terney.infope: application/pdf terney.info: terney.infoher: The Oxford University Press New York terney.info: terney.info: The Story Of Art. The Story of Art by Gombrich Art eBook (1) - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. E. H. GOMBRICH, The Story of Art, vi +. p., ill. (21 in color), New. York: Phaidon Press, distributed by. Oxford University Press, $

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The story of art by E. H. Gombrich, , Phaidon Publishers, distributed by Oxford University Press edition, in English. I've never had a proper academic education on the history of art. Recently I decided I wouldn't be ashamed of this anymore and even to use it as an “ advantage”. [PDF] Download [PDF] Download The Story of Art BY - E.H. Gombrich Read Online Ebook | READ ONLINE Download at.

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We add in a gaggle of Gumbitties 5 of the 1. You can have your own Gumbitties to share and pose around your house. You can wear Gumby in style while reading the history of America's favorite flexible hero. Without explanation we may not be able to see the point of these works on which so much love and labour were spent. To us such a work may seem the product of an odd whim. It took years to cut these huge poles with the primitive tools at the disposal of the natives.

The human figures at the end are the children the hero used as bait. For there are many great works of this kind dating from the strange begiimings of art whose exact explanation is probably lost for ever but which we can still admire.

It was to mark and honour the house of a powerfiil chieftain. All the participants in this tragedy are represented on the central pole. The mask with the beak over her is the bird who helped the hero. After the cast in the British Museum who have rediscovered these works and have tried to get at their secrets have taught us enough to compare them with other works of primitive cultures.

The mask below the entrance is one of the whales the monster used to eat. We also know that in earher centuries the Mayas of Central America had built big cities and developed a system of writing and of calculating calendars which is anything but primitive.

The ancient Peruvians liked to shape certain vessels in the form of human heads which are strikingly true to nature Fig. If most works of these civilizations look weird and imnatural to us.

In these tropical zones rain is often a question of life or death Like the negroes of Nigeria the pre-Columbian Americans were perfectly capable of representing the htiman face in a lifelike manner.

The Aztec Rain-god Tlaloc. Scholars think that it represents the rain-god. Perhaps even his eyes might be seen as coiled serpents. The Ughtning in the slo. It was certainly fitting to form the image of the rain-god out of the body of the sacred snakes which embodied the power of lightning. The sacred serpent in ancient Mexican art was not only the picture of a rattlesnake but could also develop into a sign for lightning and so into a character by which a thunderstorm could be commemorated or.

If we ponder the strange mentahty which created these vmcaimy idols we may begin to imderstand how image-making in these early civilizations was not only connected with magic and reUgion but was also the first form of writing. We also get an inkling of the reasons which may sometimes have led to this method.

No wonder that the god of rains and thunderstorms assumes in their minds the shape of a terrify-ingly powerful demon. We see how far the idea of 'building up' a face out of given forms can lead away from our ideas of Ufelike sculpttire. If we look more closely at the figure of Tlaloc we see.. British Museum Gaffron CoUecnon crops may fail and they may have to stane. About A. However remote and mysterious they seem. ME form of an exists everywhere on the globe. Australian native. That is why they prevented the corpse from decaying by an elaborate method of.

The Great Pyramid of Gizeh. Everj-one knows that Egj'pt is the land of the pjTamids. We know verj' httle about these mysterious origins. The pyramids soaring up to the sky would probably help him to make his ascent. In any case they would presence his sacred body from decay. They tell us of a land which was so thoroughly organized that it was possible to pile up these gigantic mounds of stone in the lifetime of a single king.

No king and no people would have gone to such expense. There is no direct tradition which hnks these strange beginnings with our own days. Crete The king was considered a divine being who held sway over them. Built about B. So they ordered sculptors to chisel the king's portrait out of hard. Everj-svhere round the burial chamber. But it is not only these oldest rehcs of human architecture which tell of the role played by age-old behefs in the story of art.

It was for the miimmy of the king that the pyramid had been piled up. At first these rites were reserved for kings. Art for Eternity. Some of these early portraits from the pyramid age. Perhaps it is just because of this strict concentration on the basic forms of the human head that these portraits remain so impressive. Nor are they as Ufelike as the naturalistic portraits of the artists of Nigeria.

