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Get the digital subscription of Objective Automobile Engineering e-book in Hindi by Upkar Prakashan - Education, Engineering book. Basic Automobile Engineering Book. According to Semester Covering Diploma , Certificate in Automobile Engineering. Language: Hindi; Writer: Prof. Text books: terney.infobile Engg. By R.K. Rajput, terney.info terney.infobile Engg. By terney.infol, Vol.I & II, Umesh Pub. terney.infobile Mechanics (through problem).
Invention of Wheel Exercise: Assignment 1. Part B Discussed in class the following: What is wheel? They have been in continuous use since the invention of the wheel.
All of you have heard about the Indian sacred book Mahabharat which depicts Lord Krishna as the sarathi the Charioteer of the Rath. Animals can provide more power. Carts may be named for the animal that pulls them.
The draught animals used for carts may be horses or ponies. Wheel Cart Relevant Knowledge Wheel cart is a vehicle designed for transport. Normally a cart was pulled by a pair of draught animals. Use of Wheel Cart Fig: Different types of cart A handcart is pulled or pushed by one or more people. Types of carts Larger carts may be drawn by animals. A dogcart. Carts have been mentioned in literature as far back as the second millennium B.
In modern times. This led to the development of a Horse Carriage. They are still used today where modern vehicles are too expensive or the infrastructure does not favour them. The driver and any other passengers sit on the front of the cart.
Session 2: Wheel Cart Exercise: Assignment List the different types of carts you have seen in your area: It was found that. Horse Power How many men would be needed to equal the power of a Horse? Experiments were conducted to get answer to this interesting question. Bullock cart is pulled by one or two bullocks. It is a means of transportation used since ancient times in many parts of the world.
This is the reason why mankind thought of using Horses for pulling the cart. Carts are used especially for carrying goods. The cart is attached to a bullock team by a special chain attached to yokes. A bullock cart or ox cart is a two-wheeled vehicle pulled by oxen draught cattle. In Mahabharata. What is a Cart? Wheel Cart Answer the following questions Use additional sheets of paper if necessary Fill in the blanks 1.
Further improvements continued in various parts of the world. Then in the year This model used internal combustion Engine and was called Motorwagen. Of course. One reason is that the cost of developing new technology is very high. Engineers kept on improving the Horse Carriage design bit by bit. It is important to note that inventions in science and technology can not often be used immediately by general public.
Karl Benz a brilliant German engineer designed and patented the first practical model Fig: First practical car model in Cugnot Steam trolley This was actually a steam engine. Invention of Automobiles Relevant Knowledge Till now we have learnt how wheel was used in carts and horse powered carriages for transportation of goods and people.
Wilhelm Maybach and Siegfried In the year the very first such model was developed in the form of a toy. More features can also be added for making it attractive for general consumers.
We shall study this in detail later. In this the Jonathan Holguinisburg power of steam was used to provide momentum to the toy. Benz was granted a patent for his first engine. Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with units produced in Bertha Benz. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle. Emile Roger of France.. Germany by Karl Benz in and granted a patent in January of the following year.
An automobile powered by his own fourstroke cycle gasoline engine was built in Mannheim. During the last years of the nineteenth century. Benz began promotion of the vehicle on July 3. He began to sell his production vehicles in It was an integral design. Photograph of the original Benz Patent-Motorwagen. They also were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Because France Fig: Karl Benz generally is acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile. His first Motorwagen was built in In With the introduction of this new manufacturing process.
Most British small-car assemblers. Germany's first mass-manufactured car. They bought Hotchkiss engines. Many attempts were being made in Europe and America for reducing costs. Citroen did the same in France. Wrigley gearboxes. Car Ford Model T American car makers in existence in The assembly line style of mass production and interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the U.
This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford. But these automobiles were very expensive and very few rich people could afford them like Kings. Queens and Rajas in India. The large-scale.
