Veterinary pathology book pdf


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. I would like to dedicate this book to Gordon Duncanson, a Kentish sheep and hair sheep Professor and Head of the Department of Veterinary Pathology. Textbook of Veterinary Pathology. by R. S. Chauhan PDF MB Password: Help · Download. (Visited 1, times, 1 visits today).

Language:English, Spanish, Arabic
Published (Last):18.11.2015
Distribution:Free* [*Registration Required]
Uploaded by: LOURIE

47930 downloads 104769 Views 29.68MB PDF Size Report

Veterinary Pathology Book Pdf

Cell, Tissues, & Disease: Principals of General Pathology by Majuo & Joris. – Pathologic Basics of Veterinary Diseases by McGavin & Zachary. veterinary - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Textbook of Veterinary Pathology - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File ( .txt) or read book online. Textbook of Veterinary Pathology.

By being competitive right now, people have do something to make these individuals survives, being in the middle of often the crowded place and notice by surrounding. One thing that sometimes many people have underestimated the idea for a while is reading. Yeah, by reading a book your ability to survive enhance then having chance to stand up than other is high. For you personally who want to start reading some sort of book, we give you that Veterinary pathology book as starter and daily reading guide. Why, because this book is more than just a book. Arlene Wilson: You can find this Veterinary pathology by browse the bookstore or Mall. Just viewing or reviewing it could possibly to be your solve difficulty if you get difficulties for the knowledge. Kinds of this reserve are various.

Various chapters are updated with some new photographs. The latest classification of viruses has been incorporated in the chapter 'Etiology'. Feedback received from the readers is given due care while preparing second edition of the book and most of the suggestions are incorporated. In my opinion, it will become were useful to not only the students but also to the teachers, field veterinarians and diagnosticians.

I must extend thanks to all those who helped me in this meticulous task. In the busy curriculum of veterinary sciences, the subject of pathology forms a vital link between basic subjects of anatomy, biochemistry and physiology on one hand, and the clinical subjects of surgery, gynaecology and medicine, on the other. Majority of available textbooks on Veterinary Pathology are written by western authors and English being a foreign language in this country, most of our students find it hard to understand and reproduce the highly technical subject from these books.

Most of the available textbooks were written a decade or more than that back,and are out dated in present scenario. Needless to say that some of the books written by Indian authors are also too exhaustive and without illustrations, thu! In preparing this textbook, I have kept these problems in mind and recalled the difficulties I faced as a student.

How far have I succeeded in my endeavour is for the students and my professional colleagues to judge. The very purpose of the Illustrated Veterinary Pathology is to provide the undergraduate Veterinary students a textbook with diagrams and photographs to make the text comprehensive. To broaden the scope further, laboratory methods, including post-mortem examination, histopathological procedures and clinicopathological procedures are also included in the appendices.

The book is divided into two sections of General Pathology and Systemic Pathology. The text provides a complete, uptodate and concise coverage of the traditionally difficult subject in simple, lucid and clear language. The material has been organized meticulously in such a way that the student can easily understand, retain and reproduce it. Various levels of headings, sub-headings, bold type set and italics given in the text are meant to aid the student for quick revision of the subject.

In a work of this magnitude, it is natural for the sole author of a book to solicit help and cooperation from others. The most overwhelming enthusiasm, good will, love and affection have generously come from my students for which I shall remain always indebted to them.

I wish to express gratitude to the Vice-Chancellor, Dr. Chowdhary, who always encouraged me to produce such a useful textbook for undergraduate students. The SUppOlt and encouragement from Dr. Amresh Kumar, Dean, V. It is most important to arrange yourself to make your knowledge are still update.

Let's try to choose right ways for you. John Rivera: Many people said that they feel weary when they reading a publication.

They are directly felt the idea when they get a half elements of the book. You can choose the actual book Veterinary pathology to make your own personal reading is interesting. Your personal skill of reading expertise is developing when you including reading. Murine minute virus Bovine parvovirus Canineparvovirus Porcine parvovirus. Chicken infectious anemia Diarrhoea in cattle Enteritis, myocarditis in dogs Infertility, fetal death in pigs.

