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The book Third Battle of Panipat is an authentic account of the battle fought between the Marathas and the allied armies of principle Muslim chiefs of India and. terney.info Marathi books online. PDF Marathi ebooks for download download free marathi books Free Marathi. The battle took place at a village called Panipat near Delhi (India)in 18th century. Though Padmakar terney.info flag.
Bhausaheb had ordered Vitthal Vinchurkar with cavalry and Damaji Gaikwad with cavalry to protect the Gardis. However, after seeing the Gardis fight, they lost their patience, became overenthusiastic and decided to fight the Rohillas themselves. This gave the Rohillas the opportunity to encircle the Gardis and outflank the Maratha centre while Shah Wali pressed on attacking the front. Thus the Gardis were left defenceless and started falling one by one.
Bhau and his loyal bodyguards fought to the end, the Maratha leader having three horses shot out from under him.
At this stage Holkar, realising the battle was lost, broke from the Maratha left flank and retreated. While 15, soldiers managed to reach Gwalior , the rest of the Maratha forces—including large numbers of non-combatants—were either killed or captured. The Maratha front lines remained largely intact, with some of their artillery units fighting until sunset.
Choosing not to launch a night attack, many Maratha troops escaped that night. Bhau's wife Parvatibai , who was assisting in the administration of the Maratha camp, escaped to Pune with her bodyguard Janu Bhintada. Reasons for the outcome Durrani had both numeric as well as qualitative superiority over Marathas. The combined Muslim army was much larger than that of Marathas. Though the infantry of Marathas was organized along European lines and their army had some of the best French-made guns of the time, their artillery was static and lacked mobility against the fast-moving Afghan forces.
The heavy mounted artillery of Afghans proved much better in the battlefield than the light artillery of Marathas. They were expecting support from their allies- Rajputs , Jats and Sikhs , but none of them supported Marathas in the battle.
The Marathas had interfered in the internal affairs of the Rajput states present-day Rajasthan and levied heavy taxes and huge fines on them. They had also made large territorial and monetary claims upon Awadh. Their raids in the Jat territory had resulted in the loss of trust of Jat chiefs like Suraj Mal. They had, therefore, to fight their enemies alone.
Marathas treated Sikhs, who assisted them in their north-west conquest as a non-entity in Punjab affairs. According to an assessment, the Sikhs were ever ready to co-operate with the Marathas, but it goes to the discredit of the Marathas that they did not make a proper confederacy with Sikhs.
Kirpal Singh writes:  "Unlike Ahmad Shah Abdali who subsequently raised a cry of jihad , the Marathas couldn't mobilize their resources and make a common cause with the Sikhs in order to pay the Afghan Emperor in his own coin. Each had ambitions of carving out their independent states and had no interest in fighting against a common enemy. The pilgrims wanted to accompany the army, as they would be secure with them. That was the reason why Marathas suffered heavy losses even after the battle.
They could not retreat quickly as they were to protect the non-combatants who were accompanying them. Peshwa's decision to appoint Sadashivrao Bhau as the Supreme Commander instead of Malharrao Holkar or Raghunathrao proved to be an unfortunate one, as Sadashivrao was totally ignorant of the political and military situation in North India.
Abdali was in no position to maintain his field army in India indefinitely. The Turki horses could not have handled the plundering and cutting of supply lines by the Marathas. Abdali used shaturnals, camels with mobile artillery pieces at his disposal. He was also diplomatic, striking agreements with Hindu leaders, especially the Jats and Rajputs, and former rivals like the Nawab of Awadh, appealing to him in the name of religion.
Massacres after the battle Mass of surrendered Maratha soldiers were handcuffed and then murdered, their heads chopped off by Afghans. The Afghan cavalry and pikemen ran wild through the streets of Panipat, killing tens of thousands of Maratha soldiers and civilians.
Children over 14 were beheaded before their own mothers and sisters. Afghan officers who had lost their kin in battle were permitted to carry out massacres of 'infidel' Hindus the next day also, in Panipat and the surrounding area. According to the single best eye-witness chronicle- the bakhar by Shuja-ud-Daula 's Diwan Kashi Raj, about 40, Maratha prisoners were slaughtered in cold blood the day after the battle.
Hamilton of Bombay Gazette about half a million Marathi people were present there in Panipat town and he gives a figure of 70, prisoners as executed by Afghans. Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao , uninformed about the state of his army, was crossing the Narmada with reinforcements when a tired charkara arrived with a cryptic message: "Two pearls have been dissolved, 27 gold coins have been lost and of the silver and copper the total cannot be cast up".
The Peshwa never recovered from the shock of the total debacle at Panipat. He returned to Pune and died a broken man in a temple on Paravati Hill. Ibrahim Khan Gardi was tortured and executed by enraged Afghan soldiers. However, their claim over all of India ended with the three Anglo-Maratha Wars , almost 50 years after Panipat.
In addition, Najib and Munir-ud-daulah agreed to pay to Abdali, on behalf of the Mughal king, an annual tribute of four million rupees. In time his forces became embroiled in clashes between the orthodox Sunni Afghans and his own Shia followers. He is alleged to have later secretly sent letters to Bhausaheb through his spies regretting his decision to join Abdali.
Najib Khan proved to be an effective ruler. Legacy The Third Battle of Panipat saw an enormous number of deaths and injuries in a single day of battle. It was the last major battle between indigenous South Asian military powers until the creation of Pakistan in To save their kingdom, the Mughals once again changed sides and welcomed the Afghans to Delhi.
The Mughals remained in nominal control over small areas of India, but were never a force again.
The empire officially ended in when its last emperor, Bahadur Shah II , was accused of being involved in the Sepoy Mutiny and exiled. The Marathas' expansion was stopped in the battle, and infighting soon broke out within the empire. They never regained any unity. They recovered their position under the next Peshwa Madhavrao I and by were back in control of the north, finally occupying Delhi.
To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? The book describes the various events that led to the clash of arms between the two races who hardly had any contact years before the battle.
The book gives the detailed description of the armed strength of the two armies, the diplomatic moves made by the two parties, the political scenario and the various causes that led to the defeat. Various reasons have been proposed by various historians from time to time as to what led to the loss at Panipat and what actually the Marathas lost in Panipat. All these points have been studied upon and presented in a lucid manner in this book.
The book also describes the actual battle fought on 14th January, as seen by various eye witnesses: The description of eyewitnesses of both sides have been taken into account to make an unbiased report.
Read more Read less. Word Wise: Enabled Enhanced Typesetting: Enabled Page Flip: Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Product details File Size: December 4, Sold by: English ASIN: Enabled X-Ray: Not Enabled. No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers. Early Nationalism Nationalism in India arose to fight the challenges of foreign dominance.
With time Indians begin to realize an inherent clash between the interest of people of India and the British Interest. Many intelligent Indians the root cause of Indian problems are the policies of the Indian government that are meant to promote the interest of Britain. This realization led to the formation of a various political organization which resulted in the formation of Indian National Congress in National Movement to National Movements in the year to is considered as the first phase of mass revolution in the struggle towards achieving Indian Independence.
It started with the Swadeshi movement against the partition of Bengal. Violent militant nationalism also rose during the period as a result of the failure of the moderates to convince the government of India about their various demands.
The period also witnessed the split of Congress and its unification in Various important movements like the Ghadar movement, Home rue League movement also took place during this period.