Solar tracking system pdf


PDF | The generation of power from the reduction of fossil fuels is the biggest In this context solar tracking system is the best alternative to increase the. PDF | This thesis proposes an algorithm for detection of the position of All the works of solar tracking system performed up to these days are. system is required which should be capable to constantly. rotate the solar panel. The Automatic Sun Tracking System (ASTS) was made as. a prototype to solve.

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Solar Tracking System Pdf

There are two main solar tracking systems types that depending on their movement Azimuth degrees of freedoms are single axis solar tracking system and dual. Solar Module's Performance and Solar Tracking System. 8. Solar URL: Accessed Abstract- “ Solar Tracking System” is a power generating method from sunlight. This method of power generation is simple and is taken from natural resource.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems. Keywords: solar orientation, solar position, sun sensor algorithm, sun tracking system 1. Introduction Solar energy systems have emerged as a viable source of renewable energy over the past two or three decades, and are now widely used for a variety of industrial and domestic applications. Such systems are based on a solar collector, designed to collect the sun's energy and to convert it into either electrical power or thermal energy. The literature contains many studies regarding the use of solar collectors to implement such applications as light fixtures, window covering systems, cookers, and so forth [ 1 - 6 ]. In general, the power developed in such applications depends fundamentally upon the amount of solar energy captured by the collector, and thus the problem of developing tracking schemes capable of following the trajectory of the sun throughout the course of the day on a year-round basis has received significant coverage in the literature. For example, various schemes have been proposed for optimizing the tilt angle and orientation of solar collectors designed for different geographical latitudes or possible utilization periods [ 7 - 8 ]. In , one of the first automatic solar tracking systems [ 10 - 13 ] was presented by McFee, in which an algorithm was developed to compute total received power and flux density distribution in a central receiver solar power system [ 10 ]. By subdividing each mirror into elements and summing the contributions of all elements, the sun position could be determined with a tracking error tolerance of 0. Several years later, Semma and Imamru used a simple microprocessor to adaptively adjust the positions of the solar collectors in a photovoltaic concentrator such that they pointed toward the sun at all times [ 13 ]. Mathematical theories of tracking error distributions were also developed to improve the algorithms of determining sun position [ 14 , 15 ].

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No notes for slide. Btech eee major project report on automatic solar tracking system free pdf download 1. Submitted by: Choose your course below and start downloading! About 79, Indian Engineering students are members of this community and share FREE study material, notes, eBooks, major and minor projects, exam papers etc. As such, it is vital that those in engineering fields understand the technologies associated with this area.

This project includes the design and construction of a microcontroller- based solar panel tracking system. Solar tracking allows more energy to be produced because the solar array is able to remain aligned to the sun.

This system builds upon topics learned in this course.


To make solar energy more viable, the efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized. A feasible approach for maximizing the efficiency of solar array systems is sun tracking.

This is a system that controls the movement of a solar array so that it is constantly aligned towards the direction of the sun.

Solar modules are devices that cleanly convert sunlight into electricity and offer a practical solution to the problem of power generation in remote areas. The solar tracker designed and constructed in this project offers a reliable and affordable method of aligning a solar module with the sun in order to maximize its energy output.

Problems and possible improvements will also be presented. Introduction To Solar Tracking……………………………………………09 1. Project Description………………………………………………………… Application…………………………………………………………………… 27 6. About 29, Indian Management students are members of this community and share FREE study material, notes, eBooks, projects, case studies exam papers etc. Primarily, it is the gift of the nature to the mankind in various forms.

The consumption of the energy is directly proportional to the progress of the mankind. With ever growing population, improvement in the living standard of the humanity, industrialization of the developing countries, the global demand for energy increases day by day.

The primary source of energy is fossil fuel, however the finiteness of fossil fuel resources and large scale environmental degradation caused by their widespread use, particularly global warming, urban air pollution and acid rain, strongly suggests that harnessing of non- conventional, renewal and environmental friendly As the sources of conventional energy deplete day by day, resorting to alternative sources of energy like solar and wind energy has become need of the hour.

