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Assessment of the Hematologic System Assessment of the Nervous System Assessment of the Eye and Vision Care of Patients with Eye and Vision Problems Assessment of the Ear and Hearing Assessment of the Musculoskeletal System Care of Patients with Musculoskeletal Problems Assessment of the Gastrointestinal System Care of Patients with Oral Cavity Problems Care of Patients with Esophageal Problems Care of Patients with Stomach Disorders Care of Patients with Noninflammatory Intestinal Disorders Care of Patients with Inflammatory Intestinal Disorders Care of Patients with Liver Problems Assessment of the Endocrine System Care of Patients with Urinary Problems Care of Patients with Renal Disorders Assessment of the Reproductive System Care of Patients with Breast Disorders Care of Patients with Gynecologic Problems Poor control of blood glucose levels allows bacteria to grow more rapidly in the affected tissue, and facilitates rapid progression if the infection enters the bloodstream.
Neural degeneration in diabetes means these ulcers may not be painful, thus often become infected. Those who have suffered poliomyelitis are also prone because of circulatory problems, especially in the legs.
Immunosuppressive drugs, and other illnesses or infections that weaken the immune system, are also factors that make infection more likely.
Chickenpox and shingles often result in blisters that break open, providing a gap in the skin through which bacteria can enter. Diseases that affect blood circulation in the legs and feet, such as chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins , are also risk factors for cellulitis. Cellulitis is also common among dense populations sharing hygiene facilities and common living quarters, such as military installations, college dormitories, nursing homes, oil platforms, and homeless shelters.
Cellulitis is most often a clinical diagnosis, readily identified in many people by history and physical examination alone, with rapidly spreading areas of cutaneous swelling , redness, and heat, occasionally associated with inflammation of regional lymph nodes.
While classically distinguished as a separate entity from erysipelas by spreading more deeply to involve the subcutaneous tissues, many clinicians may classify erysipelas as cellulitis. Both are often treated similarly, but cellulitis associated with furuncles , carbuncles , or abscesses is usually caused by S.
It is important to evaluate for co-existent abscess, as this finding usually requires surgical drainage as opposed to antibiotic therapy alone.
Cellulitis has a characteristic "cobblestoned" appearance indicative of subcutaneous edema without a defined hypoechoic, heterogeneous fluid collection that would indicate abscess. Other conditions that may mimic cellulitis include deep vein thrombosis , which can be diagnosed with a compression leg ultrasound , and stasis dermatitis , which is inflammation of the skin from poor blood flow. Signs of a more severe infection such as necrotizing fasciitis or gas gangrene that would require prompt surgical intervention include purple bullae , skin sloughing, subcutaneous edema, and systemic toxicity.
Associated musculoskeletal findings are sometimes reported. When it occurs with acne conglobata , hidradenitis suppurativa , and pilonidal cysts , the syndrome is referred to as the follicular occlusion triad or tetrad. Lyme disease can be misdiagnosed as cellulitis.
The characteristic bullseye rash does not always appear in Lyme disease the rash may not have a central or ring-like clearing, or not appear at all. In those who have previously had cellulitis, the use of antibiotics may help prevent future episodes. Antibiotics are usually prescribed, with the agent selected based on suspected organism and presence or absence of purulence ,  although the best treatment choice is unclear.
Elevation of the affected area is often recommended. Steroids may speed recovery in those on antibiotics. Antibiotics choices depend on regional availability, but a penicillinase-resistant semisynthetic penicillin or a first-generation cephalosporin is currently recommended for cellulitis without abscess.
Cellulitis in resulted in about 16, deaths worldwide, up from 12, in Horses may acquire cellulitis, usually secondarily to a wound which can be extremely small and superficial or to a deep-tissue infection, such as an abscess or infected bone, tendon sheath or joint.
The horse exhibits inflammatory edema, which is hot, painful swelling. This swelling differs from stocking up in that the horse does not display symmetrical swelling in two or four legs, but in only one leg. This swelling begins near the source of infection, but eventually continues down the leg. In some cases, the swelling also travels distally. Treatment includes cleaning the wound and caring for it properly, the administration of NSAIDs , such as phenylbutazone , cold hosing, applying a sweat wrap or a poultice , and mild exercise.
Veterinarians may also prescribe antibiotics. Cellulitis is also seen in staphylococcal and corynebacterial mixed infections in bulls. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about infection of skin and its underlying connective tissue. For the dimpled appearance of skin, see cellulite. Medical Clinics of North America. Pediatric Clinics of North America. Emergency Medicine: New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
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