An average person could only dream but could not afford to own a car. In Europe much the same happened. Morris set up its production line at Cowley in and soon outsold Ford. England in They started producing different models. The tank became very popular in the war field. Perhaps because of the characteristic differences between the American and European car markets. Mark V Tank However. It became very popular in Europe. As a result several new vehicles like battle Tanks and Jeeps were developed.
The car was very convenient to drive and also good looking and stylish.. It is a very versatile vehicle. Jeweled one-millionth VW Beetle By Volkswagen announced the end of production in June Volkswagen in Germany developed a car in the 30s.
Collect the photograph of any vintage car seen in any magazine. Make a list of automobile vehicles developed in history. Invention of Automobile Exercise: Type of vehicle Model 1. In year Invention of Automobile Answer the following questions Use additional sheets of paper if necessary A.
When was the first vehicle invented? Who was inventor of the first patented car? Why development was made in vehicles? Who was first rider of the car? Name the important manufacturers of the car. Pontiac Firebird. Japan was developing cars for marketing worldwide. This allows open and wide roads to be built. Automobile Industry started on rapid modernization in the 50s and 60s.
All this made owning and maintaining a car quite costly. It may also be noted that these models used large amounts of petrol or gasoline as it is called in US. It is good to note that USA has a very big land mass and vast geography.
On these roads models like the Beetle do appear very tiny! The Big Three of the car industry namely General Motors.
Chevrolet etc. Many new models of cars were introduced like Edsel. In USA. Chevrolet Impala etc were some of the big cars that came on American highways in the 50s and 60s. This road network was very modern with long highways stretching across the length and breadth of the country. Petrol started becoming costlier as all the Arab nations got together in an alliance.
Without considering the future of the car. These models were some of the first successful American front-wheel drive. As a result when the oil crisis occurred.
Honda have been steadily increasing their market presence worldwide. These features would later become standard throughout the car industry. Such was the popularity of the original Range Rover Classic. Some of these like Mazda. Suzuki etc. Since then. The modern era is normally defined as the 25 years before the current year.
For many years India did not have any manufacturing capability of its own. Tata Nano — The Tata Nano is an inexpensive It started with import of cars for Royal families. Hindustan Motors is one of the original car manufacturers in India. Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt — an all-electric car and a plug-in hybrid correspondingly. It is the producer of the Perhaps the first cars imported in India were in s. AutoL1U1-NQ History and Evolution of Automobiles —present Chrysler minivans — the two-box minivan design nearly pushed the station wagon out of the market.
This car is based on the Morris Oxford. In just a few years the Indian market for cars has become a hot spot of global automotive activity.
Omni van. Within years the company reached an annual production level of nearly 1. Boleno etc. This was followed by the Fiat in Maruti Car By the end of 90s several other global multinational car makers also started manufacturing their models in India.
General Motors. They launched various models like Hyundai etc. The company first launched production by building vehicles under license from Dodge and Plymouth. Among them were. USA and elsewhere in the world. The majority of India's car manufacturing industry is based around three clusters in the south. As a result.
Indian Auto industry started with import of cars in the 20s. India is home to 40 million passenger vehicles. India became Asia's third largest exporter of passenger cars. Then the first manufacturing started in the 40s. According to the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers. Renault and Nissan headquartered This is the cheapest car in the world with all convenient and quality features. As on India's passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the sixth largest in the world.
South Korea. By With continued progress many Indian companies like Maruti. India emerged as Asia's fourth largest exporter of passenger cars. Mahindra have become very big global names. India is set to overtake Brazil to become the sixth largest passenger vehicle producer in the world. The automotive industry in India is one of the largest in the world and one of the fastest growing globally.
More than 3. Maruti Suzuki and Peugeot-Citroen plants are also set to come up in Gujarat. Mercedes Benz. The Chakan corridor near Pune. Land Rover. Name of model 1 2. Observe a car and draw its diagram Skoda and Volkswagen also forms part of the western cluster. Aurangabad with Audi. Session 4: Tata Motors. Noida with Honda and Bangalore with Toyota are some of the other automotive manufacturing regions around the country.
