiate the price paid to the vendor for the products. Select the MOST effective communication method for providing work instructions and directions. Verbal request B. Written communication PK C. Video conferencing D. Team meeting Answer: Verbal communication is easier and less complicated than written communication, on the other hand, is an excellent way to get across complex, detailed messages.
Identify the MOST efficient intra-team communication tool. Introspection B. Brainstorming C. Metrics D. Inspection Answer: Project and operations within a business share many characteristics.
Which of the following characteristics specifically relates to projects? Performed by people. Planned, executed and controlled. Constrained by limited resources. Temporary and unique. D Source: Page 4. In the second week of implementation,. Ignore the request and continue as planned. Implement the change. Analyze the customer's request.
Redefine the original scope. What should be developed first when allocating resources? Sequence scheduling C. Task list D. Resource list Answer: The power strategy that involves using one's personal knowledge to get people to change their behavior is called: Coercive power B. Legitimate power C. Expert power D. Reward power Answer: To reduce project coordination and communication complexities, regular status meetings should be held frequently with the: Customer B.
Stakeholders C. Project team D. Vendors Answer: The purpose of Pareto Analysis is to observe the problems and determine their: Frequency of occurrence B. Root cause C. Impact D. Probability Answer: A Explanation: Not B: Reason this question is suspect: The book specifically mentions "Fishbone" diagrams sometimes called Ishikawa Diagrams and states, " Fishbone diagrams The company is experiencing financial problems and has instituted company-wide budget cuts.
The budget for an in-house project is cut in half. The manager of the project feels that the project is close to termination. What termination strategy is being used by the company?
Termination by extinction B. Termination by addition C. Termination by integration D. Termination by starvation Answer: D Explanation: The difference between starvation and integration is that starvation results in funding or resource cuts, while integration results in reassignment or redeployment of the resources. Which one of the following processes is MOST significant to meeting quality management objectives?
Inspection B. Trend analysis C. Quality audits D. Planning Answer: Quality audits are performed on regular schedule or at random depending on the organizational policies. Quality audits performed correctly will provide the following PK benefits: Quality audits are generally performed by experienced specialists. A project manager is defining the scope for a project and recognizes that additional work is required for project completion that was not previously defined. When presenting this information to stakeholders, the project manager is prepared with cist and schedule variance and a new risk assessment.
The stakeholders are hesitant to approve the change. What BEST practice can the project manager do to gain approval from the stakeholders? Minimize the change to the stakeholders, absorbing the costs later.
Explain the change required in greater depth, pushing for the approval of the stakeholders. Minimize the change by only giving small portions of the change required at a time.
Explain the rational for the change, the consequences if not approved, and how costs could be mitigated through use of an in place contingency plan. Which component is part of an effective communication plan? Data flow diagrams B. Frequency C. Sign-off procedures Answer: An IT Project Manager is selected for a software package project with a specific deadline and quality requirements.
The client has emphasized several times how important the quality of the software is, and they have limited technical support staff.
The IT Project Manager recognizes that quality is of utmost importance. Planning it into the project. Developing careful mechanism to inspect for quality.
Striving to do the best job possible.
Conducting quality circle activities. Cost benefit analysis. Requirements specifications. Narrative description of the work to be accomplished. SOW contains the details of a procurement item in clear, concise terms and includes the project objectives, a description of the work of the project, concise specifications of the product or services required and a project schedule.
Either downloader or seller may prepare the SOW. A Confronting or Collaborating conflict resolution mode will handle conflicts by: Having the parties work through their disagreement directly.
Avoiding areas of difference and emphasizing areas of agreement. Bargaining and searching for solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to each party in a dispute. Exerting one party's viewpoint at the potential expense of another. Which tasks characteristics affects the estimated effort for human resources? Task cost B. Task scope C. Sequence in the critical path D. Predecessors and successors Answer: The project team is in the process of designing and developing a CBT Computer Based Training application to support the deployment of a new system.
Implementing a status reporting process. Developing an understanding of the project sponsor's acceptance criteria. Using performance measurement tools to track and monitor project performance. Which factor has the greatest impact on the actual duration of project tasks? Resource capabilities C. Historical information D. Identifying and managing the critical path is vital to the success of a project because: Staffing peaks and values will affect the quality of the work project.