One sees that the sculptor was not trying to flatter his sitter. The observation of nature. There is a solemnity and simplicity' about them which one does not easily forget. He was concerned only with the essentials. There are many children's drawings which apply a similar principle. From a tomb in Thebes. It was the artists' task to preserve everjthing as clearly and permanently as possible.

Perhaps this is conneaed with the different purpose their paintings had to serve. But arms and feet in movement are much more clearly seen sideways. So both feet are seen from the inside. They preferred the clear outline from the big toe upwards. So they did not set out to sketch nature as it appeared to them from any fortuitous angle.

The word 'adorned'. The Egyptians had no compunction about this problem. The fishes and birds in the pond. British Museum This combination of geometrical regularity and keen observation of nature is characteristic of all Egyptian art. The top half of the body. If we had to draw such a motif we might wonder from which angle to approach it.

They merely followed a rule. In such a simple picture we can easily understand the artist's procedure. But if we think of the himian eye we think of it as seen from the front. They would simply draw the pond as if it were seen from above. The shape and character of the trees could be seen clearly only from the sides. Their method. Painting of a Pond. Instead of real servants.

The head was most easily seen in profile so they drew it sideways. To us these rehefs and wall-paintings provide an extraordinarily vivid picttire of Hfe as it was hved in Egypt thousands of years ago. We can study it best in the rehefs and paintings that adorned the walls of the tombs. About B. But the Egyptians were much more consistent in their application of these methods than children ever are.

They were sacrificed. What mattered most was not prettiness but completeness. It was out of these forms which he had learned. For how could a man with his arm Toreshortened' or 'cut off' bring or receive the required offerings to the dead? The point is that Egyptian art is not based on what the artist could see at a given moment. On top of the door Chnemhotep is seen again. On the left side we see him hunting wild-fowl with a kind of boomerang. Prince of Menat Chufu.

Chief of all the Divine Secrets. Superintendent of the Priests. Confidential friend of the King. A Wall from the tomb of Chnenihotep near Bern Hassan. Priest of Anubis. As we imderstand the. We sometimes call a man a 'big boss'. His name. Priest of Horus. Museum Art for Eternity. The inscriptions in hierogh'phs tells us exactly who he was.

Royal Acquaintance. When the birds had settled down on the bait. The trapper sat hidden behind a screen of reed. For the Egyptian sense of order in every detail is so strong that any little variation seems to upset it entirely. Portrait head of limestone. I think when we have become accustomed to looking at these Egyptian pictures we are as little troubled by their unrealities as we are by the absence of colour in a photograph. We call such a law. Every bird or fish or butterfly is drawn with such truthfulness that zoologists can still recognize the species.

Nothing in these pictures gives the impression of being haphazard. And yet all this geometrical sense of order did not prevent him from observing the details of nature with amazing accuracy. It is worth while taking a pencil and trying to copy one of these 'primitive' Egyptian drawings. The inscription says: At least my own do. It is one of the greatest things in Egyptian art that all the statues. It is very difficult to explain in words what makes a style. Here it was not only his great knowledge which guided the artist.

The inscription round the door records the days on which offerings are to be given to the dead. We even begin to realize the great advantages of the Egyptian method. The Egyptian artist began his work by draiving a network of straight lines on the wall. Behind Chnemhotep is his eldest son Nacht. Once more we can observe the conventions of the Egyptian artist who lets the water rise among the reeds to show us the clearing with the fish. On the right side. Below is an amusing episode with one of the men who had fallen into the water being fished out by his mates.

Our attempts always look clumsy. Kunsthistorisches Museum over them. No one wanted anything different. He did not wish to pay homage to the many strangely shaped gods of his people. But once he had mastered all these rules he had finished his apprenticeship. Only one man ever shook the iron bars of the Egyptian style.

He called himself Akhnaton. Every artist also had to learn the art of beautiful script. Everything that was considered good and beautiful in the times of the pyramids was held to be just as excellent a thousand years later. The rules which govern all Egyptian art give every individual work the effect of poise and austere harmony.

