FD Measurement Method Detection of weight loss by heating & For safe operation, ensure you read the Operating Manual before use. Carefully read and observe all safety notes included in this user's manual. • Do not use the . The Kett Model FD Infrared Moisture Balance determins the. The FD is our entry-level instrument yet offers many features only available in the higher priced instruments of our competitors. It provides the extremely fast.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|Genre:||Business & Career|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration Required]|
FD Infra-red Moisture Determination Balance. Safety Notes. ○ Read the manual thoroughly prior to use. ○ Do not measure Contact us through the above address or access our URL. terney.info Email: [email protected] FD is upgraded model from FD which was one of the largest Selling IR moisture balances in Kett record. No other moisture testers offers the versality of. Consult Kett's FD Infrared Moisture Balance brochure on DirectIndustry. Page : 1/2.
There is vd real danger, however, of harvesting too early or too late. Moisture, Protein, Oil, Sugar content, Fiber content, etc. Concrete and Mortar Moisture Tester Model HI For building and waterproofing industries, moisture control in concrete and mortar is one of the most important factors.
Even so, these strong materials also have theirshortcomings. Special FeaturesBest for CanolaThe larger sample volume of the PM means it is lessaffected by f seeds in Canola, than many other smallgrain The amount of moisture in a product can greatly affectperceived quality, and is also very important when makingtransactions based on weight. The PM builds on ouryears of success Further, high moisture content in the stuffing can also be the cause of fungi and decay.
Harga Produk Yang Terjamin. An automatic elevating mechanism moves 61 sample case, measuring different parts of the sample and an average value is displayed after about 20 s.
Which Kett Do I Need? Using the traditional loss-on-drying technique, samples areautomatically weighed, dried, This allows quick, simple and non-destructive constituent analysis. This ration is used to determine the amount of constituents within the sample.
Wolfgang Suwelack out of gratitude for a harmonic cooperation lasting for over a decade. X Preface Several companies and publishing houses have granted permission to use drawings and photographs to which they own the copyright. Haseley and I are grateful to all of them because they have thus made it possible to present freeze-drying under many aspects.
We have tried to show the interconnection between the properties of the product, the goal to make it stable and the necessary processes to achieve this.
The problems of the different process steps are discussed with examples and the parameters influencing each step are described. We have avoided to follow the many theoretical attempts to describe one or more of the freeze-drying steps, but have restricted ourselves to a few equations which permit calculating process and product data with sufficient accuracy, or to at least allow an estimate based on measuring some of the data.
The freezing of a product is a very important step, The structure in the frozen product decides whether the product can be freeze-dried at all, and under which conditions it can be done. Therefore, the consequences of freezing rate, layer thickness of the product and excipients are discussed in some detail.
The second main point is the measurement and control of the two drying phases, the main and secondary drying, and the third point concentrates on the residual miosture content, its measurement and the consequences during storage of the dry product.
There will be critical opinions that some of the processes are unilaterally represented. I have tried to show the limits and advantages of certain procedures to enable the reader to decide for himself whether the ideas of the quoted authors or my own can be applied best to his particular task. The approximately literature references in the edition have been in part replaced and furthermore supplemented to a new total of Hellwege, from whom I learned to tackle a problem from as many sides as I could imagine, with wide open curiosity.
Freeze-drying was first carried out by Altmann, who freeze-dried organ pieces in , as Dr.
In Gersh designed an effective vacuum plant for the freeze-drying of histological preparations with the help of the diffusion pump, just invented by Gaede at that time. Industrial freeze-drying began with the production of preserved blood plasma and penicillin, as shown by E. Vacuum technology and penicillin were also my introduction to freeze-drying.
From then on, I was engaged in vacuum process technology for almost 25 years, including the time from as Managing Director of Leybold Hochvakuum Anlagen GmbH. Freeze-drying has always fascinated me as being the most complex vacuum process. It was at this time that Mr.
Wolfgang Suwelack, Managing Partner of Dr. Furthermore, I am grateful to Dipl. I am grateful to all of them, because they have made it possible to present freeze-drying under many aspects. I have tried to show the interconnection between the property of the product, the goal to make it stable and the necessary processes to achieve this. The problems of XII Preface to the first Edition the different process steps are discussed with examples and the parameters are described which influence each step.
I have avoided following the many theoretical attempts describing one or more of the freeze-drying steps, but have restricted myself to a few equations which permit the calculation of process and product data with sufficient accuracy, or at least, allow an estimate, if some data is mentioned.
The freezing of a product is a very important step. The structure in the frozen product decides whether the product can be freeze-dried at all and under which conditions it can be done.
For this reason, the consequences of the freezing rate, layer thickness of the product and excipients are discussed in some detail.
The second main point is the measurement and control of the two drying phases; the main and secondary drying and the third concentrates on the residual moisture content, its measurement and the consequences during storage of the dry product. My aim was to show the limits and the advantages of certain procedures to enable the reader to decide whether the ideas of the quoted authors, or my own can be applied to his tasks.
Freeze-drying is mostly done with water as solvent. Figure 1. This step is relatively straightforward for pure water. If the product contains two or more components in true solutions or suspensions, the situation can become so complicated that simplified model substances have to be used to make the process more understandable. Such complex systems occur ubiquitously in biological substances. The drying transforms the ice or water in an amorphous phase into vapor.
Owing to the low vapor pressure of the ice, the vapor volumes become large, as can be seen in Figure 1. During the second step of the drying, the water adsorbed on the solids is desorbed. The goal of freeze-drying is to produce a substance with good shelf stability and which is unchanged after reconstitution with water, although this depends also very much on the last step of the process: the packing and conditions of storage.