Essentials of organizational behavior pdf


 

Organizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge. 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 .. Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 11th ed. ESSENTIALS OF. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR. Stephen P. Robbins. San Diego State University. Timothy A. Judge. The Ohio State University. P Pearson. Define organizational behavior (OB). 3. Show the value to OB of systematic study. 4. Identify the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB. 5.

Author:NATHAN SPEILMAN
Language:English, Spanish, Arabic
Country:Vanuatu
Genre:Technology
Pages:249
Published (Last):18.12.2015
ISBN:543-9-75543-862-5
Distribution:Free* [*Registration Required]
Uploaded by: SHARMAINE

69739 downloads 139325 Views 10.41MB PDF Size Report


Essentials Of Organizational Behavior Pdf

terney.info Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 13e (Robbins/Judge) Chapter 2 Diversity in. Full file at terney.info Edition-Robbins-Test-Bank Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 12e. [DOWNLOAD PDF] Essentials of Organizational Behavior (14th Edition) Free Epub/MOBI/EBooks.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Yx6ndj Ccf2za. Full file at https: A surface-level diversity; deep-level diversity B surface-level diversity; lateral-level diversity C organizational-level diversity; individual-level diversity D lateral-level diversity; deep-level diversity E physical-level diversity; intellectual-level diversity Answer:

D Explanation: D Surface-level diversity refers to the differences in characteristics like education, upbringing, work-status, regional background, and gender.

Deep-level diversity, on the other hand, refers to differences in individual characteristics like personality, values, belief-system, and interests. A surface-level diversity B deep-level diversity C lateral-level diversity D organizational-level diversity E individual-level diversity Answer: B Explanation: B Surface-level diversity refers to the differences in characteristics like education, upbringing, work-status, regional background, and gender.

A providing work-life benefits for dual-career couples B developing multilingual training materials C the aging of the workforce D increasing wages E increasing training costs Answer: C Explanation: C A survey by the Society for Human Resources Management shows some major employer concerns and opportunities resulting from the demographic makeup of the United States workforce.

The aging of the workforce was consistently the most significant concern of HR managers. The loss of skills resulting from the retirement of many baby boomers, increased medical costs due to an aging workforce, and many employees' needs to care for elderly relatives topped the list of issues.

A decreased costs in training existing employees B increased presence of full-time employed women C decreased gap of earnings between Whites and other ethnic groups D increased presence of workers over the age of 55 E decreased or reversed differences between Whites and Asians Answer: A Compared to , women today are much more likely to be employed full- time, have more education, and earn wages comparable to those of men.

In addition, over the past 50 years, the earnings gap between Whites and other racial and ethnic groups has decreased significantly; past differences between Whites and Asians have disappeared or been reversed. Workers over the age of 55 are an increasingly large portion of the workforce as well. A Surface-level diversity will overcome fundamental differences and promote harmony.

Organizational Behavior and Leadership Management Essentials

B Surface-level diversity can co-exist with deep-level diversity within an organization. C Surface-level diversity does not affect employees' perceptions. D Surface-level diversity, not thoughts and feelings, is mostly reflected in Demographics.

E Surface-level diversity in the workforce can be eliminated by effective diversity management. D Demographics mostly reflect surface-level diversity, not thoughts and feelings, and can lead employees to perceive one another through stereotypes and assumptions.

A surface-level diversity B unfair discrimination C ethnic diversity D irrelevant biographical characteristics E discrepancies in employee performance Answer: B Although diversity does present many opportunities for organizations, effective diversity management also means working to eliminate unfair discrimination.

To discriminate is to note a difference between things, which in itself isn't necessarily bad. Noticing one employee is more qualified is necessary for making hiring decisions; noticing another is taking on leadership responsibilities exceptionally well is necessary for making promotion decisions. Which of the following terms explains what she has been subjected to? A recessionary practice B mockery and insult C discriminatory practice D exclusion E incivility Answer: C Discriminatory policies or practices are actions taken by representatives of the organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal rewards for performance.

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14th Edition

Primarily, they seem well matched and have the same work interests. While Addie is introverted, risk-avoiding, soft-spoken, and likes the office quiet, Michelle is extraverted, risk-seeking, assertive, and likes a busy, active, and energetic work environment.