Crashing-cost, or speeding-up cost, on the critical path are higher than for any other project activities. Activities on the critical path do not have any slack time. The starting date must be calculated by working backward from finish to start. As the project manager builds the project team, recruiting the right personalities for the work can be key to the success of the project.
Which of the following is the BEST match of project focus to personality types? Creative focus: Technical execution focus: Multidisciplinary focus: Problem resolution focus. A project charter and a list of high level project requirements enables the project manager to identify: The high level value of the project to the sponsors and users. The definitive project schedule and budget. A detailed, bottom-up budget. A necessary task in preparation of the Close Out phase is: Project review B.
Risk assessment C. Change control D. Configuration management Answer: As part of the overall scope definition and project planning in the initiation phase of a project, the project charter and SOW Statement of Work require the project manager to: Investigate industry specific regulations for impact on the plan. Obtain team member agreement on tasks and duration.
Include contingencies for unknowns. The project team is nearing the end of development and is ready to start testing the entire application. Which kind of testing will they perform? Module C. Unit D. System Answer: In the planning stages monies need to be budgeted for which one of the following after PK Close Out tasks? Re-planning B. Maintenance C. Change control to new project scope D. Which of the following are included in the goals of the Close Out phase?
Stakeholder Approval B. Product Testing C. User Training D. User Acceptance Answer: Not C: User training is clearly defined in the book as part of the implementation phase. As part of the project closure process the project manager should document the: Formal acceptance from stakeholder D.
Change control processes Answer: During and approved project, a vendor contacts the project manager requesting a delay in delivering a required product by two weeks. This will delay the project completion time.
The project manager explains to the vendors that a delay in shipment will cause the project to run beyond schedule, and tries to negotiate the delivery time. How might this situation BEST be handled? Explain the impact of a late shipment to the vendor, request at least partial shipment to avoid running beyond the scheduled time of completion, and call a meeting to inform the stakeholders of the project situation.
Utilize a project crash schedule to accommodate for the shipment delay and maintain the project completion time. PK C. Explain to the vendor that the impact of a late delivery will cause the project to run beyond schedule, request the vendor to compensate your company for penalties caused by the late shipment, and inform the stakeholders of the project the situation. Inform the stakeholders of the project the schedule delay and get approval to use another vendor to deliver the product.
A long pending issue has begun to involve and affect more people, thus generating many dependencies. How should the project manager BEST handle this situation? Escalate it to upper management.
Break the issue into logical sub-issues. Baseline the project schedule. Perform risk management. Given a limited resource from a cost-functional group, which of the following will help insure follow-through?
Get approval from the manager of the resource. Earn the respect of the resource. Try to gain direct control over the resource. Let the resource do what they are told. Which tool is the MOST effective for classifying issues by their frequency of occurrence?
Control charts B. Flow charts C. Pareto diagrams D. Trend analysis Answer: The project manager has been asked by the customer to make significant changes to the project. These changes were not addresses in the Design Document or Project Scope. Inform the customer that changes to the scope are not allowed.
Implement the requested changes as requested immediately. Redesign the entire project from scratch. What performance reporting technique will the project manager use to determine project results over time to determine if performance is improving or deteriorating? Status reports B. Pareto reports C.
Trend analysis D. Fishbone diagram Answer: Of all the potential conflict in a project, which one is most detrimental to team performance and results?
Personality clashes are the most detrimental to team performance. Which part of the project planning document is used to control scope creep? PK A. Executive e-mail to all staff on project objectives and desired outcomes B. Executive meetings with stakeholders to explain the project objectives and desired outcomes C. Town hall meetings with project team providing information and stakeholders having the ability to ask questions D. Stakeholder representations on the project management team Answer: The project team has been working to complete the scope definition and is presenting the scope statement to the sponsor customer asks for changes.
As the project manager, which is the best approach? Listen to the request and indicate more resources will be required in order to complete the project on the same date B. Accept the changes and go away to come back with a changed scope statement C. Indicate that the time line for the project to deliver will be extended D.
Outline the impacts of change on meeting the project objectives using scope, time and cost change examples Answer: Senior management involvement in projects is critical to success. Which of the following is not a good example of senior management involvement? This answer makes the most sense because it is a well known good standard practice that senior management sign off on key deliverables, and the same is true for involvement in the project charter and scope.