His wife is no smaller than he is. He was a king of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Ahknaton's successor was Tutankhamen. He broke with many of the customs hallowed by an age-old tradition. On an island overseas.

This king. For him only one god was supreme. It is not impossible that this reform of art in the Eighteenth Draasty was made easier for the king because he could point to foreign works that were much less strict and rigid than the Egyptian products. Seated statues had to have their hands on their knees. When the palace of their king at Cnossos was excavated some fifty years ago. He had to cut the images and symbols of the hieroglyphs clearly and accurately in stone. Some of his portraits show him as an ugly man Fig..

On the contrary. Some of these works are stiU in the modem style of the Aton rehgion—particularly the back of the king's throne Fig.

In them none of the solemn and rigid dignin. The Egyptian style was a set of very strict laws which every artist had to learn from his earliest youth. We all know from. A dagger from Mycenae. The Egyptian style. There were no stone quarries in these valleys. Museum Art for Etemiiy bviildings such as tanples and palaces. Even sculpture in stone was comparatively rare. This is at least partly due to accident. New thanes were introduced and new tasks performed. Gilt and painted woodwork from the throne found in his tomb.

Museum But this opening up of Egyptian art did not last long. Many Egyptian works in our museums date from this later period.

The art of. Already during the reign of Tutankhamen the old beliefs were restored. The main reason is probably that these. Made about B. Fragmattof Ur. Made abou: Graves of this penod have recently been discovered. In early times. Perhaps the idea behind these monuments was not only to keep the memon. Perhaps they thought that. Though artists in Mesopotamia were not called upon to decorate the walls of tombs.

In later times such monuments developed into complete picture-chronicles of the king's. We do not know exactly what these fabulous animals were meant to signify. They look rather like our heraldic beasts. Monument of King Karam-sin found in Susa.

Museum centun. Perhaps even they w ere still ruled by the old superstition which has come into this story so often: The best preserved of these chronicles dates from a relatively late period. Perhaps they did not want to represent wounded Assyrians for some such strange reason. You just appear. The art of boasting and propaganda was well advanced in these early days.

On all these monuments which glorify' the warlords of the past. But as we look more carefully we discover a curious fact: In any case. There we see all the episodes of a well-organized campaign. As one looks at them. They are kept in the British Museum. But perhaps we can take a slightly more charitable view of these old Assyrians. IT was in the great oasis lands. An Egyptian craftsman at work on a golden sphinx. Designed by iktinls. They were the hiding-places oi adventurous seamen.

Xo one knows exactly who the people were who ruled in Crete.

We only know that. The main centre of these areas was originally the island of Crete. These regions were not subject to one ruler. Wall-painting from a tomb in Thebes.

About the year B. British Museum of Greece and to the shores of Asia Minor. We can see traces of the timber structure in the upper pan. He is lying on his bier. The space between these beams is called metope. In the first few centuries of their domination of Greece the art of these tribes looked harsh and primitive enough.

The astonishing thing in these early temples. From a Greek vase in the 'Geometric Style' made about B.

These crossbeams are called architraves. These ends were usually marked with three sUts. The wooden props were turned into columns which supported strong crossbeams of stone. This was the tribe to which the Spartans. There is.

If the builders had used simple square pillars. The mourning of the dead. Probably the earliest of such temples were built of timber.

It was here. Athens m Attica became by far the most famous and the most important in the history of art. It almost seems as if they were Hving beings who carried their loads with ease. Found in Delphi. The result is that they look almost as though they were elastic. Statue of a Youth. In faa. One feels that they were biult by human beings. The Greek tribes had settled down in various small cities and harbour-towns.

Though some of these temples are large and imposing. Their eyes still look as seen from in front. In the early vases. The only way in which we can form a vague idea of what Greek painting was like is by looking at the pictures on pottery.

They had tried to emulate the art of their forefathers as faithfully as possible. Every Greek sculptor wanted to know how he was to represent a particular body. Perhaps he did not quite succeed. The painting of these vases developed into an important industry in Athens. We see the two heroes from Homer. The Egyptians had based their art on knowledge. But it also shows that the artist who made this statue was not content to follow any formula.