Solar powered lighting systems are already available in rural as well as urban areas. These include solar lanterns, solar home lightning system, solar street lights, solar garden lights and solar power packs.

All of them consist of four components; solar photovoltaic module, rechargeable battery, solar charge controller and load. It is considered as an indispensible link between the solar panel, battery and load. As the range of applications for solar energy increases, so does the need for improved materials and methods used to harness this power source. There are several factors that affect the efficiency of the collection process. Major influences on overall efficiency include solar cell efficiency, intensity of source radiation and storage techniques.

The materials used in solar cell manufacturing limit the efficiency of a solar cell. This makes it particularly difficult to make considerable improvements in the performance of the cell, and hence restricts the efficiency of the overall collection process.

Therefore, the most attainable method of improving the performance of solar power collection is to increase the mean intensity of radiation received from the source. Each day, the sun rises in the east, moves across the sky, and sets in the west. Whenever the sun is shining on us, it is sending energy in our direction.

If there is a solar cell to turn and look at the sun all day, then it would be receiving the maximum amount of sunlight possible and converting it into the more useful energy form electricity.

It is seen that the sun appears to follow a path that is nearly directly overhead. However, for locations north or south of the tropics e. Instead, it follows a path across the southern or the northern part of the sky. If a solar cell is configured so that it faces the sun continually as it moves across the sky from east to west, the most electrical energy possible can be obtained. One way to do this, of course, is by hand.

Going outside to a solar cell every hour to turn it toward the sun might be possible, but this would still not be an efficient method. A photo sensor is employed to control the solar cell tracking system.

For example, if the photo sensor is not aligned with sun rays, then it could turn on the motor until it is once again aligned. If the motor is attached to the frame holding the solar cell, then the solar cell could be moved to face the sun. As long as the photo sensor is in alignment with the sun, nothing happens.

However, when the sun moves across the sky and is not in proper alignment with the photo sensor, then a motor moves the frame until the photo sensor is in the sun once more. This could have the effect of keeping the solar cell facing the sun as it moves across the required human attention. The solar tracker system includes a frame on which a solar cell could be mounted. The frame is to move so that it faces the sun as it travels across the sky during the day.

The frame could be driven by an electric motor that turns on and off in response to the movement of the sky. One of the most important problems facing the world today is the energy problem. This problem is resulted from the increase of demand for electrical energy and high cost of fuel.

The solution was in finding another renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, potential energy Nowadays, solar energy has been widely used in our life, and it's expected to grow up in the next years. About 29, Indian Law students are members of this community and share FREE study material, cases, projects, exam papers etc. LLB students: Need no fuel 2. Has no moving parts to wear out 3. Adaptable for on-site installation 5.

Easy maintenance 6. Can be integrated with other renewable energy sources 7. The sun tracking systems can collect more energy than what a fixed panel system collects. There are several forms of tracking currently available; these vary mainly in the method of implementing the designs. The two general forms of tracking used are fixed control algorithms and dynamic tracking. The inherent difference between the two methods is the manner in which the path of the sun is determined. In the fixed control algorithm systems, the path of the sun is determined by referencing an algorithm that calculates the position of the sun for each time period.

That is, the control system does not actively find the sun's position but works it out given the current time, day, month, and year. The dynamic tracking system, on the other hand, actively searches for the sun's position at any time of day or night.

Common to both This system consists of some method of direction control, such as DC motors, stepper motors, and servo motors, which are directed by a control circuit, either digital or analog. For people living in remote communities, often in third world countries, access to grid-connected electricity is not always possible. Often the nearest utility is a long distance from homes and the cost of developing the infrastructure that would allow for access to the grid is prohibitive.

