Chemical Process Principles. Part One: View: PDF | PDF w/ Links Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes (Felder, Richard M.; Rousseau, Ronald W.). In the second part the fundamental principles of thermodynamics are pre- sented with rium compositions in both physical and chemical processes. Because of. Chemical process principles‐part 1, Material and Energy Balances. O. A. Hougen , K. M. Watson, and R. A. Ragatz. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Chemical process principles‐part 1, Material and Energy Balances. O. A. Hougen , K. M. Watson, and R. A. Ragatz. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New. Chemical Process terney.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read book online. Solution Manual for Chemical Process Principles by Hougen and Watson Part 1 PDF - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
In this table, the numbers, which are known as atomic weights, give the relative weights of the atoms of the various chemical elements, all referred to the arbitrarily assigned value of exactly 16 for the oxygen f tom.
A large amount of work has been done to determine the composition of chemical compounds. As a result of this work, the composition of a great variety of chemical compounds can now be expressed by formulas which indicate the elements that comprise the compound and the relative number of the atoms of the various elements present.
It should be pointed out that the formula of the compound as ordinarily written does not necessarily indicate the exact nature of the atomic aggregates that comprise the compound.
For example, the formula for water is written as H2O, which indicates that when hydrogen and oxygen unite to form water, the union of the atoms is in the ratio of 2 atoms of hydrogen to 1 atom of oxygen. If this compound exists as steam, there are two atoms of hydrogen permanently united to one atom of oxygen, forming a simple aggregate termed a molecule. However, when this same substance is condensed to the liquid state, there is good evidence to indicate that the individual molecules become associated, to form aggregates of larger size, Il20 j:, x being a variable quantity.
With respect to solid substances, it may be said that the formula as written merely indicates the relative number of atoms present in the compound and has no further significance. I be concluded that individual molecules, each of which contains only 6 atoms of carbon, 10 atoms of hydrogen and, 5 atoms of oxygen exist. There is much evidence to indicate that aggregates of the nature of CeHioOs!
It is general practice where possible to write the formula of a chemical compound to correspond to the number of atoms making up one molecule in the gaseous state. If the degree of association in the gaseous state is unknown the formula is written to correspond to the lowest possible number of integral atoms which might make up the molecule.
However, where the actual size of the molecule is important care must be exercised in determining the degree of association of a compound even in the gaseous state. For example, hydrogen fluoride is commonly designated by the formula H F and at high temperatures and low pressures exists in the gaseous state in molecules each comprising one atom of fluorine and one atom of hydrogen.
However, at high pressures and low temperatures even the gaseous molecules undergo association and the compound behaves in accordance with the formula HF i, with x a function of the conditions of temperature and pressure. Fortunately behavior of this type is not common. Mass Relations in Chemical Reactions.
In stoichiometric calculations, the mass relations existing between the reactants and products of a chemical reaction are of primary interest. Such information may be deduced from a correctly written reaction equation, used in conjunction with atomic weight values selected from a table of atomic weights.
It must be pointed out at the outset that it is only material resource that undergoes this virtuous cycle. Energy is an essential ingredient of any venture, because just bringing materials in contact with one another serves no useful purpose.
It requires energy to make things happen. Quantitative energy recycle and reuse, however, cannot be a feature of a circular economy, as it would run against the wall of the second law of thermodynamics—an inviolate law of science. The figure above can be appreciated as a simple illustration of two extremes. Likewise, the circular economy is an idealized version of what the proponents have conjured up for the future.
We have also allowed an upcoming special issue on the topic. It is evident that the concept is taking hold in technical circles in Europe and elsewhere, and it would take its roots in North America as soon as government agency funding becomes inevitably available for research. The underlying goal of this concept is transition to renewable energy sources from the current domination by fossil-based sources and is supposed to achieve three aims: 1 eliminate waste and pollution generation at the design stage, 2 keep recycling and reusing materials and products, and 3 regenerate natural systems.
Concerns for the environment in the context of industrial and commercial developments have driven policy in some form since the Alkali Act in the nineteenth century and the efforts in combatting the ill-famous London fog in Great Britain.
But an avalanche of government regulations started being issued to reign in the ill effects of manufacturing practices in the s, particularly just before and after the formation of the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA. The initial efforts in this sense were described as control technologies intended to turn toxic and offensive emissions, discharges, and disposal into benign wastes.
In parallel, the core idea of preventing pollution or waste creation was embodied in terms and programs that came in various monikers such as waste minimization, pollution prevention, design for the environment, industrial ecology, cradle to cradle, green chemistry, sustainable development, and resiliency.
Inherently safe chemistry and inherently safe design are additional terms being used along the same line. Circular economy is just the latest prescription. Volume 1 , Issue 1.
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