Coronaviridae Coronavirus in birds virus Bovine coronavirus Diarrhoea in calves Turkey astrovirus Swine vesicular Vesicular exanthema exanthema virus inlligs Lagovirus Rabbit haemorrhagic Haemmorhagic disease in rabbit disease virus Norovirus Norwalk virus FIaviviridae FIavirus Yellow fever virus Yellow fever in man 5.

Bomaviridae Boma disease Boma disease Boma disease in virus virus sheep 3. Filoviridae Ebolavirus Filovirus 4.

Past Congress abstract books

Rhabdovirida Vesiculovirus Vesicular Vesicular stomatitis e stomatitis virus in bovines Lyssavirus Rabies virus Rabies Ephemerovirus Ephemeral fever Ephemeral fever in virus animals 5. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. They do not cause any disease in animals. However, they are associated with plant diseases. Mycoplasma mycoides is responsible for pneumonia, joint ailments and genital disorders Chlamydia.

Chlamydia trachoma tis, C. Leptospira sp. Borrelia ansarina causes fowl spirochetosis in chickens. Bacteria Bacteria are classified as Gram positive and Gram negative on the basis of Gram's staining. Gram negative bacteria are E. Besides, there are certain organisms stained with Zeihl Neelson stain and are known as acid fast bacilli e. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. Fungi Fungi pathogenic for animals are mostly belongs to fungi imperfecti.

Histoplasmosis Fungi cause three type of disease- Mycosis e. Actinomycosis; Allergic disease e. Ringworm; Mycotoxicosis e. Helminths Nematodes- Roundworms e. Ascaris, Trematod- Flat worms e. Liverfluke Cestodes- Tapeworms e. Horizontal Transmission Horizontal transmission of biological causes occurs through direct contact or indirectly via animal or inanimate fomites objects. It is also known as lateral transmission as it occurs in a population from one to another.

Various methods of horizontal transmission are as under:. Food, water, faecal-oral route e. Salmonellosis, Johne's disease, Rotavirus infection. Air borne infections, droplet infection e. Fungal infection, Bacterial dermatitis, Flu, Brucellosis, Rabies through bite. Introduction of infection in body through puncture either mechanically through needles or by arthropods such as by ticks. Ticks transmit diseases through transovarian one Transmission of infection during surgical practice or it is created by doctor, through dirty instrument and contaminated preparations.

Through sexual contact of animals, biological agents spread from one to another animals. Campylobacteriosis, Trichomoniasis.

These include:.

ALC in chickens, lymphoid leukemia in mice, Salmonellosis in poultry. Infection from lower genital tract during birth. Herpex simplex virus. Two types of hazards which create problem to agent. Internal hazards e. Host immune system External hazards e. Desiccation, IN light Agents try to maintain themselves by adopting following maintenance strategies: Anthrax spores. Viruses of respiratory tract. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Slow viral diseases. Extension of host range.

Infection in more than one host e. Foot and mouth disease.

Snake venom Snake venom have phospholipase Az which causes lytic action on membranes of RBC and platelets. The presence of hyaluronidase, phosphodiesterase and peptidase in snake venom are responsible for oedema, erythema, haemolytic anemia, swelling of facialj laryngeal tissues, haemoglobinurea, cardiac irregularities, fall in blood pressure, shock and neurotoxicity. Endotoxins are present in cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and are found to be responsible for septicemia and shock.

Exotoxins are secreted by bacteria outside their cell wall and are found responsible for protein lysis and damage of cell membrane. Clostridium toxins suppress metabolism of cell. Most potent clostridial toxins. Besides, Clostridium chauvei toxins are responsible for black leg disease in cattle. Fungal Toxins Mycotoxins There are several fungi known for production of toxins. Aflatoxins Aflatoxins are produced by several species of fungi including mainly Aspergillus flavus, A.

Aflatoxins are produced in moist environment in grounded animal! These toxins are known to cause immunosuppression, formation of malignant neoplasms and hepatopathy. Ergot Ergot is produced by Claviceps purpura in grains which causes blackish discoloration.

It produces gangrene by chronic vasoconstriction, ischemia and capillary endothelium degeneration. It is also associated with summer syndrome in cattle characterized by gangrene of extremities. Fusarium toxins.

Introduction to Veterinary Pathology, 3rd ed.

Fusarium toxins are produced by Fusarium tricinctum in paddy straw, which are found to cause gangrene in extremities. Zearalenone toxin is the cause of ovarian abnormality in sow.

