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Upon admittance to an emergency department, coma patients will usually be placed in an Intensive Care Unit ICU immediately,  where maintenance of the patient's respiration and circulation become a first priority.
Stability of their respiration and circulation is sustained through the use of intubation , ventilation , administration of intravenous fluids or blood and other supportive care as needed. Continued care[ edit ] Once a patient is stable and no longer in immediate danger, there may be a shift of priority from stabilizing the patient to maintaining the state of their physical wellbeing. Moving patients every 2—3 hours by turning them side to side is crucial to avoiding bed sores as a result of being confined to a bed.
Moving patients through the use of physical therapy also aids in preventing atelectasis , contractures or other orthopedic deformities which would interfere with a coma patient's recovery. A coma patient's lack of a gag reflex, and use of a feeding tube can result in food, drink or other solid organic matter being lodged within their lower respiratory tract from the trachea to the lungs.
This trapping of matter in their lower respiratory tract can ultimately lead to infection, resulting in aspiration pneumonia.
As such, soft cloth restraints may be used to prevent them from pulling on tubes or dressings and side rails on the bed should be kept up to prevent patients from falling. Common reactions, such as desperation, anger, frustration, and denial are possible.
The focus of the patient care should be on creating an amicable relationship with the family members or dependents of a comatose patient as well as creating a rapport with the medical staff. In more severe cases a coma may last for over five weeks, while some have lasted as long as several years. After this time, some patients gradually come out of the coma, some progress to a vegetative state , and others die. Some patients who have entered a vegetative state go on to regain a degree of awareness and in some cases, may remain in vegetative state for years or even decades the longest recorded period being 42 years.
Predictions of recovery are based on statistical rates, expressed as the level of chance the person has of recovering.
Time is the best general predictor of a chance of recovery. A deeper coma alone does not necessarily mean a slimmer chance of recovery, similarly, milder comas do not ensure higher chances of recovery.
The most common cause of death for a person in a vegetative state is secondary infection such as pneumonia , which can occur in patients who lie still for extended periods. Recovery[ edit ] People may emerge from a coma with a combination of physical, intellectual, and psychological difficulties that need special attention.
It is common for coma patients to awaken in a profound state of confusion and suffer from dysarthria , the inability to articulate any speech. Recovery usually occurs gradually. In the first days, patients may only awaken for a few minutes, with increased duration of wakefulness as their recovery progresses and may eventually recover full awareness. That said, some patients may never progress beyond very basic responses.
After 19 years in a minimally conscious state , Terry Wallis spontaneously began speaking and regained awareness of his surroundings. The method, called deep brain stimulation DBS successfully roused communication, complex movement and eating ability in the year-old American man who suffered a traumatic brain injury. Regrowth of a damaged axon can occur more readily in the peripheral nervous system than in the brain because a.
Schwann cells form barriers to axon regrowth. Schwann cells form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell. Schwann cells generate a chemical signal that instructs nerve cells to die. Astrocytes form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell.
Oligodendroglia form barriers to axon regrowth. Rationale: Regrowth of a damaged axon can occur more readily in the peripheral nervous system than in the brain because Schwann cells form cylinders through which new axons can grow and reinnervate a target cell nerve cell.
The presence of a barrier between the bloodstream and the brain is suggested by the observation that a. Rationale: The presence of a blood-brain barrier was inferred from the observation injection of dye into the bloodstream stains all cells except those of the brain and spinal cord.
Which of the following is true of the blood-brain barrier? The barrier is uniform, protecting all brain structures. The barrier pumps glucose out of the brain into the bloodstream. The barrier functions to regulate the chemical composition of the extracellular fluid surrounding the brain cells.
The barrier is formed by cells that line the capillaries of the brain. The ventricles have a blood-brain barrier. Rationale: The blood-brain barrier functions to regulate the chemical composition of the extracellular fluid surrounding the brain cells. Activation of cells within the by a poison in the blood would be predicted to produce. The normal order of activation during neuronal transmission is a.
Rationale: Neuronal transmission starts with the dendrite and in turn involves the cell body, the axon, and then finally the axon terminal button. The simplest version of a withdrawal from pain reflex is a a. Rationale: The simplest reflex involves a pain receptor that synapses onto an interneuron, which in turn activates a motor neuron within the spinal cord. A key function of the giant squid axon is the a. Rationale: The giant squid axon controls the contraction of the squid mantle, which moves the squid away from sources of danger.
The function of a in a giant squid physiology experiment is to. The interior of a neuron at rest a. Rationale: The interior of the axon membrane is negatively charged relative to the outside of the membrane. The difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the axon membrane is defined as the potential. The potential is defined as the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of an undisturbed axon membrane.
A change in the axon membrane potential from mV to mV would be termed a n a. Rationale: A hyperpolarization refers to a movement of the resting membrane potential in a more negative direction. A neuron membrane potential moves from mV to mV in response to a brief stimulation.
We would term this change in potential as a n a. Rationale: A depolarization refers to a movement of the resting membrane potential in a more positive direction towards 0 mV. A n threshold. The is the voltage level at which an action potential is triggered in a patch of axon membrane. A cup of sugar is dumped into a gallon of hot water. After 30 minutes, we will expect that the process of will ensure that the sugar molecules are evenly distributed throughout the water. A substance that forms oppositely charged particles when dissolved into water would be termed a n a.
Rationale: An ion is a charged particle. Ions b. Solvents c. Transmitters d. Electrons e. Solutes Difficulty: 1 Question ID: 2. Ions Rationale: A charged particle is known as an ion. Transmitters b. Electrolytes d.