Kolkatta with Hindustan Motors. Maruti Suzuki. Another emerging cluster is in the state of Gujarat with manufacturing facility of General Motors in Halol and further planned for Tata Nano at Sanand. List the models of car running in your area. Fiat and Force Motors having assembly plants in the area. Gurgaon and Manesar in Haryana form the northern cluster where the country's largest car manufacturer. Maharashtra is the western cluster with companies like General Motors. Mahindra and Mahindra.
When were cars imported in India? Cluster of auto in India. Big Three of car industry namely General Motors. No Kataria and Sons Websites auto. Singal Kapil Dev K. Kataria and Sons Computech Publications S. Rajput R.
Vikas Gautam. Associate Professor. Automotive Skills Development Council. Lodhi Road. Sunil K. Bhopal — Programme Coordinator Assistant Professor. Deepak Shudhalwar. Saurabh Prakash. New Delhi 3. Bhopal 6.
Delhi — 06 4. Auto — HOD. New Delhi — 2. Except for purposes permitted by the Copyright Act. This student workbook was developed. Government of India. Two wheelers and Three wheelers ………………………… 12 Relevant Knowledge: Special Vehicles …………………………………………..
Passenger vehicles and Commercial Vehicles. Agricultural Vehicles ……………………………………….. Construction Equipment Vehicles ………………………….. Various types of Automobiles. Drawing of various vehicles.
Various Types of Automobiles Unit code: Toy model of various types of vehicles. Posters for building awareness about various types of automobiles. Able to identify Agricultural Vehicles like tractors. Three wheeler model. Performance criteria specify the level of performance required to demonstrate the achievement of the Competency Element. Element Use and Application of Two wheelers. Able to make sketch of various Commercial Vehicles. Able to make sketches of tractor.
Assessment Plan Session No. The Automobile segment comprises of the following four broad categories of vehicles: Commercial Vehicles. Passenger Vehicles. Three Wheeler.
India is home to 40 million Passenger Vehicles. Two Wheeler. Agricultural Vehicles. As of India's Passenger Car and Commercial Vehicle manufacturing industry is the seventh largest in the world. Scooters and Mopeds are the categories of two wheelers in our country. India has the largest population of two wheelers. Indian bikes. Benefits of Two Wheelers Two-wheelers are the most popular and highly sought out medium of transport in India.
More than 5. Two wheelers are used all over the world. India is the second largest producer of two-wheelers in the world. Capturing a large share in the two-wheeler industry. Bikes are considered to be the favourite among the youth as they help in easy commutation and also look stylish. Majority of Indians. In the last few years. Whereas in our country it is an important means of transportation of passengers.
Large variety of two wheelers are available in the market. The country stands next to China and Japan in terms of production and sales respectively.
In developed. Passion Plus Pulsar. Platina Apache. These super bikes are specially designed for those who have a zeal for power and speed. Scooty streak. Intruder M Scooty Pep.
We can conclude that a motorcycle is a motor-powered two wheeler. Every Two Wheeler has a sticker of its model type and name of the manufacturer. Popular brands of Two Wheeler manufacturers are Hero. Some of famous models are given below: Star City Activa. Kawasaki Ninja.
Some of the most popular high-speed bikes are Suzuki Hayabusa. Identification of Two Wheeler: You must have seen various types of two wheelers in your area or on the roads.
Zeus These models vary by size. Two Wheeler manufacturers produces different models as per given specification.
Suzuki Zeus and Honda Unicorn. Canada ]. Typical mileage for an Indian-made auto rickshaw is around 35 kilometers per liter of petrol about 2. Force Motors previously Bajaj Tempo. Auto rickshaw manufacturers in India include Bajaj Auto.