Ochratoxins are produced by Aspergillus ochracheous and A. Plant toxins Over plants are known to produce toxin. Braken fern which causes haematuria and enccphalomalacia. Strychnine from Strychnos nuxvomica is highly toxic and causes death in animals with nervous signs.

It is used for dog killing in public health operations to control rabies. HCN is found in sorghum which is known to cause clonic convulsions and death in animals characterized by haemorrhage in mucous membranes. Oxytetracyline, sulfonamides are nephrotoxic. Neomycin and Lincomycin cause Mal-absorption diarrhoea and Immunosuppression. Anti-inflammatory drugs: Anticoccidiostate drug: Monensin is responsible for necrosis of cardiac and skeletal muscles. Trace elements: There are various trace elements; excess of which may cause poisoning in animals.

Selenium poisoning "Blind staggers" or "Alkali Disease" in cattle characterized by chronic debilitating disease. It also causes encephalomalacia in pigs. Environmental Pollutants Environment is polluted due to presence of unwanted materials in food, water, air and surroundings of animals, particularly by agrochemicals including pesticides and fertilizers.

The environmental pollutants exert their direct or indirect effect on the animal health and production. The main pollutants are: They are also associated with immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis.

Sulpher dioxide is produced by automobHes, industries and generators. It is responsible for loss of cilia in bronchiolar epithelium. Hydrogen sulfide is produced by animal's decay and in various industries. It inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase leading to death. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in various agricultural, animal husbandry and public health operations. They are classified as insecticides, herbicides, weedicides and rodenticides.

Chemically, insecticides are grouped mainly as organochlorine organophosphates, carbamates and synthetic pyrethroids. Acute poisoning of pesticides causes death in animals after nervous clinical signs of short duration. Chronic toxicity is characterized by immunosuppression, nephropathy, neuropathy, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity in animals.

It is very difficult to diagnose the nutritional causes and sometimes it is not possible to find a precise cause as in case of infectious disease because functions of one nutrient can be compensated by another in cell metabolism.

Experimental production of nutritional deficiency is not identical to natural disease. When tissue concentration of nutrient falls down to the critical level, it leads to abnormal metabolism and the abnormal metabolites present in tissues can be detected in urine and faeces.

First changes of nutritional deficiency are recorded in rapidly metabolizing tissues e. Immature animals are more susceptible to nutritional disease. Poor quality food. Imbalance in calcium: Protein malnutrition: Malabsorption Calorie deficiency: Loss of fat! Muscle wasting. Anorexia, G. Intestinal hypermotility, Insoluble complexes in food Fat! Hepatic disease leads to deficiency of vito A.

Presence of thiaminases in feed,leads to thiamine deficiency. Calorie deficiency Calorie deficiency in animals occurs due to food deprivation or starvation.

Starvation Starvation is the long continued deprivation of food. It is characterized by fatty degeneration of liver, anemia and skin diseases. Young and very old animals are more susceptible to starvation while in pregrlant animals it causes retarded growth of foetus.

In animals, following changes can be seen due to starvation. Intestinal involution Absorptive surface is reduced with shrunken cells and pyknotic nuclei. Villi becomes shorter and shows atrophy. Atrophy of muscles There is decrease in muscle mass. Lipolysis Increased cortisol leads to increased lipolysis resulting in formation of fatty acids in liver which in turn converts into ketones used by brain.

Gluconeogenesis In early fasting blood glucose level drops down. The insulin level becomes low while glucagon goes high in starvation. The glucose comes from skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and lymphoid tissue during starvation. Twenty four hours of food deprivation causes reduction in liver glycogen and blood glucose.

Fatty acids from adipose tissue forms glucose and in mitochondria after oxidation it forms acetoacetate, hydroxybutyrate and acetone. Which are also known as ketone bodies and are present in blood stream during starvation. It is also known as ketosis e. Lack of glucose in blood leads to oxidation of fatty acids which forms ketone bodies as an alternate source of energy.

They are normalf physiological at certain level but may become pathological when their level is high. Clinically it is characterized by anorexia, depression, coma, sweet smell in urine, concentration of acetone increases in milk, blood and urine along with hyperlipimia and acidosis.