Which of the following describes the diversity between these two? A lateral-level diversity B mental-level diversity C individual-level diversity D deep-level diversity E surface-level diversity Answer: Sam is an older, long-tenured woman raised in rural Kansas, who achieved her current level in the organization by starting as a high school graduate and working her way up the hierarchy.

Clarke is a young, recently hired male college graduate with a business degree, raised in a Spanish-speaking neighborhood in Miami. However, both are deeply committed to their families, share a common way of thinking about important work problems, like to work collaboratively, and are interested in international assignments in the future. A lateral-level diversity B deep-level diversity C surface-level diversity D individual-level diversity E hierarchical-level diversity Answer: C Their surface-level similarity will not necessarily lead to positive interactions because they have such fundamental, deep-level differences.

It will be a challenge for them to collaborate regularly at work, and they'll have to make some compromises to get things done together. A To discriminate is to note a difference between things, which in itself isn't necessarily bad. D Some forms, like exclusion or incivility, are especially hard to root out because they are impossible to observe and may occur simply because the actor isn't aware of the effects of his or her actions.

A reduced productivity B workplace diversity C citizenship behavior D negative conflicts E increased turnover Answer: B Whether intentional or not, discrimination can lead to serious negative consequences for employers, including reduced productivity and citizenship behavior, negative conflicts, and increased turnover.

Which of the following terms accurately explains the type of discrimination she has been subjected to? C Exclusion is a type of discrimination whereby, certain people are left out from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring; it can occur unintentionally.

For example: She also finds racist statements scribbled across her desk. C Intimidation is a form of discrimination where overt threats or bullying is directed at members of specific groups of employees. Which of the following terms accurately explains the type of discrimination he has been subjected to?

D Mockery and insults are a form of discrimination where people are cast into negative stereotypes and made fun of; sometimes the results of these jokes are taken too far. A ethnic majorities B ethnic minorities C new employees D groups of people E collection of organizations Answer: D Usually when we talk about discrimination, though, we mean allowing our behavior to be influenced by stereotypes about groups of people.

Rather than looking at individual characteristics, unfair discrimination assumes everyone in a group is the same. This discrimination is often very harmful to organizations and employees. A lateral diversity B individual diversity C organic diversity D workplace diversity E deep-level diversity Answer: D Diversity is a broad term, and the phrase workplace diversity can refer to any characteristic that makes people different from one another.

C Unfair discrimination also leaves qualified job candidates out of initial hiring and promotions. Even if an employment discrimination lawsuit is never filed, a strong business case can be made for aggressively working to eliminate unfair discrimination. D Discriminatory policies or practices are actions taken by representatives of the organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal rewards for performance.

B United States legislation that, for all intents and purposes, outlaws mandatory retirement. Most United States workers today no longer have to retire at age A The aging populace are fully covered against medical insurance and employers don't have to worry about that risk. B There is a widespread belief that job performance increases with age.

C The workforce is aging and many employees recognize older workers as a huge potential pool of high-quality applicants. D United States legislation has made semi-retirement as an option and allows people to work part-time after their official retirement.

E Workers who are aged are skilled and can pick up new skills due to their rich experience from their previous jobs. C The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade for at least three reasons. First, belief is widespread that job performance declines with increasing age.

Regardless of whether this is true, a lot of people believe it and act on it. Second, the workforce is aging. Many employers recognize older workers represent a huge potential pool of high-quality applicants. A The older you get, the less likely you are to be satisfied with your job. B The older you get, the less likely you are to quit your job. C The older you get, the more likely you are to equip yourself with new skills. D The older you get, the more likely you are to take a leave of absence.

E The older you get, the less likely you are to be productive on the job.

That conclusion is based on studies of the age—turnover relationship. As workers get older, they have fewer alternative job opportunities as their skills have become more specialized to certain types of work. In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees. A They tend to be more satisfied with their work. B They tend to pick up more friends and reduce turnover.