Many major nationalized banks in India offer loans to self-employed individuals seeking to download auto rickshaws. New auto rickshaws run on CNG and are environmentally friendly. Kerala Auto Limited. Kumar Motors. Auto rickshaws often called just auto are common all over India. Normally their fare rates are controlled by govt. CNG and diesel. Auto rickshaws are found in cities. Many three-wheelers which exist in the form of motorcycle-based machines are called trikes and often have the front single wheel and mechanics similar to that of a motorcycle and the rear axle similar to that of a car.
In newer versions engines are in rear portion. In older versions the engines were situated below driver's seat. Three-wheeled automobiles can have either one wheel at the back and two at the front.
The seating capacity of a normal rickshaw is 4. Sometimes such vehicles are owner-constructed using a portion of a rearengine. Other trikes include ATVs that are specially constructed for off road use. They have traffic meters. In cities and towns across India it is the backbone of city transport. Photograph of popular three wheelers Morgan Motor Company or one wheel at the front and two at the back such as the Reliant Robin.
There are also sixseated rickshaws in parts of Maharashtra. There are two types of auto rickshaws in India. They normally run on petrol. Photograph of popular three auto wheelers These are some of the popular three wheeler which are used for transporting of people and goods.
Two wheelers and Three wheelers Exercise: List the models of two wheelers and three wheelers used in your area: Name of model 1. A Majority of Indians.
Observe and identify two types of two wheelers in your school and draw their diagrams Session 1: Two wheelers and Three wheelers Answer the following questions Use additional sheets of paper if necessary A. Why three wheelers are used popularly. What is meaning of a two wheeler and three wheelers? What are the different types of make of two wheelers? Why we use two wheelers mostly? Photograph of popular four wheelers Tata motor. You must have also travelled in these passenger vehicles.
A motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers. Some of the popular model of cars. Various popular cars in India are Maruti Suzuki. Now a days various car manufacturers of International level have established in our country and started production of cars etc. Passenger Vehicles and Commercial Vehicles Relevant Knowledge Passenger Vehicles Passenger vehicle refers to a machine that can carry a person or a group of persons.
Trucks are basically used for carrying goods and materials in bulk. Jeep was primarily designed and constructed to aide military requirements.
The export of commercial vehicles has gone up considerably breaking all previous records. Jeep Patriot. Slowly changes were made and the company started producing civilian models. These trucks are classified into sub-categories depending on their size and Jeep Liberty. The future of companies manufacturing these vehicles is very bright due to India's growing commercial sector. Jeep is found in many countries around the world.
Jeep is marque of Chrysler brand. Jeep Compass. Commercial vehicles influence the trade. Bertha Benz, the first long distance automobile driver in the world in the photograph given here In August Bertha Benz, wife of Karl Benz, undertook the first road trip by car, to prove the road-worthiness of her husband's invention. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with units produced in They started producing different models.
But these automobiles were very expensive and very few rich people could afford them like Kings, Queens and Rajas in India. An average person could only dream but could not afford to own a car.
Many attempts were being made in Europe and America for reducing costs. The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was started by Ransom Olds at his Oldsmobile factory in based on the assembly line techniques pioneered by Marc Isambard Brunel at the Portsmouth Block Mills, England in The assembly line style of mass production and interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the U.
This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford, beginning in With the introduction of this new manufacturing process, FORD Motor company launched the first large scale production of their Model T. In , an assembly line worker could download a Model T with four months' pay of some two hundred Fig: Car Ford Model T American car makers in existence in In Europe much the same happened.
Morris set up its production line at Cowley in and soon outsold Ford, while beginning in to follow Ford's practice of vertical integration. Most British small-car assemblers, from Abbey to Xtra had failed. Citroen did the same in France, coming to cars in Germany's first mass-manufactured car, the Opel 4PS Laubfrosch Tree Frog , came off the line at Russelsheim in , soon making Opel the top car builder in Germany, with As a result several new vehicles like battle Tanks and Jeeps were developed.
