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Aci 318 14 Pdf Espanol

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Flexural mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete under corrosive environments J. Regarding the corrosive environments, cylinders and beams were subjected to the action of a watery environment and to an environment of 3. The results were compared with those of cylinders and beams kept in unaltered conditions. For this exposure time that is equivalent to the corrosion initiation phase, it was observed that chloride ions of 3. However, saline exposure caused an increase of the deflection capacity of SFRC for the initiation phase of corrosion, which can improve its ductility and bond capacity between the matrix and embedded steel fibers. Finally, equations have been proposed to describe the effect of watery and saline environments in the initiation phase of corrosion on CRFA subjected to bending stresses. Keywords: SRFC, chloride ion, corrosion initiation, flexural tests, deflection, toughness 1. Introduction Corrosion is the process by whichwhere oxidation reactions and reduction of steel cross-sectional reactions occurs in the steel, due to their interaction with the environment. However, environmental agents such as chloride ions, sulfates and contaminant gases react with the chemical products of the matrix and are able to destroy this protection, which reduces the pH value, deteriorates the steel and, later on, reduces the mechanical properties of the concrete. According to Tuutti , the service life of a concrete structure in terms of corrosion can be generally divided in two phases: initiation and propagation. The initiation phase is considered the time required for external agents, mainly chloride ions, sulfates and carbonation, to penetrate inside the concrete and cause steel depassivation. The propagation phase is characterized by active corrosion, which is characterized by comprises a loss of the cross- sectional area of the reinforcement and the gradual accumulation of rust that causes cracking and spalling of the concrete matrix, which reduces the structural safety.

October Recommend Documents. La tabla 5. Esperamos que sea de The Contractor shall provide lap splices in conformance with ACI The Contractor. These are two separate but coordinated documents, with Code text placed in the left column and the SignificantChangesBetween ACI to Figure 1. Becker Robert J. Klein Guillermo Santana Kenneth B.

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The calculation of the real dosage and the corresponding volume fraction of fibers per cubic meter of mix was obtained from the weight resulting from the fibers and the volume of the mold used. The test consisted in two- one-point, continuous and, smooth no-impact loads applications, through a head assembly with two rollers located on the middle third of the specimen, as shown in Figure 1. Two displacement transducers were coupled on each side of the beam specimen.

The average of the two measurements allowed calculating the deflection generated by the load applications and, subsequently, the stress-deflection curve for each specimen. The results analysis was based on statistical parameters such as the arithmetic mean X and the coefficient of variation CV , which represent the average and the dispersion of the measured values, respectively.

Likewise, the correlation coefficient r was used to quantify the correspondence degree between the analyzed variables. Figure 1. Configuration of the flexural test 3. Results and discussion Based on results measured in the flexural test, the stress-deflection curves for the SFRC specimens were calculated and the short-term effect initiation phase of corrosive environments was evaluated on in terms of the parameters of flexural toughness, peak strengths and deflections associated to these strengths.

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According to Johnston and Gray , residual factors reflect the hardening effect provided by fibers and the strengthening effect that can be achieved in the concrete;. For for example, the strength increase after the first crack.

These factors depend mainly on the fiber type, and dosage, and the aspect ratio of the fibers, regardless of whether the matrix is a mortar or concrete.

Table 3 indicates the nomenclature of the parameters evaluated in this study, and a diagram thereof is shown in Figure 2. Table 4 presents shows the results for each one of the real fiber dosages.

HenceforthHereinafter, and for the purpose of the analysis, real dosage values will be used for the fiber dosages. Table 3. Nomenclature of the studied mechanical properties Table 4.

Flexural values for each type of mix Based on the stress-deflection curves measured during the study, Figures 2a1 to 2c3 show the effect of the steel fiber addition and the exposure environments on the flexural mechanical properties of the SFRC. The curves calculated with the average of the three curves of each environment and dosage are shown in Figures 2d1 to 2d3. In order to establish the relevance of the fiber dosage and the type of environment in the flexural results, the one-way and multifactorial ANOVA analysis of variance was carried out for each evaluated parameter.

Table 5. Likewise similarly, Table 5 shows that flexural toughness values, Tflex, vary significantly when increasing the steel fiber content, which is associated to the fact that the interaction between the fiber dosage and the change of environment of the product is equally significant in each association.

In this case, This this demonstrates that, in this case, the environment effect depends on the fiber dosage effect. Figure 2. Flexural stress-deflection curves for each type of mix: a1 A, a2 A In relation terms to of the fiber dosage effect, Figure 3a shows that the maximum flexural strength, fmax, increasedaugmented when increasing the fiber dosage of the specimens in the normal environment A0.

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The fmax increase evidenced in this study is consistent with the results obtained by Yazici et al. Thus, when adding a larger volume of fibers to the concrete, an modification alteration was observed in the failure mode under flexural stress of the SFRC, from a sudden and fragile mode to a ductile mode in the failure mode under flexural stress of the SFRC was observed when adding a larger volume of fibers to the concrete.

These trends demonstrate an increase in the strength and energy absorption capability of the SFRC when incorporating higher contents of steel fibers. The results of reduced flexural strength of the SFRC in the watery environment are consistent with the results reported by Anandan et al. This indicates that, regarding the normal environment A0, the decrease of the maximum flexural strength is higher for the saline environment A2 than for the watery environment A1.

Thius, it istrends evidenced that the severity of the chloride ion attack on the SFRC, particularly on steel fibers, is higher than in the saline environment A2. On the other hand, as shown in Figures 2 and 3 , the saline environment presents entails the highest increase in the deformation capability caused by chloride ions, due to the formation of salt crystals that increase the friction between the matrix and the fibers Sadeghi-Pouya et al.

LikewiseSimilarly, Bathia and Foy state that this effect is due to a smaller accumulation of corrosion productsrust on the surface of the steel fibers, which generates confining stresses between the matrix and the fibers. This strengthening effect of the matrix under the exposure of saline environments has been reported by Ramli et al.

Additionally, Carrillo et al. Kosa and Naaman evaluated the effect of corrosion on the flexural properties of concrete with steel fibers. During the first 60 days of exposure in the saline environment, the specimens showed increases in the peak stress and flexural toughness when, compared with the control specimens cured in an air chamber at room temperature.

Kosa and Naaman indicate that these increases were generated by the early effect of corrosion that might have improved the bond strength of the interface between the matrix and the fibers, in the short term. On the other hand, Alizade et al. Other researches Anandan et al.

The present study reported herein only evaluates the effect of watery and saline environments on the SFRC flexural properties in the short term, 60 days , which corresponds to the initiation phase of corrosion where cracks generated by corrosion processes in the concrete have not been formed yet; but mechanical increases were evidenced during this period, particularly on the deflection capability of the SFRC.

Although the present study did not evaluate the flexural properties of the SFRC in the long term, that is, it only analyzed the flexural mechanical properties of the SFRC at the beginning of the corrosion processes, a generalized degradation is expected in later ages propagation phase of corrosion concerning the performance of the SFRC.

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