A similar condition also occurs in sheep known as pregnancy toxaemia which is characterized by depression, coma and paralysis. There are fatty changes in liver, kidneys, and heart, with subepicardial petechiae or echymosis. Protein deficiency Generally, protein deficiency does not occur. However, the deficiency of essential amino acids has been reported in animals when certain ingredients are deficient in certain amino acids.

Protein deficiency is characterized by hypoproteinemia, anemia, poor growth, delayed healing, decreased or cesation of cell proliferation, failure of collagen formation, atrophy of testicles and ovary, atrophy of thymus and lymphoid tissue. Deficiency of Lipids Generally, there is no deficiency of fat in animals. However, essential fatty acids including linolenic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid deficiency may occur which causes dermatoses in animals.

Fat has high calorie value and it is required in body because there are certain vitamins soluble in fat only. Deficiency of Water Deficiency of water may lead to dehydration and slight wrinkling in skin.

Deficiency may occur due to fever, vomiting, diarrhoea, haemorrhage and polyuria, which can be corrected through adequate water supply for drinking or through intravenous fluid therapy. Deficiency of Vitamins Vitamin deficiency may occur due to starvation. There are two types of vitamins viz.

Fat soluble vitamins are vit. Vitamin A It is also known as retinol. It is derived from its precursor carotene. It is found in abundant in plants having yellow pigment, animal fat, liver, cod liver oil, shark liver oil. A aldehyde which after absorption is stored in liver. Bile salts and pancreatic juice are responsible for absorption of vit.

A from gut. Deficiency of Vit. A occurs due to damage in liver. A deficiency may lead to following disease conditions: Squamous metaplasia of epithelial surfaces in esophagus, pancreas, bladder and parotid duct, which is considered. There are abnormal teeth in animals due to hypoplasia of enamel and its poor mineralization. Vitamin A deficiency is also associated with still birth and abortions in pigs.

It causes night blindness Nyctalopia in animals. In poultry, there is distention of mucous glands, which opens in pharynx and esophagus because of metaplasia of duct epithelium leading to enlargement of esophageal glands due to accumulation of its secretions. The glands become spherical, mm dia. It is considered pathognomonic for hypovitaminosis A. Inflammation of upper respiratory tract lead to coryza.

Urinary tract of cattle, sheep and goat suffers due to formation of calculi, which may cause obstruction in sigmoid flexure of urethra in males. Such calculi are made up of desquamated epithelial cells and salts and the condition is known as urolithiasis.

Deficiency of vito A may also lead to in abnormal bone growth of cranial bones and there is failure of foramen ovale to grow leading to constriction of optic nerves which results in blindness in calves, increased CSF pressure, blindness at birth and fetal malformations.

In sows, piglets are born without eyes Anophthalmos or with smaller eyes- Microphthalmos. Vitamin D Vitamin D occurs in 3 forms viz. In diet containing egg butter, it is found in abundant quantity in milk, plants, grains etc. Active forms of vito Dare hydroxy vito D and 1, 25 dihydroxy vit D. Calcitriol which is 5 to 10 times more potent than former. Vit D is stored in adipose tissue in body. The main functions of vit D are absorption of Ca and P from intestines and kidneys, mineralization of bones, maintains blood levels of Ca and P and in immune regulation as it activates lymphocytes and macrophages.

The deficiency of vitamin D is associated with rickets in young animals, osteomalacia in adult animals and hypocalcemic tetany. Excess of vitamin D leads to the formation of renal calculi, metastatic calcification and osteoporosis in animals. Vitamin E a- tocopherol Source of vitamin E is grains, oils, nuts, vegetables, and in body it is stored in adipose tissue, liver and muscles.

It has antioxidant activity and prevents oxidative degradation of cell membrane. There is denervation of muscles leading to muscle dystrophy e. White muscle disease in cattle and Stifflamb disease in sheep and Myoglobinuria in horses. Deficiency of vito E causes degeneration of pigments in retina reduces life span of RBC, leading to anemia and sterility in animals. Crazy chick disease Encephalomalacia is also caused by vit E deficiency; the chicks become sleepy with twisting of head and neck.

There is muscular dystrophy in chickens due to vito E deficiency. Vitamin K. Its main function is coagulation of blood.