Remote communities in third world countries are of course not the only ones that suffer this dilemma. Australia is a large country with many farmers and communities that are remote from the local grid and in these cases alternative sources of electrical power must be obtained.

Equivalent Circuit of Solar Cell To understand the electronic behaviour of a solar cell, it is useful to create a model which is electrically equivalent, and is based on discrete electrical components whose behavior is well known.

An ideal solar cell may be modelled by a current source in parallel with a diode. In practice no solar cell is ideal, so a shunt resistance and a series resistance component are added to the model.

The result is the "equivalent circuit of a solar cell" as shown above. Active trackers measure the light intensity from the sun to determine where the solar modules should be pointing. Light sensors are positioned on the tracker at various locations or in specially shaped holders. If the sun is not facing the tracker directly there will be a difference in light intensity on one light sensor compared to another and this difference can be used to determine in which direction the tracker has to tilt in order to be facing the sun.

There are many different types of solar tracker which can be grouped into single axis and double axis models. Single axis solar trackers can either have a horizontal or a vertical axle. The horizontal type is used in tropical regions where the sun gets very high at noon, but the days are short.

The vertical type is used in high latitudes such as in UK where the sun does not get very high, but summer days can be very long.

Solar Tracking System: More Efficient Use of Solar Panels

They use the PV modules themselves as light sensor to avoid unnecessary tracking movement and for reliability. At night the trackers take up a horizontal position. Double Axis Tracker Double axis solar trackers have both a horizontal and a vertical axle and so can track the Sun's apparent motion exactly anywhere in the world.

This type of system is used to control astronomical telescopes, and so there is plenty of software available to automatically predict and track the motion of the sun across the sky. The light sensors, comparator and microcontroller are the major components for the electronic design. General Block Diagram The figure shows the general block diagram of the device. The first component in the diagram is the transducer. Transducer detects the varying intensity of Sun light.

The outputs of the transducer are fed to comparator which gives certain logic to the microcontroller. Finally, the processed logic from the microcontroller is used to rotate the motors which in turn rotate the Solar Panel.

There are mainly two circuits as described below: The microcontroller serves the purpose of measuring accurate battery voltage as well as sunlight level and therefore does very accurate control of the various components.

When the SCC is powered, the microcontroller measures the battery voltage as well as solar panel voltage. If the solar panel voltage is less than 5 volts, the microcontroller assumes this as dawn night condition. It then checks for the battery voltage. If the battery voltage is greater than 11 volts, it turns on the load and the above process is again repeated until dusk morning is detected or the battery is discharged below 11 volts.

If the battery voltage at the startup is already below 11 volts, the microcontroller turns off the load and waits till dusk. Since the suns position in the sky changes with the seasons and the time of day, trackers are used to align the collection system to maximize energy production.

Several factors must be considered when determining the use of trackers.

Some of these include: the solar technology being used, the amount of direct solar irradiation, feed-in tariffs in the region where the system is deployed, and the cost to install and maintain the trackers. Solar panels are usually set up to be in full direct sunlight at the middle of the day, facing south in the Northern Hemisphere, or facing north in the Southern Hemisphere.

Therefore morning and evening sunlight hits the panels at an acute angle and reduces the total amount of electricity which can be generated each day. A solar tracker is a device onto which solar panels are fitted which tracks the motion of the sun across the sky, thus ensuring that the maximum amount of sunlight strikes the panels throughout the day. When compared to the price of the PV solar panels, the cost of a solar tracker is relatively low.

We provide highly efficient, proprietary single and dual axis solar tracking systems. Make the all connection on the PCB Board as given in the circuit diagram. Assemble and solder all the components as given in the circuit diagram. Check the Continuity of the tracks on the PCB board with the help of Multimeter setting on the continuity mode.

Check the Voltage on the all IC pins with the Mulitimetre by setting multimeter on the 20v dc. Check the serial communication on the PCB board by using serial cable with the pc by hyper terminal or using Terminal Software.

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