The experiments of the Greek artists sometimes misfired. Both figures are still shown strictly in profile. But their bodies are no longer drawn in the. We know Uttle of their work except what the Greek writers tell us. But the Greek artists were not easily frightened by these difficulties. The smile might look like an embarrassed grin. Museum most astonishing revolution in the whole history of art bore fruit.

The sculptors in their workshops tried out new ideas and new ways of representing the human figure. The Great Awakening Achilles and Ajax. When Greek artists began to make statues of stone. We know that before that time the artists of the old Oriental empires had striven for a peculiar kind of perfection.

Yet another would discover that he could make a face come alive by simply bending the mouth upwards so that it appeared to smile.. The painters followed suit. Once this revolution had begun. These painted vessels are generally called vases. One discovered how to chisel the trunk. It was no longer a question of learning a ready-made formula for representing the human body. It is hard to tell when and where this revolution began—perhaps roughly at the time when the first temples of stone were being built in Greece.

They had set out on a road on which there was no turning back. He was obviously interested in finding out what knees really looked like. The Greeks began to use their eyes. The painter had obviously tried to imagine what it would really look like if two people were facing each other in that way. He was no longer afraid of showing only a small part of Achilles' left hand, the rest being hidden behind the shoulder.

He no longer thought that anything he knew to be there must also be shown. Once this ancient rule was broken, once the artist began to rely on what he saw, a veritable landslide started. It was a tremendous moment in the history of art when, perhaps a Httle before B. A Greek vase Fig. We see a yoimg warrior putting on his armour for battie.

His parents on either side, who assist him and probably give him good advice, are still represented in rigid profile. The head of the youth in the middle is also shown in profile, and we can see that the painter did not find it too easy to fit this head on to the body, which we see from the front.

The right foot, too, is still drawn in the 'safe' way, but the left foot is foreshortened —we see the five toes Uke a row of five littie circles.

It may seem exaggerated to dwell for long on such a small detail, but it really meant that the old art was dead and buried. Greek vase in the 'Biacp. C Vatican. Museum The Great Awakening. The Warrior's Leavetaking. After a vase of the 'Redfigiired Style' signed by edthymides, about B. Munich, Antiquarium saw an object. And immediately beside the foot he showed what he meant. He drew the youth's shield, not in the shape in which we might see it in our imagination as a roimd, but seen from the side, leaning against a wall.

Greek artists snll tried to make their figures as clear in outline as possible, and to include as much of their knowledge of the human body as would go into the picture without doing violence to its appearance. They stiU loved firm outlines and balanced design. They were far from tn'ing to copy any casual glimpse of nature as they saw it. Only they no longer considered it sacred in every detail. It is the time when people in the Greek cities began to question the old traditions and legends about the gods, and inquired without prejudice into the nature of things.

It is the time when science, as we understand the term todzy, and philosophy first awoke among men, and when the theatre first developed out of the ceremonies in honour of Dionysus. Artists worked with their hands, and they worked for a hving. They sat in their foundries, covered with sweat and grime, they toOed hke ordinary- naxxies, and so they were not considered full members of the Greek societj-.

It was at the time when Athenian democracy' had reached its highest level that Greek art came to the summit of its development. After Athens had defeated the Persian invasion, the people, under the leadership of Pericles, began to build again what the Persians had destroyed.

In B. Pericles was no snob. The ancient writers imply that h; treated the artists of his time as his equals. The fame of Pheidias is foimded on works which no longer exist. There are many passages like the following from Jeremiah x. They deck it with silver and with gold; they fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not. They are upright as the pakntree, but speak not: Be not afraid of them; for they cannot do evil, neither also is it in them to do good.

But his words would apply almost exacdy to the works of Pheidias, made only a few centuries after the prophet's lifetime. Athena Parthenos. Roman marble copy after a big temple statue made by pheidias between and B. Athens, National Museum that thousands and tens of thousands of worshippers may have approached them with hope and fear in their hearts—wondering, as the prophet says, whether these statues and graven images were not really at the same time gods themselves. The sculptures in our museums are, for the most part, only secondhand copies made in Roman times for travellers and colleaors as souvenirs, and as decorations for gardens or public baths.

