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Based on computer model calculations taking into account the geometry of the metal coiled tube guidance is given in this paper to calculate the relevant material resistivity based on simple resistance measurements on the fully assembled spiral coiled tube. Ignition of a cloud of dry powder using super brush discharges S. Forestier; M. Glor; J. Dien; Ignition of a cloud of dry powder is a major concern in the field of industrial process safety.
The different types of discharges are already defined spark discharges, brush discharges, propagating discharges, cone discharges, corona discharges such as their ignition properties in a gas or a dust atmosphere.
Glor and Schwenzfeuer performed direct ignition tests using brush discharges and defined that even if the energy released by this kind of discharge equaled the one of a spark, the power released by the brush discharge is too low to trigger an ignition.
However, some doubts remained for super brush discharges. Such as a brush discharge, a super brush discharge occurs between a charged insulating object and a conductive electrode. The main difference lies in the surface charge density reached on the insulator that is much higher for a super brush discharge than for a brush discharge. A high charge density can be reached for example using pipes of polyethylene individually charged by tribo-charging piled one above another.
This study is relevant with the actual safety problems since pharmaceutical and chemical powders are well known to generate electrostatic charges during their transport or handling and since the same configuration of independent polyethylene fibers can be found in flexible bulk containers that are one of the most common solutions to package this kind of powder.
This paper presents the experimental set-up and the results of direct ignition tests performed with a polyethylene wax whose MIE is lower than 1mJ at ambient conditions.
The electric field reached at 1 meter and the charge transfer were also registered and are described. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to define the original surface charge density in order to help to understand the phenomenology of this discharge and its frequency of occurrence in industry. Flexible method for corrective actions ranking in the field of protection against explosion S. Forestier; J. Dien; G. This assessment relies on three different steps that are: - the identification of explosive areas and their frequency appear during normal process, appear rarely during normal process, do not appear during normal process, do not appear at all based on the standards IEC for gas atmospheres and IEC for dust atmospheres, i.
If the assessment highlights that the resulting risk is too high, some corrective measures must be implemented to decrease this hazard to a reasonably low value. It is common that for a large plant, several dozens of action shall be implemented. There is a lack of methods in the literature to help HSE engineers to rank the actions to be taken.
What should be corrected first? A very rare deviation that could severely injure or even kill an operator or a less dangerous but more frequent one? A similar decision tree is build which is based on the consequences of the explosion defined in EN , takes into account the probability of attendance of an operator in the hazardous area and the frequency of occurrence of an ignition source and of an explosive atmosphere.
This method gives an index for each explosion scenario. It thus permits to compare the respective indices and to set priorities for safety measures. This method is very flexible and can be adapted to the need of individual plants. It can easily be tailored to the safety policy of the enterprise, and it allows making evident in a transparent manner to top management and authorities the how priorities in the protection concept were set. This method is illustrated with two case studies in this paper.
Perrin; L. Aprin; F. Heymes; S.
Forestier; A. Pey Dust dispersion in an urban area becomes a major concern in several fields: global safety, pollution tracking, accidental release of highly active substances in powder form. In Switzerland, this last point became a relevant scenario of major accident in the middle of Every company producing or working with highly active substances in powder form e. The main background of dust dispersion modeling relies on heavy gas dispersion modeling.
Indeed, air loaded with dust has an apparent density higher than the ambient one and behaves globally as a heavy gas. But other phenomena such as sedimentation, agglomeration have to be considered.
Furthermore, in complex configurations such as urban areas, the accuracy of heavy gas models is low. This paper aims to evaluate the efficiency of an Artificial Neural Networks model to predict the dust dispersion in an urban area. Dust concentration data were collected at different places in a city. The wind velocity, direction, and atmospheric temperature were measured at nearest Meteoswiss station. This one year long data acquisition is thus a very rare data set that can be really useful to calibrate dust dispersion models in such areas.
Results about the comparison between the experimental concentrations found and the results of Artificial Neural Networks based model of dust dispersion are presented. The results are discussed to explain the trends of the experimental values and the variation of accuracy of the tested models.
Thermal stability predictions for inherently safe process design using molecular-based approaches N.
Baati; A. Nanchen; F. Stoessel; T. Meyer Any step of an industrial chemical process can potentially involve thermal risks, as most reactions carried out are exothermic, chemicals are often thermally unstable, and operating conditions set to favor high conversion and throughput.
Even with efficient risk assessment methods and implementation of risk mitigation measures, accidents are still occurring. A rigorous thermal risk assessment is part of most chemical process designs.