C They are more committed to their employing organization. D They tend to report better relationships with co-workers. E They tend to enjoy increasing levels of satisfactions in professional circles of employment. B A review of more than studies found that older workers tend to be more satisfied with their work, report better relationships with co-workers, and are more committed to their employing organizations.

Other studies, however, have found a U-shaped relationship, meaning that job satisfaction increases up to middle age, at which point it begins to drop off. When we separate professional and nonprofessional employees, we find that satisfaction tends to continually increase among professionals as they age, whereas it falls among nonprofessionals during middle age and then rises again in the later years.

A The store staffed by over employees was significantly more productive in terms of sales generated against labor costs. B The store managed by over employees held its own against the other three stores. C Over employees bonded well and encouraged each other to be more productive. D Age and job performance are unrelated. E Older employees are more likely to engage in citizenship behavior. C How does age affect productivity? The evidence, however, contradicts those assumptions. During a 3-year period, a large hardware chain staffed one of its stores solely with employees over age 50 and compared its results with those of five stores with younger employees.

The store staffed by the over employees was significantly more productive in terms of sales generated against labor costs than two of the stores and held its own against the other three.

Other reviews of the research find that age and job task performance are unrelated and that older workers are more likely to engage in citizenship behavior. A There are no consistent male-female differences in problem-solving ability, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability, or learning ability. B Research suggests that women believe sex-based discriminations are less prevalent than do male employees. C Psychological studies have found women are more agreeable and willing to conform to authority.

D Working mothers are more likely than their counterparts to prefer part-time work, flexible work schedules, and telecommuting in order to accommodate their family responsibilities. E After rethinking of what constitutes male and female roles, we can safely assume no significant difference in job productivity between men and women.

B Sex roles affect our perceptions. For example, women who succeeded in traditionally male domains are perceived as less likable, more hostile, and less desirable as supervisors.

Interestingly, research also suggests that women believe sexbased discrimination is more prevalent than do male employees, and these beliefs are especially pronounced among women who work with a large proportion of men. A preference for work schedules B willingness to conform C willingness to learn new skills D the ambition to excel E greater employee participation Answer: A One issue that does seem to differ between men and women, especially when the employee has preschool-age children, is preference for work schedules.

A Surprisingly, women have lower rates of absenteeism than men do. B Women are more likely to turn over than men. C Men are increasingly sharing responsibility for child care. D An increasing number of men report feeling a conflict between their home responsibilities and their work lives. E Mothers were rated especially low in competence. A Evidence from a study of nearly , professional employees indicates significant differences, with women more likely to turn over than men.

Women also have higher rates of absenteeism than men do. A The United States Bureau of the Census classifies individuals according to seven broad racial categories: A We define race in this book as the biological heritage people use to identify themselves; ethnicity is the additional set of cultural characteristics that often overlaps with race. Women also have higher rates of absenteeism than men.

Which of the following statements is the correct explanation for this phenomenon? A The research was conducted in North America, and North American culture has historically placed home and family responsibilities on women.

D The research was conducted in North America, and North American culture lays greater emphasis on extracurricular activities than on career. A Are women less stable employees than men? First, evidence from a study of nearly , professional employees indicates significant differences, with women more likely to turn over than men. The most logical explanation is that the research was conducted in North America, and North American culture has historically placed home and family responsibilities on women.

When a child is ill or someone needs to stay home to wait for a plumber, the woman has traditionally taken time from work. A African Americans and Hispanics also have lower turnover rates than Whites. Your satisfaction is guaranteed. Inside you'll find out how DISC can help with recruitment and assessment, as well as building DiSC is a personality assessment that centers on four different behavioral traits: dominance, inducement, submission, and compliance.

Rohm, Ph. Chart Your Course International is available to provide you personalized support and help you at any time. At home or in the workplace, behavior and personality are often misunderstood and become areas of stress affecting your work productivity and happiness.

The free personality test most trusted by professionals. Get a free quote today! Reading skill level. And many are just online tests. It is a terrific book for anyone who wants to find out more about themselves or for people working in human resources. His scientific research and brilliant observations are universally accepted. Please help. These insights help the client be more aware of how they influence their surroundings and how to better handle the situations they deal with. The DISC online assessment is a resource for all types of individuals and organizations— public or private; large or small.