Deficiency of vit K may leads to hypoprothrombinemia and haemorrhages. Vitamin B. Thiamine In ruminants synthesis of thiamine occurs in rumen. Source of. Strong tea, coffee have antithiamine action. It is stored in muscles, liver, heart, kidneys and bones of animals.

Thiamine plays active role in carbohydrate metabolism. Chastek paralysis in cats, fox and mink and stargazing attitude of chicks due to thiaminase thiamine deficiency in meal may be observed. Bracken fern poisoning in cattle and horses may cause deficiency of thiamine due to presence of thiaminase enzyme in bracken fern.

Toxicity of thiamine splitting drugs like amprolium, a coccidiostate, may cause polioencephalomalcia in cattle and sheep. Cardiac dialation in pigs has also been observed due to vit. Bl deficiency.

Riboflavin Riboflavin is a component of several enzymes and is found in plants, meat, eggs and vegetables. It is found in grains, cereals, meat, liver, kidneys, vegetables and plants. Pyridoxine It is found in egg, green vegetables, meat, liver etc.

Cyanocobalamin Deficiency of cyanocobalamin may also lead to anemia, as it is also needed in RBC formation. Biotin Biotin deficiency causes paralysis of hind legs in calves. Choline Choline deficiency is associated with fatty changes in liver and perosis. Vitamin C Ascorbic acid It is found in green plants and citrus fruits.

Deficiency of vit. C may cause retardation of fibroplasia, scurvy in G. Deficiency of anyone of them or in combination may cause serious disease in animals. Some of the important minerals are: Chloride ions of hydrochloric acid present in stomach also comes from sodium chloride.

Deficiency of salt occurs due to diarrhoea, dehydration and vomiting. Absorption of calcium from gut is facilitated by vito D. Paratharmone stimulates to raise blood Ca level from bones while calcitonin from thyroid stimulates it's deposition in bones and thus reduces blood Ca levels. During gestation calcium goes to foetus from skeleton of cows, resulting in weak skeleton of dam.

If calcium is not provided in diet, it may cause disease in dam characterized by locomotor disturbances, abnormal curvature of back, distortion of pelvis, tetany, incoordination, muscle spasms, unconsciousness and death.

Cow suddenly becomes recumbent and sits on sternum with head bending towards. The calcium therapy recovers the animal immediately. The excess of calcium may cause metastatic calcification leading to its deposition in soft tissue of kidney, lungs and stomach. Magnesium It acts as activator of many enzymes e. It requires for activation of membrane transport synthesis of. Grass tetany and Grass staggers occurs due to hypomagne semia and characterized by hyperirritability, abnormal gait, coma and death.

In bones, it is in the form of calcium phosphate. Deficiency of phosphorus may lead to hypophosphatemia and characterized by pica, rheumatism and hemoglobinurea. It mainly occurs in cattle, buffaloes and camels, who eats bones, mud and other earthern materials.

Such animals have heavy parasitic load in their gut. Calcium in diet with phytate or phosphate forms a complex Blind Staggers occurs due to excess of selenium. Cobalt Vito Bt2 is synthesized by ruminal bacteria from cobalt in ruminants.

Selenium Deficiency of selenium causes hemolysis as it protects cell membrane of RBC and thus its deficiency leads to anemia. Iron Deficiency of iron leads to anemia. It occurs as the epiphyseal cartilage fails to ossify at 12 week of age and epiphysis becomes loose and thus gastrocnemious tendon slips medially and condition is known as Slipped Tendon or Perosis.

Zinc Deficiency of zinc may cause parakeratosis in pigs at weeks age. Cobalt also stimulates erythropoiesis. Copper Deficiency of copper results in anemia and steel wool disease in sheep. Manganese Deficiency of manganese causes slipped tendon in chicken or perosis characterized by shortening of long bones in chickens. Its deficiency may cause wasting disease. Enzootic ataxia with incoordination of posterior limb has been observed in goats.

The pathological lesions are comprised of anemia. Quick Review and Self Assessment with zinc making it unavailable for absorption leading to its deficiency. It also causes fascial eczema in cattle. The teeth become shorter. Other signs of iodine deficiency include abnormal spermatozoa. Iodine Deficiency of iodine causes goiter in newborn pigs characterized by absence of hair on their skin. Excess of iodine may lead to lacrimation and exfoliation of dandruff like epidermal scales from skin.