This requires answering crucial questions: would the chemical decompose? This information is gathered either from own data, literature, expertise, or experiments. In particular, Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC allows to identify and quantify thermal decompositions characteristics such as its potential energy release, triggering temperature, and thermokinetics data. DSC experiments are not the most resources demanding thermal analysis, however, when an intermediate cannot be isolated or is physically unavailable, it becomes simply impossible to perform a measurement.
Additionally, when several tests have to be performed the required resources accumulate. Hence, in the absence of practically feasible experiments and considering how important this information is, simulated estimations would be an appropriate substitute. Indeed, simulations do not require samples, and could allow to analyze simultaneously numerous alternatives with a certain desired feature and determine the least hazardous one.
Moreover, they can be performed at the early stage of a process design, when the flexibility is still high and the costs of change low. This work aims to propose a reliable method to predict DSC curves from the molecular structures, a method that takes place in scouting synthesis routes for the design of inherently safer processes. Marrero-Gani framework. A set of thermally reactive and structurally diverse chemicals is analyzed. Predictive models are developed for five key properties extracted from their experimental DSC measurements.
Together, these properties preserve the complete thermal trail instead of a classical standard two-value characterization of DSC information. The description and prediction performances of the models developed from both methods are evaluated and compared. We put forward a method relying on molecular-based approaches to predict thermal stability and how it could be used to identify thermal threats without necessarily facing them.
Finally, predictive models would constitute a helpful tool that emphasizes where to concentrate efforts and therefore enables better resources allocation. They allow to deliver estimated values in the absence of measurements and eases the assessment process allowing to focus on the inherently safer procedure.
Drum burst due to runaway reaction and the limits of MOC A. Pey Daily operations and equipment failures may require slight process changes which in many cases are carried out without any effect on safety.
But sometimes unknown hazards are hidden beyond those slight changes. Even if a company has a well implemented Management of Change protocol, the evaluation of every single process change may be difficult to assess in detail as a balance between time available and analysis depth has to be achieved, therefore assessment is made with information and knowledge available in the spot.
In this sense, even if the evaluation is done, the knowledge available may lead to neglect hazards. In this paper, an example of a slight process change is presented which lead to a runaway reaction and a drum burst. Hopefully no injures had to be blamed and only damages on the area where the drum burst had to be considered.
A solvent and a process reactant were mixed for a too long time inside a drum due to a pump failure leading to a different operation during the dosing of reactants into the reactor. The change was evaluated according the MOC and available criteria by plant operator, shift leader and production chemist on duty, without identifying any significant hazard thus allowing the chance to be carried on.
Investigations later revealed that a hazardous exothermic reaction was present at temperatures close to ambient temperature between the reactant and the solvent. This case is an example of an unknown by the operational workforce — known only by experts and the fact that experts may not be systematically involved in the assessment of slight process changes due to the time available to carry out operations.
Beside the analysis and explanation of the accident, the aim is to define measure to prevent similar incidents to take place; therefore lessons learned allow defining some recommendations related to MOC management which can be applied to any company helping to unhide hazards and make the knowledge available to people carrying out operations in the field.
Bisel; C. Kubainsky; D. Steiner; D.
Bordeaux; J. Benabdillah The minimum ignition energy MIE is one of the most important parameters for the assessment of explosion risks and the design of protection concepts when handling combustible powders.
It is well known that the MIE depends decreases with decreasing particle size. Therefore testing standards require that MIE is determined with a defined sieve fraction of the powder, i. In the pharmaceutical industry the handling of powder mixtures is common. Investigations have shown the effect of mixing dust explosive powders with inert or less sensitive auxiliary materials. Due to granulation or compacting processes, granulometry of powders in galenical production can be quite complex, i.
This paper shows the effect of complex particle size distributions on the MIE. In particular the effect of small fraction of fines in a relatively coarse granulated powder is investigated.
Safety issue with flammable Solvents in pharmaceutical Production M. Steinkrauss; E. Huxol; C. Kubainsky; G. Suter In the pharmaceutical production are isolators in use to handle open highly active pharmaceutical compounds.
The isolators are the safety barrier to avoid inhalation or skin contact with the highly active substances. From time to time the isolators must be cleaned and disinfected due to GMP and microbiological requirements.
Often flammable solvents like ethanol are used for this purpose. Contrary to Deconex and others, flammable solvents dry without leaving any residue behind. Disinfection is carried out by spraying, wiping or bathing most parts of the equipment, the plant and the room. By spraying flammable solvents, formation of an explosive atmosphere is possible. Swissi simulates evaporation of flammable solvent in an self build isolator under different conditions by spraying the solvent.
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