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UHF communications b. Amplitude modulation is the process of superimposing a low frequency on a high frequency superimposing a high frequency on a low frequency carrier interruption frequency shift and phase shift.
NOISE 1. One of the following types of noise becomes of great importance at high frequencies. It is the a. HF mixers are generally noisier than HF amplifiers. Impulse noise voltage is independent of bandwidth. Thermal noise is independent of the frequency at which it is measured. Industrial noise is usually of the impulse type.
The value of a resistor creating thermal noise is doubled. The noise power generator is therefore a. One of the following is not a useful quantity for comparing the noise performance of receivers: Input noise voltage Equivalent noise resistance Noise temperature Noise figure. Indicate the noise whose source is in a category different from that of the other three. Solar noise Cosmic noise Atmospheric noise Galactic noise.
The square of the thermal noise voltage generated by a resistor is proportional to a. Which of broad classifications of noise are most difficult to treat? Space noise generally covers a wide frequency spectrum, but the strongest interference occurs a. Which of the following is the most reliable measurement for comparing amplifier noise characteristics?
Which of the following statements is true? Random noise power is inversely proportional to bandwidth Flicker is sometimes called demodulation noise Noise is mixers is caused by inadequate image frequency rejection A random voltage across a resistance cannot be calculated. If the plate supply voltage for a plate-modulated class C amplifier is the maximum plate-cathode voltage could be almost as high as 4V 3V 2V 1V In a low-level AM system, amplifiers following the modulated stage must be linear devices harmonic devices class C amplifiers nonlinear devices.
If the carrier of a percent modulated AM wave is suppressed, the percentage power saving will be a. The modulation index of an AM wave is changed from 0 to 1. The transmitted power is a. One of the advantages of the base modulation over collector modulation of a transistor class C amplifier is a. What is the ratio of modulating power to total power at percent modulation? Compared with other systems it requires less transmitting power its use avoids receiver complexity. A carrier is simultaneously modulated by two sine waves with modulation indices of 0.
SSB with lower audio frequencies present can be generated There are more balanced modulators. The signal is more noise-resistant Much less power is required for the same signal strength 2. Indicate the false statement regarding the advantages of SSB over double sideband. Indicate in which one of the following only one sideband is transmitted. Vestigial sideband C3F c. When the modulation index of an AM wave is doubled. It is possible to generate SSB at any frequency. Transmitter circuits must be more stable.
Switching from one sideband to the other is simpler. The AM system being used is a. Indicate which one of the following advantages of the phase cancellation method of obtaining SSB over the filter method is false: More channel space is available. One of the following cannot be used to remove the unwanted sideband in SSB. R3E modulation is sometimes used to allow the receiver to have a frequency synthesizer simplify the frequency stability problem in reception reduce the power that must be transmitted reduce the bandwidth required for transmission To provide two or more voice circuits with the same carrier.
HF point-to-point communications b. TV broadcasting asting d. This is the a. AFC is not needed. The system is basically phase. The deviation in the output of the mixer is a. Indeterminate c. The wave in the output of the tripler will have a modulation index of a. An FM signal with a modulation index mf is passed through a frequency tripler.
Frequency multiplication mus t be used. A pre-emphasis circuit provides extra noise immunity by boosting the bass frequencies amplifying the higher audio frequencies preamplifying the whole audio band converting the phase modulation to FM.
An FM signal with a deviation d is passed through a mixer.
Equalization is unnecessary 5. In the stabilize reactance modulator AFC system. Indicate which one of the following is not an advantage of FM over AM: Better noise immunity is provided Lower bandwidth is required The transmitted power is more useful Less modulating power is required One of the following is an indirect way of generating FM.
When the modulating frequency is doubled. This is the reactance FET modulator varactor diode modulator Armstrong modulator reactance bipolar transistor modulator In an FM stereo multiplex transmission. The modulation system is a. Since noise phase-modulates the FM wave.
Indicate which of the following statements about the advantages of the phase discriminator over the slope detector is false: When the input increases past the threshold of the limiting. A superheterodyne receiver with an IF of kHz is tuned to a signal at kHz. Much easier alignment b. The output must be tuned d. Show which of the following statements about the amplitude limiter is untrue: The circuit is always biased in class C.
Better linearity c. Fewer tuned circuits 2. Greater limiting d. Leak-type bias must be used a. The image frequency is a. Double conversion is used to improve image rejection d.
The frequency generated by each decade in a direct frequency synthesizer is much higher than the frequency shown.
Indicate the false statement in connection with communications receivers. The controlled oscillator synthesizer is sometimes preferred over the direct one because a. In a ratio detector the linearity is worse than in phase discriminator stabilization against signal strength variations is provided the output is twice that obtainable from a similar phase discriminator d.
A product demodulator could be used for the reception of Morse code. Variable sensitivity is used to eliminate selective fading a. The local oscillator of a broadcast receiver is tuned to a frequency higher than the incoming frequency a. It will therefore also have poor blocking double-spotting diversion reception sensitivity Three-point tracking is achieved with variable selectivity the padder capacitor double spotting double conversion The superheterodyne receiver replaced the TRF receiver because the latter suffered from a.
Noting that no carrier is transmitter with J3E. A low ratio of the ac to the dc load impedance of a diode detector results in diagonal clipping poor AGC operation negative-peak clipping poor AF response One of the following cannot be used to demodulate SSB: Product detector Diode Balance modulator Bipolar transistor balanced modulator Complete phase-shift generator An AM receiver uses a diode detector for demodulation. If the intermediate frequency is very high indicate false statement a.