The tank became very popular in the war field. It is a very versatile vehicle, which can run in any road conditions i. Fig: Austin 7 Box Fig: Mark V Tank However, during this period, there were some very interesting designs in the passenger segment also.
Volkswagen in Germany developed a car in the 30s, which looked like a crawling creature and was therefore called Beetle This model has the engine at the back and front bonnet was used as luggage compartment.
The car was very convenient to drive and also good looking and stylish. It became very popular in Europe. Fig : Jeweled one-millionth VW Beetle By , over 21 million Type 1s had been produced, but by , annual production had dropped to 30, from a peak of 1.
Volkswagen announced the end of production in June However, the opinion in the United States was not very good. Perhaps because of the characteristic differences between the American and European car markets. Make a list of automobile vehicles developed in history.
Type of vehicle Model 1. Collect the photograph of any vintage car seen in any magazine. Session 3: Invention of Automobile Checklist for Assessment Activity Use the following checklist to see if youve met all the requirements for the Assessment Activity. Part A Differentiated between various types of wheel invention. Part B Discussed in class the following: When was the first vehicle invented?
Who was inventor of the first patented car? Why development was made in vehicles? Who was first rider of the car? Name the important manufacturers of the car.
Automobile Industry started on rapid modernization in the 50s and 60s. Many new models of cars were introduced like Edsel, Chevrolet etc. In USA, road network was built after the second War. This road network was very modern with long highways stretching across the length and breadth of the country. It is good to note that USA has a very big land mass and vast geography.
This allows open and wide roads to be built. On these roads models like the Beetle do appear very tiny! Edsel, Buick, Pontiac Firebird, Chevrolet Impala etc were some of the big cars that came on American highways in the 50s and 60s. It may also be noted that these models used large amounts of petrol or gasoline as it is called in US. But, petrol consumption was not the main issue in those happy days.
All this made owning and maintaining a car quite costly. Still, more and more Americans were downloading these models. However, things changed after This was the year of the first Oil Crisis. Petrol started becoming costlier as all the Arab nations got together in an alliance. Now, suddenly even Americans started looking for more economical designs.
Meanwhile, quietly but with determination, Japan was developing cars for marketing worldwide, mainly in the USA. Some of these like Mazda, were using American Technology. But, these companies were also developing their own Research capabilities. As a result when the oil crisis occurred, these companies were very well positioned to roll out smaller, compact, economical models in USA. Since then, companies like Toyota, Honda have been steadily increasing their market presence worldwide. The modern era is normally defined as the 25 years before the current year.
However, there are some technical and design aspects that differentiate modern cars from antiques. Without considering the future of the car, the modern era has been one of increasing standardisation, platform sharing, and computer-aided design.
Such was the popularity of the original Range Rover Classic, that a new model was not brought out until These features would later become standard throughout the car industry.
These models were some of the first successful American front-wheel drive, fuel-efficient compact cars. It started with import of cars for Royal families. Perhaps the first cars imported in India were in s. For many years India did not have any manufacturing capability of its own. Hindustan Motors is one of the original car manufacturers in India, founded in by Mr.
Birla; it was a leader in car sales until the s, when the industry was opened up from protection. This car is based on the Morris Oxford, a British car that dates back to The company first launched production by building vehicles under license from Dodge and Plymouth.
In , they began producing versions of the Fiat for the Indian market. This was followed by the Fiat in Marutis first model called Maruti became a big success. Within years the company reached an annual production level of nearly 1,00, cars per year.
Fig : Maruti Car By the end of 90s several other global multinational car makers also started manufacturing their models in India. Among them were, General Motors, Ford, Hyundai etc. In just a few years the Indian market for cars has become a hot spot of global automotive activity. Then the first manufacturing started in the 40s. With continued progress many Indian companies like Maruti, Tata, Mahindra have become very big global names.
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