Fluid mechanics cengel 3rd edition solution manual pdf


 

Solutions Manual for. Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications. Third Edition. Yunus A. Çengel & John M. Cimbala. McGraw-Hill, CHAPTER 1. download: terney.info - applications-3rd-edition-by-cengel/ Solutions manual for fluid mechanics fundamentals and cengel 3rd edition solution manual pdf free download fluid mechanics. Yunus Cengel, John Cimbala - Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications 3rd Edition Solutions Manual (, Mc Graw-Hill Science Engineering Math).

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Fluid Mechanics Cengel 3rd Edition Solution Manual Pdf

anytime. - Sat, 30 Mar GMT FLUID MECHANICS CENGEL 3RD EDITION. SOLUTION MANUAL PDF solutions manual Fluid. Solution manual of fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications - cengel [http terney.info]. , views. Share. extension pdf pages size mb file specification for 1st edition Solution Manual for Fluid Mechanics 1st and 3rd Ed Author(s): Yunus A. Cengel, John.

This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Analysis In the flow of a liquid, cavitation is the vaporization that may occur at locations where the pressure drops below the vapor pressure. The vapor bubbles collapse as they are swept away from the low pressure regions, generating highly destructive, extremely high-pressure waves. This phenomenon is a common cause for drop in performance and even the erosion of impeller blades. Not all cavitation is undesirable. Analysis Yes. The saturation temperature of a pure substance depends on pressure; in fact, it increases with pressure. The higher the pressure, the higher the saturation or boiling temperature. Discussion This fact is easily seen by looking at the saturated water property tables. Note that boiling temperature and saturation pressure at a given pressure are equivalent.

The pressure in a container that is filled with air is to be determined. At specified conditions, air behaves as an ideal gas. The volume of a tank that is filled with argon at a specified state is to be determined.

At specified conditions, argon behaves as an ideal gas. According to the ideal gas equation of state, mRT P.

Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications Solutions Manual

The specific volume of oxygen at a specified state is to be determined. At specified conditions, oxygen behaves as an ideal gas. According to the ideal gas equation of state, v. The amount of air that needs to be added to the tire to raise its pressure to the recommended value is to be determined.

Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals And Applications Solution Manual | terney.info

Treating air as an ideal gas, the initial mass in the tire is PV Notice that absolute rather than gage pressure must be used in calculations with the ideal gas law. Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Solution An automobile tire is inflated with air.

The pressure rise of air in the tire when the tire is heated and the amount of air that must be bled off to reduce the temperature to the original value are to be determined. P1 Pg Patm kPa Treating air as an ideal gas and assuming the volume of the tire to remain constant, the final pressure in the tire is determined from P1V1 T1. A balloon is filled with helium gas. The number of moles and the mass of helium are to be determined. Properties The molar mass of helium is 4. The temperature of the helium gas is 20oC, which we must convert to absolute temperature for use in the equations: Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Solution A balloon is filled with helium gas.

The effect of the balloon diameter on the mass of helium is to be investigated, and the results are to be tabulated and plotted. Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Solution Using the data for the density of Ra in Table A-4, an expression for the density as a function of temperature in a specified form is to be obtained. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.

Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

The amount of air that needs to be added to the tank to raise its pressure and temperature to the recommended values is to be determined. Treating air as an ideal gas, the initial volume and the final mass in the tank are determined to be.

Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Solution A relation for the variation of density with elevation is to be obtained, the density at 7 km elevation is to be calculated, and the mass of the atmosphere using the correlation is to be estimated. Assumptions 1 Atmospheric air behaves as an ideal gas.

The results are: EES Solution for final result: Analysis In the flow of a liquid, cavitation is the vaporization that may occur at locations where the pressure drops below the vapor pressure. The vapor bubbles collapse as they are swept away from the low pressure regions, generating highly destructive, extremely high-pressure waves. This phenomenon is a common cause for drop in performance and even the erosion of impeller blades. Not all cavitation is undesirable.

Analysis Yes. The saturation temperature of a pure substance depends on pressure; in fact, it increases with pressure. The higher the pressure, the higher the saturation or boiling temperature. Discussion This fact is easily seen by looking at the saturated water property tables. Note that boiling temperature and saturation pressure at a given pressure are equivalent. We are to determine if temperature increases or remains constant when the pressure of a boiling substance.

Analysis If the pressure of a substance increases during a boiling process, the temperature also increases since the boiling or saturation temperature of a pure substance depends on pressure and increases with it. Discussion We are assuming that the liquid will continue to boil. If the pressure is increased fast enough, boiling may stop until the temperature has time to reach its new higher boiling temperature.

