Commentary on the sunni hadith Sahih al-Bukhari. Identifier FathAlBariOfBuhari_ Identifier-arkark://t6k13gk OcrABBYY . Fath-al-bari-by-allama-abu-abdullah-muhammad-bin-ismail-bukharipdf-format. IdentifierFathAlBariVol Identifier-arkark://t88h27x Fath Ul Bari. byAllama Ibn e Hajar Asqalani IdentifierFathUlBari. Identifier-ark ark://t0ns3kf Ocrlanguage not currently OCRable.
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Fath al Bari. Imam Bukhari's Sahih is one of the most important works in. Hadith literature, it's importance may be gauged by the fact that at least seventy full. the most celebrated is without question the magnificent Fath al-Bārī ("Victory of . Ibn Hajar commenced the enormous task of assembling his Fath al-Bārī in Fatḥ al-Bārī fī Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī is a multi-volume commentary on the Sunni hadith . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
A few days later the news of al-bukhari s death reached me, and when I checked I realised that he had died at the moment when I beheld that dream. Some members of the family had settled in Palestine, which they left again when faced with the Crusader threat, but he himself was born in Egypt in , the son of the Shafi i scholar and poet Nur al-din Ali and the learned and aristocratic Tujjar.
Both died in his infancy, and he was later to praise his elder sister, Sitt al-rakb, for acting as his second mother. The two children became wards of the brother of his father s first wife, Zaki al-din al-kharrubi, who entered the young Ibn Hajar in a Qur anic school kuttab when he reached five years of age.
Here he excelled, learning Surat Maryam in a single day, and progressing to the memorisation of texts such as the Mukhtasar of Ibn al-hajib on usul.
By the time he accompanied al-kharrubi to Mecca at the age of 12, he was competent enough to lead the Tarawih prayers in the Holy City, where he spent much time studying and recalling God amid the pleasing simplicity of Kharrubi s house, the Bayt al- Ayna, whose windows looked directly upon the Black Stone.
Two years later his protector died, and his education in Egypt was entrusted to the hadith scholar Shams al-din ibn al-qattan, who entered him in the courses given by the great Cairene scholars al-bulqini d. After a further visit to Mecca and Madina, and to the Yemen, he returned to Egypt.
When he reached 25 he married the lively and brilliant Anas Khatun, then 18 years of age. She was a hadith expert in her own right, holding ijazas from Zayn al-din al- Iraqi, and she gave celebrated public lectures in the presence of her husband to crowds of ulema among whom was Imam al-sakhawi. After the marriage, Ibn Hajar moved into her house, where he lived until his death.
Many noted how she surrounded herself with the old, the poor and the physically handicapped, whom it was her privilege and pleasure to support. So widely did her reputation for sanctity extend that during her fifteen years of widowhood, which she devoted to good works, she received a proposal from Imam Alam al-din al-bulqini, who considered that a marriage to a woman of such charity and baraka would be a source of great pride.
Once esconced in Egypt, Ibn Hajar taught in the Sufi lodge khaniqah of Baybars for some twenty years, and then in the hadith college known as Dar al-hadith al- Kamiliyya. During these years, he served on occasion as the Shafi i chief justice of Egypt. Among these are al-durar al-kamina a biographical dictionary of leading figures of the eighth century , a commentary on the Forty Hadith of Imam al-nawawi a scholar for whom he had particular respect ; Tahdhib al-tahdhib an abbreviation of Tahdhib al-kamal, the encyclopedia of hadith narrators by al-mizzi , al-isaba fi tamyiz al-sahaba the most widely-used dictionary of Companions , and Bulugh al-maram min adillat al-ahkam on Shafi i fiqh.
In , Ibn Hajar commenced the enormous task of assembling his Fath al-bari.
It began as a series of formal dictations to his hadith students, after which he wrote it out in his own hand and circulated it section by section to his pupils, who would discuss it with him once a week.
As the work progressed and its author s fame grew, the Islamic world took a close interest in the new work. These positions in those times were only given to the scholars, or those who could fulfill the criteria of these positions.
As for the teachers of Ibn Hajar, he has more than eight hundred. He wrote a book talking about his various different teachers who he learnt from. Also his students were very many, such that a student would come and learn from him and then the son of the student would also come and learn from him. So a father and son would take priding in having learned from Ibn Hajar owing to the rank that Ibn Hajar held in his lifetime.
Also the different scholars in the land were students of Ibn Hajar himself. He had many books and these books spread out amongst the Muslims world in his lifetime.
Even the teachers and contemporaries of Ibn Hajar would request his books. Even more so than his students, so that they may learn from them. This showed the level that Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala had placed Ibn Hajar that he was above most of the contemporaries of his time. Ibn Hajar was well known for his piety, being detached from the world his Zuhd.
Al-Buqa'i mentions about Ibn Hajar that he would fast continuously and eat very little. He would also be careful of eating the food of other people and if he was travelling then he would eat whatever he wish to, and if his money were to run out, then he would eat things lowly things that normal people wouldn't like to eat. People would eat meat, those who took salaries from the government for example the army, etc. But he would never take any of the food from these people because of his piety and his cautiousness of where his food would come from.
The scholars of Islam would give Ibn Hajar precedence and they would honour him whether they be the scholars of his time or those who came after him. Al-Buqa'i said about him that he is the leader of the people, the Imam of the Muslims.