We must be very grateful for these copies, because they give us at least a faint idea of the famous masterpieces of Greek an; but unless we use our imagination these weak imitations can also do much harm.

They are largely responsible for the widespread idea that Greek art was hfeless, cold and insipid, and that Greek statues had that chalky appearance and vacant look The Great Azi: Hercules carrying the Heorcetis. From the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Olympiaj Museum which reminds one of old-fashioned drawing classes. The only copy of the great idol of Pallas Athene, for instance, which Pheidias made for her temple in the Parthenon Fig.

We must mm to old descriptions and try to picture what it was like: There was also plenty. There were griffons on the golden helmet of the goddess, and the eyes of a huge snake which was coiled inside the shield were, no doubt, also marked by shining stones.

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It must have been an awe-inspiring and tincanny sight when one entered the temple and suddenly stood tace to face with this gigantic statue. There was no doubt something almost primitive and savage in some of its features, something which still linked an idol of this kind with the ancient superstitions against which the prophet Jeremiah had preached. But alreadv these primitive ideas about the gods as formidable demons who dwelt in the statues had ceased to be the main thing.

Pallas Athene, as Pheidias saw her and as he fashioned her statue, was more than the mere idol of a demon. The Athene of Pheidias was hke a great human being.

The temple in Oh-mpia is the older one; it was perhaps begun round about B. That was a task which even Hercules could not, or would not, perform.

On this relief Atlas is shown returning with the golden apples to Hercules, who stands taut beneath his htige load. Athene, his amning helper in all his deeds, has put a cushion on his shoulder to make it easier for him. In her right hand she once held a metal spear. The whole storj- is told with a wonderful simplicity and clarity.

We feel that the artist still preferred to show a figure in a straightforward attitude, from the front or side. Athene is shown squarely facing us, and only her head is turned sideways towards Hercules. It is not difficult to sense in these figures the lingering influence of the rules which governed Egyptian an. For these rules had ceased to be a hindrance, cramping the artist's freedom.

The Story Of Art

The old idea that it was important to show the structure of the body—its main hinges, as it were, which help us to realize how it all hangs together—spurred the artist on to explore the anatomy of the bones and muscles, and to build up a convincing picture of the human figure which remains visible even under the flow of the draper.

The way, in faa, in which Greek artists used the draper " to mark these main divisions of the body still shows what importance they attached to the knowledge of form. It is this balance between an adherence to rules and a freedom within the rules which has made Greek art so much admired in later centuries.

It is for this that artists have returned again and again to the masterpieces of Greek art for guidance and inspiration. The tj-pe of work which Greek artists were frequentiy asked to do may have helped them to perfect their knowledge of the human body in action.

A temple like that of Olympia was surrounded by statues of victorious athletes dedicated to the gods.

A History of Art in Three Colours

To us this may seem a strange custom for, however popular ouur champions may be, we do not expect them to have their poruaits made and presented to a church in thanksgiving for a victory achieved in the latest match. They were much more closely connected with the rehgious beUefs and rites of the people. It was to find out on whom this blessing of victoriousness rested that the games were originally held, and it was to commemorate and perhaps to perpetuate these signs of divine grace that the winners commissioned their statues from the most renowned artists of the time.

The Great Awakening Head of the bronze statue of j Delphi, Museum Diggings in Olj'mpia have unearthed a good many of the pedestals on which these famous statues rested, but the statues themselves have disappeared.

They were mostly made of bronze and were probably melted down when metal became scarce in the Middle Ages. Only in Delphi has one of these statues been found, the figure of a charioteer whose head is shown in Fig.

It is amazingly different from the general idea one may easily form of Greek art when one only looks at copies. The hair, eyes and lips were sHghtly gilt which gave an effect of richness and warmth to the whole face. And yet such a head never looked gaudy or Milgar. We can see that the artist was not out to imitate a real face with all its imperfections but that he shaped it out of his knowledge of the himian form.