This enables it satisfactorily to receive a. The best method of matching consists in connecting a. The SWR on a transmission line is infinity.
For transmission-line load matching over a range of frequencies. The main disadvantage of the two-hole directional coupler is low directional coupling poor directivity high SWR narrow bandwidth To couple a coaxial line to a parallel-wire line. Indicate the true statement below. The directional coupler is a device used to connect a transmitter to a directional antenna a coupling device for matching impedance a device used to measure transmission line power an SWR measuring instrument.
A ship-to-ship communications system is plagued by fading. Indicate which of the following frequencies cannot be used for reliable beyond-the-horizon terrestrial communications without repeaters: Indicate which one of the following terms applies to troposcatter propagation: The best solution seems to be use of a.
SIDs Fading Atmospheric storms Faraday rotation VLF waves are used for some type of services because of the low powers required the transmitting antennas are of convenient size they are very reliable the penetrate the ionosphere easily 3.
Distances near the skip distance should be used for the sky-wave propagation a. As electromagnetic waves travel in free space. In electromagnetic waves. A range of microwave frequencies more easily passed by the atmosphere than are the others is called a a.
The ground wave eventually disappears. Electromagnetic waves are refracted when they pass into a medium of different dielectric constant are polarized at right angles to the direction of propagation encounter a perfectly conducting plane pass through a small slot in a conducting plane Diffraction of electromagnetic waves is caused by reflections from the ground arises only with spherical wavefronts will occur when the waves pass through a large slot may occur around the edge of a sharp obstacle When microwave signals follow the curvature of the earth.
Helical antennas are often used for satellite tracking at VHF because of a. One of the following is very useful as a multiband HF receiving antenna. Indicate the antenna that is not widebandL: Discone Folded Dipole Helical Marconi. An ungrounded antenna near the ground acts as a single antenna of twice the height is unlikely to need a ground screen acts as an antenna array must be horizontally polarized One of the following consists of nonresonant antennas: The The The The rhombic antenna folded dipole end-fire array broadside array 3.
Bicon ical b. Impossibility of a good ground connection Protection of personnel working underground Provision of an earth for the antenna Rockiness of the ground One of the following is not a reason for the use of an antenna coupler: This is the: Indicate which of the following reasons for using a counterpoise with antenna is false: To make the antenna look resistive b.
To provide the output amplifier with the correct load impedance c. To prevent reradiation of the local oscillator 7. Discone 5. Helical d. To discriminate against harmonics d. Horn c. Provision of an earth for the antenna c. Indicate which one of the following reasons for the use of a ground screen with antennas is false: Impossibility of a good ground connection b. Protection of personnel working underneath d.
Top loading is sometimes used with an antenna in order to increase its effective height bandwidth beamwidth input capacitance Cassegrain feed is used with a parabolic reflector to increase the gain of the system increase the beamwidth of the system reduce the size of the main reflector allow the feed to be placed at a convenient point Zoning is used with a dielectric antenna in order to reduce the bulk of the lense increase the bandwidth of the lens increase pin-point focusing correct the curvature of the wavefront from a horn that is too short.
Improvement of the radiation pattern of the antenna 9. Which one of the following terms does not apply to the Yagi-Uda array? Good bandwidth Parasitic elements Folded dipole High gain An antenna that is currently polarized us the helical small circular loop parabolic reflector Yagi-Uda The standard reference antenna for the directive gain is the a.
A helical antenna is used for satellite tracking because of its circular polarization maneuverability broad bandwidth good front-to-back ratio The discone antenna is useful direction-finding antenna used as a radar receiving antenna circularly polarized like other circular antennas useful as UHF receiving antennas One of the following is not an omnidirectional antenna: Half-wave dipole Log-periodic Discone Marconi.
Waveguides are used mainly for microwave signals because they depend on straight-line propagation which applies to microwaves only b. When an electromagnetic waves are propagated in a waveguide a. The main difference between the operation of transmission lines and waveguides is that the latter are not distributed.
Compared with equivalent transmission lines. The wavelength of a wave in a waveguide is greater than of free space depends only on the waveguide dimensions and the free-space wavelength c.
When electromagnetic waves are reflected at an angle from a wall. This is called the a. When the free space wavelength of a signal equals the cut-off wavelength of the guide a. When a particular mode is excited in a waveguide.
The resulting mode is a. As a result of reflections from a plane conducting wall. The mode is 1. The dominant mode of propagation is preferred with rectangular waveguides because indicate false statement a. A signal propagation in a waveguide has a full wave of electric intensity change between the two further walls. E-plane T c. Screw Stub Iris Plunger A piston attenuator is a a. Which of the following waveguides tuning components is not easily adjustable?
Cylindrical cavity resonators are not used with klystrons because they have a Q that is too low a shape whose resonant frequency is too difficult to calculate harmonically related resonant frequencies too heavy losses A directional coupler with three or more holes is sometimes used in preference to the two-hole coupler a. In order to couple two generators to a waveguide system without coupling them to each other.
A choke flange may be used to couple two waveguides a. Manganese ferrite may be used as a indicate false answer a. Elliptical Flexible Coaxial Ridged. The maximum power that may be handled by a ferrite component is limited by the a.
Curie temperature Saturation magnetization line width gyromagnetic resonance A PIN diode is a metal semiconductor point-contact diode a microwave mixer diode often used as a microwave detector suitable for use as a microwave switch A duplexer is used to couple two different antennas to a transmitter without mutual interference b.
For some applications. In order to reduce cross-sectional dimensions. One of the reasons why vacuum tubes eventually fail at microwave frequencies is that their a.