Cations e. Anions Difficulty: 1 Question ID: 2. Cations Rationale: A positively charged particle is defined as a cation. Anions Rationale: A negatively charged particle is defined as a cation. The process by which similarly charged particles repel each other and are thus moved within a medium is termed a.
Rationale: The process by which similarly charged particles repel each other and are thus moved within a medium is known as electrostatic pressure. Which of the following is true of ion distribution across the axon membrane? Chloride ions are more concentrated inside the axon membrane.
Potassium ions are more concentrated outside the cell membrane. The action potential is the balance point between diffusion and electrostatic pressure. Sodium ions are more concentrated outside the axon membrane. Sodium ions are more concentrated inside the axon membrane.
Rationale: Sodium ions are more concentrated outside the axon membrane 2.
Sodium ions move out of the axon because of a. Rationale: The sodium-potassium transporter acts to move sodium ions out of the axon.
As a consequence of the activity of the sodium-potassium transporters, a. Rationale: The sodium-potassium transporter acts to move sodium ions out of the axon thus keeping intracellular sodium concentrations at a low level. Which of the following is true regarding the action potential AP? The AP is conducted along the dendrite.
The AP is conducted faster in unmyelinated nerve cells c. The AP is an all-or-none electrical event d. The AP amplitude is higher for an intense signal.
The AP amplitude depends on its location along the axon. The AP is an all-or-none electrical event. Rationale: The action potential is an all-or-none event. The specialized protein molecules located in the axon membrane that can open or close are termed a. Rationale: Ion channels are proteins located in the axon membrane that open or close thus allowing ions to enter or leave the neuron. Which of the following is true of the action potential?
More sodium channels are opened at a lower voltage level than are the potassium channels. The action potential requires 10 msec for completion. The action potential requires the activity of the sodium-potassium transporters during the rising phase.
More potassium channels are opened at a lower voltage than are sodium channels. The overshoot is due to a prolonged change in sodium conductance. Rationale: The upswing of the action potential occurs because more sodium channels are opened at a lower voltage level than are the potassium channels. Sodium ions will be pushed into a resting neuron by the forces of a.
Rationale: The forces of diffusion and electrostatic pressure push sodium ions into the axon interior. Match the ion channel action with its resulting change in membrane potential: a. Which of the following events restores the membrane potential from the peak of the action potential back down to the resting level?
Sodium ions move into the cell. Potassium ions move out of the cell. Potassium ions move into the cell. Chloride ions move into the cell. Protein anions move out of the cell. Rationale: The movement of potassium ions out of the axon moves the membrane potential back to resting levels. Which of the following sets of terms do NOT belong together? The action potential will diminish to near 0 mV when transmitted down a long axon.
The action potential fires at the same rate regardless of the inputs to the neuron. The action potential is conducted more rapidly down the axon as it reaches the axon terminal. The action potential is produced whenever the membrane potential reaches threshold.
The action potential travels only in one direction. Rationale: The fact that an AP occurs when threshold is reached but not below the threshold is consistent with the notion of all-or-none. The nervous system codes for variation in the intensity of incoming sensory stimuli by variations in the of a neuron. Depolarizations of the axon membrane that are below the threshold of activation a.
Rationale: Local potentials decrease in size as they sweep along the membrane. Among the cable properties of axons are the fact that a.
Rationale: Subthreshold local potentials degrade with distance from the point of stimulation. In a myelinated axon, ions can enter and leave the axonal membrane only at a. Which of the following is an important advantage associated with saltatory conduction?
More sodium ions have to be pumped out of the cell after an action potential.
Fewer year 10 students are choosing to study science for year 11, which is problematic as these are the years where students form attitudes to pursue science careers. China[ edit ] Educational quality in China suffers because a typical classroom contains 50 to 70 students. With over million students, China has the largest educational system in the world.
Science education is given high priority and is driven by textbooks composed by committees of scientists and teachers. Science education in China places great emphasis on memorization, and gives far less attention to problem solving, application of principles to novel situations, interpretations, and predictions. All pupils from 5 to 16 years of age must study science.
It is generally taught as a single subject science until sixth form, then splits into subject-specific A levels physics , chemistry and biology. However, the government has since expressed its desire that those pupils who achieve well at the age of 14 should be offered the opportunity to study the three separate sciences from September In September a new science program of study known as 21st Century Science was introduced as a GCSE option in UK schools, designed to "give all 14 to 16 year old's a worthwhile and inspiring experience of science".
Other students who choose not to follow the compulsory additional science course, which results in them taking 4 papers resulting in 2 GCSEs, opposed to the 3 GCSEs given by taking separate science.
This often leads teachers to rush to "cover" the material, without truly "teaching" it. In addition, the process of science, including such elements as the scientific method and critical thinking , is often overlooked. This emphasis can produce students who pass standardized tests without having developed complex problem solving skills. Although at the college level American science education tends to be less regulated, it is actually more rigorous, with teachers and professors fitting more content into the same time period.
National Academy of Sciences of the U. National Academies produced the National Science Education Standards , which is available online for free in multiple forms.
Its focus on inquiry-based science , based on the theory of constructivism rather than on direct instruction of facts and methods, remains controversial. Inquiry is central to science learning.
When engaging in inquiry, students describe objects and events, ask questions, construct explanations, test those explanations against current scientific knowledge, and communicate their ideas to others.
They identify their assumptions, use critical and logical thinking, and consider alternative explanations. In this way, students actively develop their understanding of science by combining scientific knowledge with reasoning and thinking skills.
In recent years, business leaders such as Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates have called for more emphasis on science education, saying the United States risks losing its economic edge.