We do not know whether the charioteer is a good likeness— probably it is no 'likeness' at all in the sense in which we understand the word. But it is a convincing image of a human being, of wonderful simphcity and beauty.

Works like this which are not even mentioned by the classical Greek writers remind us what we must have lost in the most famous of these statues of athletes such as the 'Discus Thrower' by the Athenian sculptor Myron, who probably belonged to the same generation as did Pheidias. Various copies of this work have been found which allow us at least to form a general idea of what it looked like Fig. He has bent down and swung his arm backwards so as to be able to throw with greater force.

At the next moment he will spin round and let fly, supporting the throw with a turn of his body. But this has proved less easy than they had hoped. They had forgonen that Ai5Ton's statue is not a 'still' from a sports reel but a Greek work of art. Standing in front of the statue and Thinking only of its outlines we become suddenly aware of its relation to the tradition of Egyptian art. But imder his hands this old. Discus 7: Roman marble copy, after a bronze siarue by M y R o K.

Mvmich,, Gh-ptothek The Great Awakening 6i. Detail from the marble frieze of the Parthenon. Londonj British Museum. Of all Greek originals which have come down to us the sculptures from the Parthenon reflect this new freedom perhaps in the most wonderful way. We do not know who the sculptors were who made these decorations of the temple. Instead of fitting these views together into an unconvincing likeness of a rigid pose.

What matters is that Myron conquered movement just as the painters of his time conquered space. About n. Detail from the procession of horsemen. Whether or not this corresponds to the exact movement most suitable for throwing the discus is hardly relevant.

The Parthenon Fig. The arm with the shield is drawn with perfect ease. Soon we see that the same must also have been true of the human figures. To us the colour and texture of fine marble is something so wonderful that we would never want to cover it with paint.

British Museum of the goddess. The first we see in our fragment is the horses.

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Foreshortening no longer presented a great problem to the artist. It is such a display that is shown in Fig. He has retained something of the artistic wisdom of arrangement which Greek art derived from the Egj-ptians and from the training in geometrical patterns which had preceded the Great Awakening. There were always games and sports displays during these festivities. Not only is part of the surface broken off.

We can imagine from the traces that are left how freely they moved and how clearly the muscles of their bodies stood out. However much he may have enjoyed this conquest of space and movement. However Uvely and spirited the groups have become. But all these new discoveries do not 'run away' with the artist. The Greek rehef has shed all these awkward limitations.

The bronze foundry tcith sketches on the wall. National iViuseum great periods show this wisdom and skill in the distribution of figures. It is a quiet scene which we might compare to the Egyptian representation of Tutankhamen on his throne with his wife adjusting his collar page Greek Sculptor's Xforkshop.

Man at work on a headless statue. From a Greek bowl. Tombstone of Hegeso. The way the upper half is framed by the curve of the two women's arms. The Egj'ptian work. The relief shows Hegeso. Fourth Century B. Head of Hermes. Detail of Fig. The biuldiug which shows it at its most perfect is the Temple of Poseidon called the Erechtheion Fig. There is no doubt that the comparison and competition between these schools stimulated the artists to ever-greater efforts.

The columns of the Ionic temple are much kss robust and strong. People discussed the merits of the various 'schools' of art. The principle of these temples is the same as that of the Doric ones. Though artists were still looked upon as craftsmen and. THE great awakening of an to freedom had taken place in the hundred years between. In architecture. It is the figure of a girl. The artist of the Parthenon frieze p. With what charm this sodden halt is portrayed. We can see in these works that the artist could do whatever The Realm of Beauty he wanted.

The same characteristics of grace and ease also mark the sculpture and painting of this period. This very ease and virtuosity' made him perhaps a little self-conscious. This artist was proud of his immense power.

He was hardly conscious of the fact that he was a great master of whom old and young alike would still be talking thousands of years later. The frieze of the Victory temple shows. People discussed pictures and And so.. The figures have been sadly mutilated. Pheidias' statues of gods had been famous all over Greece as representations of gods. The great temple statues of the fourth century earned their reputation more by virtue of their beauty as works of art.