A pressure cooker uses this principle. Analysis The vapor pressure Pv of a pure substance is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in phase equilibrium with its liquid at a given temperature. In general, the pressure of a vapor or gas, whether it exists alone or in a mixture with other gases, is called the partial pressure.

During phase change processes between the liquid and vapor phases of a pure substance, the saturation pressure and the vapor pressure are equivalent since the vapor is pure. Discussion Partial pressure is not necessarily equal to vapor pressure. For example, on a dry day low relative humidity , the partial pressure of water vapor in the air is less than the vapor pressure of water.

The minimum pressure in a pump is given. It is to be determined if there is a danger of cavitation. Analysis To avoid cavitation, the pressure everywhere in the flow should remain above the vapor or saturation pressure at the given temperature, which is Pv Psat 70 F 0.

Therefore, there is danger of cavitation in the pump. Discussion Note that the vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature, and the danger of cavitation increases at higher fluid temperatures. Analysis To avoid cavitation, the pressure anywhere in the system should not be allowed to drop below the vapor or saturation pressure at the given temperature. That is, Pmin Psat 20C 2. Discussion Note that the vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature, and thus the risk of cavitation is greater at higher fluid temperatures.

Analysis To avoid cavitation, the pressure anywhere in the flow should not be allowed to drop below the vapor or saturation pressure at the given temperature. That is, Pmin Psat 30C 4. Analysis To avoid cavitation, the pressure everywhere in the flow should remain above the vapor or saturation pressure at the given temperature, which is Pv Psat 20C 2.

Therefore, a there is danger of cavitation in the pump. Discussion Note that the vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature, and thus there is a greater danger of cavitation at higher fluid temperatures.

Analysis Flow energy or flow work is the energy needed to push a fluid into or out of a control volume. Fluids at rest do not possess any flow energy. Discussion Flow energy is not a fundamental quantity, like kinetic or potential energy.

However, it is a useful concept in fluid mechanics since fluids are often forced into and out of control volumes in practice. Analysis A flowing fluid possesses flow energy, which is the energy needed to push a fluid into or out of a control volume, in addition to the forms of energy possessed by a non-flowing fluid.

The total energy of a non-flowing fluid consists of internal and potential energies. If the fluid is moving as a rigid body, but not flowing, it may also have kinetic energy e. The total energy of a flowing fluid consists of internal, kinetic, potential, and flow energies. Flow energy is not to be confused with kinetic energy, even though both are zero when the fluid is at rest. Analysis The macroscopic forms of energy are those a system possesses as a whole with respect to some outside reference frame.

The microscopic forms of energy, on the other hand, are those related to the molecular structure of a system and the degree of the molecular activity, and are independent of outside reference frames.

Analysis The sum of all forms of the energy a system possesses is called total energy. In the absence of magnetic, electrical, and surface tension effects, the total energy of a system consists of the kinetic, potential, and internal energies.

Discussion a. All three constituents of total energy kinetic, potential, and internal need to be considered in an analysis of general fluid flow. Analysis The internal energy of a system is made up of sensible, latent, chemical, and nuclear energies.

The sensible internal energy is due to translational, rotational, and vibrational effects. The total energy of a non-flowing fluid consists of internal and potential energies. If the fluid is moving as a rigid body, but not flowing, it may also have kinetic energy e. The total energy of a flowing fluid consists of internal, kinetic, potential, and flow energies. Flow energy is not to be confused with kinetic energy, even though both are zero when the fluid is at rest.

Analysis The macroscopic forms of energy are those a system possesses as a whole with respect to some outside reference frame. The microscopic forms of energy, on the other hand, are those related to the molecular structure of a system and the degree of the molecular activity, and are independent of outside reference frames. Analysis The sum of all forms of the energy a system possesses is called total energy.

In the absence of magnetic, electrical, and surface tension effects, the total energy of a system consists of the kinetic, potential, and internal energies. Discussion a. All three constituents of total energy kinetic, potential, and internal need to be considered in an analysis of general fluid flow.

Analysis The internal energy of a system is made up of sensible, latent, chemical, and nuclear energies. The sensible internal energy is due to translational, rotational, and vibrational effects. Discussion We deal with the flow of a single phase fluid in most problems in this textbook; therefore, latent, chemical, and nuclear energies do not need to be considered.

Analysis Thermal energy is the sensible and latent forms of internal energy. It does not include chemical or nuclear forms of energy. In common terminology, thermal energy is referred to as heat. However, like work, heat is not a property, whereas thermal energy is a property.

Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications – Yunus Cengel – 3rd Edition

Analysis Using specific heat values at the average temperature, the changes in the specific internal energy of ideal gases can be determined from u c v,avg T. For incompressible substances, cp cv c and u c avg T. If the fluid can be treated as neither incompressible nor an ideal gas, property tables must be used. Analysis Using specific heat values at the average temperature, the changes in specific enthalpy of ideal gases can be determined from h c p,avg T.

For incompressible substances, cp cv c and h u vP c avg T vP. The total energy of saturated water vapor flowing in a pipe at a specified velocity and elevation is to be.

The enthalpy of the vapor at the specified temperature can be found in any thermo text to be energy is determined as. Note that only 0. Analysis The coefficient of compressibility represents the variation of pressure of a fluid with volume or density at constant temperature. Isothermal compressibility is the inverse of the coefficient of compressibility, and it represents the fractional change in volume or density corresponding to a change in pressure.

Analysis The coefficient of volume expansion represents the variation of the density of a fluid with temperature at constant pressure.

It differs from the coefficient of compressibility in that the latter represents the variation of pressure of a fluid with density at constant temperature. The coefficient of volume expansion of an ideal gas is equal to the inverse of its absolute temperature. We are to discuss the sign of the coefficient of compressibility and the coefficient of volume expansion.

Analysis The coefficient of compressibility of a fluid cannot be negative, but the coefficient of volume expansion can be negative e. Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Solution Water at a given temperature and pressure is heated to a higher temperature at constant pressure. The change in the density of water is to be determined. Assumptions 1 The coefficient of volume expansion is constant in the given temperature range. Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties and are assumed to be constant, the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed approximately as P T The change in density due to the change of temperature from 15C to 95C at constant pressure is T 0.

This is mostly due to varying with temperature almost linearly. Note that the density of water decreases while being heated, as expected. This problem can be solved more accurately using differential analysis when functional forms of properties are available. The percent increase in density of the gas when compressed at a higher pressure is to be determined.

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At 10 atm: At atm:. Therefore, the percent increase in the specific volume of an ideal gas during isobaric expansion is equal to the percent increase in absolute temperature. The increase in the density of water is to be determined. Assumptions 1 The isothermal compressibility is constant in the given pressure range. Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties and are assumed to be constant, the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed approximately as PT The change in density due to a change of pressure from 1 atm to atm at constant temperature is P 4.

The volume of an ideal gas is reduced by half at constant temperature. The change in pressure is to be The process is isothermal and thus the temperature remains constant. Note that at constant temperature, pressure and volume of an ideal gas are inversely proportional. The change in the density of the refrigerant is to be determined.

Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties and are assumed to be constant, the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed approximately as P T The change in density due to the change of temperature from 10C to 0C at constant pressure is T 0. Note that the density increases during cooling, as expected. Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Solution A water tank completely filled with water can withstand tension caused by a volume expansion of 0.

The maximum temperature rise allowed in the tank without jeopardizing safety is to be determined. Assumptions 1 The coefficient of volume expansion is constant. Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties and are assumed to be constant, the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed approximately as PT A volume increase of 0.

Discussion This result is conservative since in reality the increasing pressure will tend to compress the water and increase its density.

Analysis When differential quantities are replaced by differences and the properties and are assumed to be constant, the change in density in terms of the changes in pressure and temperature is expressed approximately as PT A volume increase of 1. Then the decrease in density due to a temperature rise of T at constant pressure is 0. The change in temperature is exactly half of that of the previous problem, as expected.

Chapter 2 Properties of Fluids Solution The density of seawater at the free surface and the bulk modulus of elasticity are given. The density and pressure at a depth of m are to be determined. Assumptions 1 The temperature and the bulk modulus of elasticity of seawater is constant. Then the density at m is estimated to be. The pressure increases required to reduce the volume of water by 1 percent and then by 2 percent are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 The coefficient of compressibility is constant. Analysis a A volume decrease of 1 percent can mathematically be expressed as v V 0. Assumptions 1 There are no losses.

Properties The specific heat of water is approximated as a constant, whose value is 0. In fact, c remains constant at 0. For this same temperature range, the density varies from We approximate the density as constant, whose value is For a constant pressure process, u cavg T.

Since this is energy per unit mass, we must multiply by the. Discussion We give the final answer to 3 significant digits.

The actual energy required will be greater than this, due to heat transfer losses and other inefficiencies in the hot-water heating system. Discussion The coefficient of volume expansion of an ideal gas is not constant, but rather decreases with temperature.

However, for small temperature differences, is often approximated as a constant with little loss of accuracy. The result is to be compared to ideal gas and experimental values. As a Chegg Study subscriber, you can view available interactive solutions manuals for each of your classes for one low monthly price. Why buy extra books when you can get all the homework help you need in one place?

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