The report analyzes a person's manner of doing things. The DISC Personality Test is a tool used by millions of people to help them understand their communication styles and improve teamwork. This family of profiles meets a variety of needs and special applications required for increased individual and organizational performance. A research white paper done by Bill J. Team Charting Tool free bonus! This entry was posted in DiSC, Everything DiSC Assessments and tagged disc assessment, disc disc classic, disc paper test, disc personality assessment, DiSC Personality Test Printable, disc profile assessment, DiSC profile printable, disc test, everything disc, everything disc assessment, everything disc test, online disc assessment, online The DISC report is divided into 3 parts introducing the DISC model, helping you understand your own style, and identifying ways that you can apply your style strengths or modify your style weaknesses in order to meet the needs of others.

Any of our fun team building programs can be easily combined with the DiSC assessment to create that magical mix of meaningful fun. Here is a simple, yet very valuable and helpful training tool. Compare and choose an assessment. This free personality test gives you an an estimate of your DISC profile based on your answers to 12 short questions. Assessments 24x7 is a global leader in online DISC assessments and other behavioral profiling testing tools to organizations.

On The other hand, the DISC assessment should deal with my behavioral responses founded on my emotional reaction to a certain environment. In your role as an attorney, the DISC Assessment can help you: Identify the strengths, weaknesses, preferences and needs unique to your personality.

We are grateful you are interested in learning more about DiSC, and we understand that this version of DiSC is one of many versions you can choose from. Your Leadership Legacy by Robert M. Simply fill out the form below, take the assessment, and you will receive immediate access to your free DISC Report. Do you have time to take a longer, more in-depth assessment?

You are now on your way toward increased self-awareness and personal effectiveness.

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, Global Edition

The DISC system is mostly used with an employment or team building focus. The DiSC Profile. This test is not statistically validated. Also, the DiSC personality test might help you. Find out how smart you are, what you like to do, and what makes you happy with our free IQ tests, career tests, and personality tests. DiSC is the leading psychometric assessment tool used by more than 45 million people to improve work productivity, teamwork and communication. It does not require huge paraphernalia like electricity, computer or a high speed internet connection.

D that measures the behaviors of individuals in their environment. DISC dimensions fall into four categories. About Tony Robbins. Industrial psychologist Walter Clarke developed a behavioral assessment tool based on the theory of psychologist William Marston.

DISC is a behavioral model based on universal personality characteristics grouped into four specific quadrants. It's just sort of fun. The DiSC personality profile is based on these self-reported answers and results are given automatically.

Free customized DiSC profile screening handouts from Inscape. Take the DiSC test now and view your results instantly! DiSC profile from Wiley. Test your emotional intelligence with our free EQ quiz. Take an Assessment. For that reason, the Everything DiSC assessment measures every priority and will include extra shading for an individual if his or her score on the priority is over a pre-set threshold.

Download our free assessment When we use these terms, we are referring to the predictable patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. DISC personality test. The online test is generally short, ranging between 12 and 30 questions. Take the DiSC assessment online now and view your results immediately. This personality test lets you determine your DISC type and personality profile quickly.

Disc Profile Words 4 Pages. Which of the following terms accurately explains the type of discrimination she has been subjected to? C Exclusion is a type of discrimination whereby, certain people are left out from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring; it can occur unintentionally.

For example: Which of the following terms accurately explains the type of discrimination Tamara has been subjected to? A As an African American, having signs which would limit usage harken to times in history when African American's were not allowed to use the same facilities as others.

Which of the following terms accurately explains the type of discrimination he has been subjected to? D Mockery and insults are a form of discrimination where people are cast into negative stereotypes and made fun of; sometimes the results of these jokes are taken too far. Since this time, Thadius has no longer been invited to lunch with the members of his team and was not asked to play in the inter-departmental softball league this year.

Thadius is experiencing which form of discrimination? D Exclusion from certain events, even if they are purely social, within the office based on sexual orientation is a form of discrimination. A lateral diversity B individual diversity C organic diversity D workplace diversity E deep-level diversity Answer: D Diversity is a broad term, and the phrase workplace diversity can refer to any characteristic that makes people different from one another.