Fluorine Excess of fluorine causes mottling in teeth and bones. They are in pairs. Chapter 3 Genetic Disorders. Chromosomes are grouped together on the basis of their Table 3. Number of chromosomes in different species of animals Study of genes is termed as Genetics. Guanine or pyrimidine Thymine. In higher animals about 1. Chromosomes are composed of 3 components: It is a unit of function. The study of Karyotyping is known as cytogenetics.

It is known as hetero- ploidy. The polar body may fail to be extruded from ovum leaving diplod set to be fertilized by sperm n i.

veterinary | Pathology | Transmission (Medicine)

It may have specific chromosome in triple number trisomy or in single number monosomy. Cut photographs having homologous chromo-somes and make pairs. M PHA-M for 72 hrs. When number of chromosomes are other than n or 2n. Genetic Disorders. Even though some aberrations do persist and expressed in phenotype leading to illness. XXY in some cells. Then the female will have two type of cell population.

Bovine twin 1 male and 1 female with joint placenta. Absence of a piece of chromosome is known as deletion. XY in other cells. The blood cells of male may go in female counterpart.

Such chimeric bulls are sterile. It may be reciprocal or non-reciprocal. Abnormalities in autosomal chromosomes a Down's syndrome! In mice XO karyotype is normal. It occurs due to single gene defect and makes tissues unresponsive to androgenic hormones. It may be due to genetic disorder and may affect the zygote itself within few days after fertilization or may occur during any stage of pregnancy.

Imperfect development a Agenesis Agenesis is incomplete development of an organ or mostly it is associated with absence of any organ. It may be classified as under: Diseases transmitted by heterozygous carrier females only to male offsprings who are homozygous for X-chromosome.

Atresia ani is absence of anus opening. In this at least two tissues should be of origin. Schistothorax is a fissure in thorax. Chelioschisis is a cleft in lips also known as harelip. Schistosomus is a fissure in abdomen. It mostly occurs in the subcutaneous tissues. United twins These twins are united with symmetrical development and are further classified as: Separate twins One twin is well developed while another is malformed and lack the heart.

Duplication of all or most of the organs. Cephalothoracopagus is the monster having united head and thorax. Dipygus is the monster having double posterior extremities and posterior parts of body.

Senile atrophy. Hypoplasia of kidneys in calves. Cerebral hypoplasia in Bovine viral diarrhoea. If one kidney is removed. Myometrium during pregnancy. Atrophy of immobilized legs. Atrophy of lymphoid organs. Atrophy of testicles. Environmental pollution e. Endocrine atrophy e. Prostate hyperplasia. Gall stones cause metaplasia of columnar cells to stratified squamous epithelial cells in wall of gall bladder. In dog columnar epithelium of prostate changes into squamous epithelium. It is a feature in neoplasia.

Nutritional roup. Nodular enlargement of organ. Neoplasia is uncontrolled new growth. In poultry. In place of columnar cells. Displacement of adjacent tissue. In gastrointestinal tract. It is the malformation of tissue during maturation. Oncogenic Viruses. Spermatozoa head and tailpiece are structurally abnormal or aligned in improper way.

Fibrous dysplasia in bones. Text Book o[Veterinary Pathology: Quick Review and Self Assessment less differentiated in nature with more embryonic characters of the cells.


It occurs only in living animals. It is of two types. It may occur through two processes i. In active hyperemia blood accumulates in arteries while in passive hyperemia the amount of blood increases in veins. Blood in thoracic cavity. Blood in pericardial sac. Blood from uterus. Blood in sputum. Blood in vomitus. When there is increased amount of blood in pericardial sac. Blood in urine.

Blood in peritoneal cavity. Blood from nose. Bleeding in faeces. Presence of red blood cells in tissues outside the blood vessels. It occurs due to endothelial injury leading to accumulation of thrombocytes. Fibrin Bacteria Neoplasm Oumps of normal cells Fat. It is also known as local anemia. Ischemia is the deficiency of blood due to obstruction in artery.

It is also known as hydroperitonium. Hydrothorax is accumulation of fluid in thoracic cavity.

Related articles:

Copyright © 2019
DMCA |Contact Us