He knew that his task was to represent a procession. Hcniies tvirh yoioig Dionysus. It represents the god Hermes holding young Dionysus on his arm and playing with him Fig. In the work of Praxiteles all traces of rigidity' have gone. There is no. But he can now do all that without keeping his statue stiff and lifeless. If we look back at page His most celebrated work.

The greatest artist of that century. But this work has disappeared. He can show the muscles and bones swelling and moving under the soft skin. Museum Statues as they discussed poems and plays. So much has been left out and deleted. People often think that what the artists did was to look at many models and to leave out any feature they did not like: As he stands before us in his impressive pose.

In the time of Praxiteles their method bore its ripest fruits. Apollo Belvedere. The Apollo Belvedere Fig. Probably it belonged to a group of The Realm of Beauty 71 Among the famous classical statues of Venus.

They are. Through all these centuries. They say that Greek artists 'ideahzed' nature. The Greek approach was really exactly the opposite. But a touched-up photograph and an ideahzed statue usually lack character and vigour. Probably copy after a portrait by lysippus. Strange as it may sound to us. The amst never reproduced the shape of his nose. Head of Alexander the Great. Romaa marble copy. Louvre Venus and Cupid which was made in a somewhat later period.

Greek statue of first century B.: Probably imitation of a fourthcentury work. Museum The Realm of Beauty It is a strange fact. Museum The Venus of Milo.

This is really more astonishing than it seems at first sight. Alexander himself preferred to be portrayed by his court sculptor Lysippus. Perhaps if we could see a snapshot of Alexander we should find it quite imlike the bust. It was in the time of Alexander that people started to discuss this new art of portraiture. A new form of column was preferred.

To do that. Together with this mastery of expression. By the time of Alexander the Great. This change can be noticed in some of the most famous works of that age. This luxurious mode suited the sumptuous buildings which were laid out on a vast scale in the newly founded cities of the East. The rich capitals of these empires. His portrait of Alexander is thought to have come down to us in a copy Fig. This change was bound to affect its character.

We usually refer to this art of the later period not as Greek art. Greek statues. But so much we can say: I have said that Greek art was bound to umdergo a change iu the Hellenistic period. The sctilpture on it. It was in the generation after Praxiteles. Antiochia in Syria and Pergamon in Asia Minor. One of them is an altar from the city of Pergamon which was erected about B.

The foundation of an empire by Alexander was an enormously important event for Greek art. One would like to know how the story struck the Greek artist who conceived this The Realm of Beauty The clumsy Titans are overwhelmed by the triumphant gods. Museum impressive group. The fact is probably that by this time. The gods who see their plans of destroying Troy thwarted send two gigantic snakes from the sea which catch the priest and his two imfortunate sons in their coils and suffocate them.

It is a magnificent work. Hellenistic art loved such wild and vehement works: To make the effect stiU more striking. The artist was obWously aiming at strong dramatic effects. Perhaps it is wTong to blame the artist for that. But I cannot help suspecting sometimes that this was an art which was meant to appeal to a public which also enjoyed the horrible sights of the gladiatori?!

Some of the works of classical sculpture which have enjoyed the greatest fame in later times were created in the Hellenistic period. The waj' in which the muscles of the tnmk and the arms convey the effort and the suffering of the hopeless struggle. When the group of the Laocoon Fig. The Trojan priest Laocoon has warned his compatriots against accepting the gigantic horse in which Greek soldiers were hiding.

It is one of the stories of senseless cruelty. Museum The Realm cf Beamy The Gods fighiuig: Artists became interested in the problems of their craft for its own sake. Erected about B. Many of the masters most famous among the ancients were painters rather than sculptors. National Museum fabulous prices for those which they could obtain.

Head of a Faun. Writers began to be interested in art and wrote about the artists' lives. The rights or wrongs of Laocoon's fate may not have occurred to the sculptor at all. Museum contest with all its movement. It was in this time. Probably the copy of a Pergamenian painting daung from the second century B.

We know that these painters. The right arms wTongly restored.

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