D Discriminatory policies or practices are actions taken by representatives of the organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal rewards for performance. A Ignore the differences…we are all the same. B Implement policies which prohibit cultural conversations. C Create work groups which have members of all possible racial groups. D Hold an orientation in which team members can discuss their differences.

E Force people to work with people with whom they are uncomfortable. D Evidence suggests that knowing clear behavioral scripts along with understanding other people's viewpoints can lead to developing a positive working environment. Critical thinking LO: TRUE Explanation: Demographics mostly reflect surface-level diversity, not thoughts and feelings, and can lead employees to perceive one another through stereotypes and assumptions. Individual characteristics like age, gender, race, ethnicity, and abilities can influence employee performance.

Education, financial status, ethnicity, regional background, and gender constitute surface-level diversity. More important characteristics like personality and values constitute deep-level diversity. Although diversity does present many opportunities for organizations, effective diversity management also means working to eliminate unfair discrimination.

Some forms of unfair discrimination, like exclusion or incivility, are especially hard to root out because they are impossible to observe and may occur because the actor isn't aware of the effects of his or her actions.

Summarize the two major forms of workforce diversity. The predominantly white, male managerial workforce has given way to a gender- balanced, multiethnic workforce. That change is increasingly reflected in the makeup of managerial and professional jobs. This permanent shift toward a diverse workforce means organizations need to make diversity management a central component of their policies and practices.

Experts recognize the demographic characteristics of age, race, gender, ethnicity, religion, and disability status as just the tip of the diversity iceberg. Diversity is a broad term, and the phrase workplace diversity can refer to any characteristic that makes people different from one another. Surface-level diversity refers to the differences in characteristics like education, upbringing, work-status, regional background, and gender. Deep- level diversity, on the other hand, refers to differences in individual characteristics like personality, values, belief-system, and interests.

Luis and Carol are co-workers who seem to have little in common at first glance. Luis is a young, recently hired male college graduate with a business degree, raised in a Spanish-speaking neighborhood in Miami. Carol is an older, long-tenured woman raised in rural Kansas, who achieved her current level in the organization by starting as a high school graduate and working her way up the hierarchy.

At first, these co-workers may experience some differences in communication based on their surface-level differences in education, ethnicity, regional background, and gender. However, as they get to know each other, they may find they are both deeply committed to their families, share a common way of thinking about important work problems, like to work collaboratively, and are interested in international assignments in the future.

These deep-level similarities will overshadow the more superficial differences between them, and research suggests they will work well together. Usually when we talk about discrimination, though, we mean allowing our behavior to be influenced by stereotypes about groups of people.

Rather than looking at individual characteristics, unfair discrimination assumes everyone in a group is the same. This discrimination is often very harmful to organizations and employees. Some of the types of discrimination in an organizational setup are unfair policies or practices, sexual harassment, intimidation, mockery and insults, exclusion, and incivility. Discriminatory policies or practices of the organization's representatives would result in denying equal opportunities to perform or unequal rewards for performance.

Unwanted sexual advances and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature would create a hostile or offensive work environment. Overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees would make the targeted employees intimidated. Jokes or negative stereotypes would be taken as mockery or insults when the results of the jokes are taken farther than what is acceptable. Exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring could happen unintentionally.

Disrespectful treatment, including behaving in an aggressive manner, interrupting the person, or ignoring their opinion is considered as uncivil behavior.

Not only do religious and nonreligious people question each other's belief systems they often are in conflict. United States federal law prohibits employers from discriminating against employees based on their religion, with very few exceptions.

However, that doesn't mean it's a nonissue in organizational behavior. Nearly two million Muslims live in the United States and there is a wide variety of perspectives on Islam. Some take these general biases a step further. Research has shown that job applicants in Muslim-identified religious attire who applied for hypothetical retail jobs in the United States had shorter, more interpersonally negative interviews than applicants who did not. Religious individuals may also believe they have an obligation to express their beliefs in the workplace, and those who do not share those beliefs may object.