Defining and approving the project scope is a great practice for senior management. Review and assignment of resources according the WBS is not a good example of senior management involvement because this is a function of the project manager. This interferes with the project manager's decision making and could hinder the project. Answer A is really the only possible answer. Which on the following should be included in a project charter and scope definition?
The standard coding methodology has nothing to do with the project charter and scope definition. This will be addressed during design and development. The work breakdown structure cannot be started until the charter and scope definition have been completed.
The critical path method has nothing to do with the charter or scope definition and is a methodology implemented by the project manager upon completion of the work breakdown structure.
The completion criteria is the only possible answer as it indicates the criteria needed to produce the deliverables. Which of the following is an output of the initiation phase of a project?
Which of the following techniques is used for tracking the project risk? A Source: Which method is a valid approach for developing project task duration estimates? PK "It is also helpful to review similar projects and seek the advice of experts in estimating activity durations. Which factor has the greatest impact on the estimated per unit labour cost for a project? Which is the most effective method for generating support for your project plan?
The WBS is a grouping of scheduled project tasks and deliverables that includes descending levels of detailed task definition. It does not affect the actual duration of tasks. Within information Technology projects, communications between the project manager and the project team members s place: A By written and oral communication. A PK Source: Communicating includes many different dimensions such as writing, speaking, listening, and project personnel need to use all of these dimensions in their daily routines.
As a rule of thumb for QA Quality Assurance activities , how many hours of downstreams QA Quality Assurance each hour spent on technical reviews early in the project? What is a possible acceptable outcome from a review of the project requirements with the client? A Create a negotiated requirements list based upon compromise B Agree to disagree on some requirements and move forward with the planning phase C Agree on revisions that need to be made to the requirements , then resubmit for review and approval D Agree on revisions that need to be made to the requirements, then move forward with the planning phase Answer: A When does defect resolutions occur within the project life cycle?
B After the product acceptant testing occurs C As soon as defect is found D Anytime during the project life cycle prior to delivery as specified in the project plan Answer: When the authority to approve revisions of scope is in questions, the project manager should: B Source: It would make the most sense to review the original project charter when the authority to approve revisions is in question.
Annoying the project sponsor would most likely produce the answer, "What does the project charter say? Which of the following is a possible response to a risk threat? Risk avoidance, Risk acceptance, Risk transference, and Risk mitigation. Which on of the following will ensure that all members of the project will have full knowledge of the project's progress?
The communication plan is a component of the project plan. It is usually created in the earliest project phases and refined as the project progress. Any document procedure used to apply technical or administrative direction to the functional and physical characteristic or system is an example of: A successful project manager is both a manager and: Technical expertise is nice but not necessary.
Recent studies have shown that project managers without IT backgrounds are proving highly successful even though they do not possess the technical knowledge.
It makes no difference if the project manager is a stakeholder or a sponsor. He will still encounter the same managerial challenges regardless. Clearly strong leadership and managerial skills are the prime ingredients of a good project manager. A project is behind schedule. O the following steps to take corrective action, wich one is not need? A Implement a corrective action strategy B Adjust the profit requirements for the project C Clearly identify the root cause of the problem D Follow up to check on results of the corrective action E Identify a team member to be accountable for correction Answer: To crash a project most effectively, additional resources or overtime should be assigned to which of they?
A All Tasks defined in WBS B Those activities that match the skill set of the additional resources available C The activities with the greatest degree of risk according to risk management D Activities along the critical path starting with those longest in duration Answer: What is generally the most revised document on projects?
Why would a project manager want to fast track a project? The product of frequency of conflict and the magnitude of conflicts is call A Conflict intensity B Conflict consequence C Conflict management D Expected conflict Answer: The first step in the project close out phase is: The last deliverable at the close out meeting is: Adding resources B. Eliminating float C. Crashing time schedule D. Paralleling activities Answer: The critical path is the series of consecutive activities that represent the longest dependent path through the project.
Since a risk to a step in the critical path could potentially increase the time it takes to get the step done, it can directly affect the project's completion date. Negotiating B. Problem-solving D. Compromising Answer: Funding B.