Perhaps as a result of different perceptions of religion's role in the workplace, religious discrimination claims have been a growing source of discrimination claims in the United States. Sexual orientation and Gender identity: Employers differ widely in their treatment of sexual orientation. Federal law does not prohibit discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation, though many states and municipalities do.

In general, observers note that even in the absence of federal legislation requiring nondiscrimination, many organizations have implemented policies and procedures protecting employees on the basis of sexual orientation.

More than half the Fortune companies offer domestic-partner benefits for gay couples. Despite some gains, many lesbian, gay, and bisexual employees keep their gender identity from their co-workers for fear of being discriminated against. Companies are increasingly putting policies in place to govern how their organizations treat transgender employees.

Dealing with transgender employees requires some special considerations, such as for bathrooms, employee names, and so on. Capitol Building in Washington, D. Recently, at the same time Thadius and his partner Ryan announced plans to marry, he was denied a promotion to Captain. Within which doctrine can Thadius make a claim of discrimination? E Explanation: E Though the Federal Law does not prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation, the federal government has prohibited discrimination against governmental employees and gender discrimination based on sexual orientation in contradiction to the Civil Rights Act.

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, Global 14th Edition Free Pdf Download | terney.info

D Ethnicity often extends beyond race and includes a set of cultural characteristics which may be embraced in addition to ones ethnical background. A heritage B ethnic background C cultural identity D regionalistic customs E collective individuality Answer: C Cultural identity refers to the link to family ancestry or youth which lasts for a lifetime, regardless of where the person currently lives.

When Jared recently represented his company at a formal dinner, his supervisor was surprised to see Jared wearing an expensive suit with cowboy boots. B Customs of dress are just as much a part of one's cultural identity as are their holidays and foods. Jared's boots were simply an expression of his cultural identity. A The older you get, the less likely you are to be satisfied with your job. B The older you get, the less likely you are to quit your job.

C The older you get, the more likely you are to equip yourself with new skills. D The older you get, the more likely you are to take a leave of absence. E The older you get, the less likely you are to be productive on the job. That conclusion is based on studies of the age—turnover relationship. As workers get older, they have fewer alternative job opportunities as their skills have become more specialized to certain types of work.

In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees. A employees over the age of 50 were more productive than those under 50 B employees under 50 were more productive than those over 50 C policies allowing age discrimination encouraged lower levels of organizational commitment D policies allowing age discrimination encouraged higher levels of organizational commitment E age has no effect on performance or commitment Answer: C The companies with age discrimination policies had lower levels of organizational commitment which in turn resulted in lower levels of organizational performance.

A There are no consistent male-female differences in problem-solving ability, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability, or learning ability. B Research suggests that women believe sex-based discriminations are less prevalent than do male employees.

C Psychological studies have found women are more agreeable and willing to conform to authority. D Working mothers are more likely than their counterparts to prefer part-time work, flexible work schedules, and telecommuting in order to accommodate their family responsibilities.

E After rethinking what constitutes male and female roles, we can safely assume no significant difference in job productivity between men and women. B Sex roles affect our perceptions. For example, women who succeeded in traditionally male domains are perceived as less likable, more hostile, and less desirable as supervisors. Interestingly, research also suggests that women believe sexbased discrimination is more prevalent than do male employees, and these beliefs are especially pronounced among women who work with a large proportion of men.

A preference for work schedules B willingness to conform C willingness to learn new skills D the ambition to excel E greater employee participation Answer: A One issue that does seem to differ between men and women, especially when the employee has preschool-age children, is preference for work schedules. A Women have lower rates of absenteeism than men do. B Women are more likely to turn over than men.

C Men are increasingly sharing responsibility for child care. D An increasing number of men report feeling a conflict between their home responsibilities and their work lives. E Mothers were rated especially low in competence. A Evidence from a study of nearly , professional employees indicates significant differences, with women more likely to turn over than men.

Women also have higher rates of absenteeism than men do. A less likeable B more hostile C inadequate supervisors D all of the above E none of the above Answer: D Women who find success in male dominated areas still deal with negative stereotypes regarding their behavior; however, recent studies have shown that these perceptions can be countered by interpersonal skills.