Ash-Shawkani said about him, that he is the great famous hafidh well knowledgeable about hadith. So if the word Al-Hafidh is said, then it indicated Ibn Hajar, unless the word Al-Hafidh is qualified by someone else. This shows the great level and rank that Ibn Hajar reached. Another scholar said about him, that he is one of the great scholars of the scholars of our past he is the Leader of The Believers in regards to hadith, he is the most knowledgeable scholar of his time. About his great book Fath al-Bari, the Shaykh said, it is like a dictionary of the Sunnah.
Ibn Ishaq and Ahmed added that a carpet covered with fragrant herbs used to be rolled out for him and Heraclius would walk on it. So when the truce of Al- Hudaibya was in effect. Abu Sufyan saying. Heraclius saying. I knew that it was very likely that if I lied to him. Heraclius saying: This is explicit in the nar- ration of Ibn Ishaq.
Had I lied. He did not lie out of shame that. Abu Sufyan saying: By Allah! As for the people of high family status and nobility. In this case. Abu Sufyan re- plied. Ibn Ishaq added in his narration: Abu Sufyan said: I have never seen a more cun- ning man than that un-circumcised man i.
In another narration in Sahih Al-Bukhari. In fact all the Prophets come from noble families amongst their respective peo- ples. He said this with conviction which shows that this reply was based upon specific knowledge that he had from the previous scriptures. Ibn Ishaq narrates that Abu Sufyan said. He made the state- ment with regards to the future so none could ascribe a lie to him. Then I asked you whether any- one of his ancestors was a king…. He orders us to pray perform Salaah.
So this was the situation of the prophets compan- ions. That is why Allah revealed. I have perfected your religion for you. It does not enter a heart and then leave it. A person whose aim is nothing but worldly gains may easily betray others. I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. True faith Eeman begins as a light which keeps increasing until it becomes complete in all re- spects like prayers salaah.
Heraclius is reported as saying: Heraclius said. You re- plied that it was the weak that followed him. I then asked you whether the noble people followed him or the weak. That is. I asked you whether there was anybody. So the Apostles are tested in this way but the ultimate victory is always theirs.
In this narration of the event. However as Heraclius himself said later. He remained greedy for his kingdom and preferred the temporary worldly life over the eternal hereafter. I would walk until I reach him so that I can kiss his feet. It is possible to assume that Heraclius entered Islam and concealed his faith while commit- ting this wrongdoing fighting the Muslims to save his rule and his life.
Heraclius did not reply although he came close to enter- ing Islam. What gives strength to the notion that Heraclius preferred his kingdom over embracing Islam and continued in his state of misguidance are the following evidences: The letter said: And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance!
Ta-Ha Di- hya reached Heraclius in the month of Al-Muharram in the beginning of the year 7 H. This nephew mocked the letter when he heard it and said. Al-Harith bin Shamir Al-Ghassani. It is also narrated that when Heraclius was presented with the letter. If it is asked. Believe in Allah. These will be given their reward twice over. And when it is recited to them.
Embrace Islam and you will be safe. Our Sheikh Ul-Islam Al-Baqillani derived from this hadith the ruling that whoever believes in the religion of the People of the Scripture i. The proof is that Heraclius and his people the Romans were not from Banu Israel. Allah will double your reward. Judaism or Christianity is to be considered as one of them in the legal rulings of marriage and eating their slaughtered animals even if they entered the religion after it was corrupted.
Come to a word…. Come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allah and that we associate nothing in worship with Him.. This does not contradict the words of Allah. He may have only remembered the first part of the letter and the verse that was that was mentioned.
Despite this. It may well be an addition from Abu Sufyan. One for the sinful act itself and the other for causing others to sin as well. The Muslims received word that the Romans had defeated the Byzantines and they rejoiced. The reason behind this is that the verse was revealed regarding the incident of the delegation of the Christians of Najraan. This will be clarified in the ex- planation of the Book of Military Expiditions.
His The sub narrator saying. The letter has also been used as proof for sending part of the Quran to the land of the enemy and as proof for travelling with the Quran.
It was also used by some as proof for reading the Quran while in a state of janabah major impurity. Some scholars even went as far as to say that this verse was revealed twice. So why would Imam Bukhari relay this information that would seem to strengthen or support the position of the astrologers and foretellers? Meaning a spiteful mood. The only other group of people that were known to practice circumcision was the Jews.
I saw that the leader of those who practice circumcision had appeared become the conqueror. Heraclius realized their hatred to- wards Islam and when he lost the hope of their embracing Islam.
Another reason this narration was brought in the first chapter titled. He hoped that his people would follow him by accepting Islam. Upon hearing the views of Heraclius the people ran towards the gates of the palace like wild donkeys but found the doors closed. In an- other narration. Kasra tore the letter apart. Allah the Almighty says: We commanded you with the same religion we commanded him Noah with. I am not eager for your company. If I die. I will make them clear to you so that you can act on them.
If I live. Whoever fulfills all of them has perfected his belief. Belief Eemaan is statement and action. The saying of the Prophet: This is an example of naming something by sufficing with only a portion of it.
Eemaan linguistically means belief. The predecessors said that eemaan is the belief of the heart. What they meant by This part of the definition is agreed upon by the people of knowledge. The salaf pious predecessors. Most of the people of kalam theologians denied this. What was relayed about the Salaf eemaan comprising of statement and action. This position is strengthened by the fact that each person knows that what is in his heart is of varying levels comprising of what is good and what is better.
If the action does not connote disbelief. Disbelief only applies in the sense that the person has done actions of disbelief. This is in relation to what is judged by Allah. For this reason. The negation of faith would apply only to the completion of faith meaning that his faith is not complete. Malik Ibn Anas. Ibn Jurayj.
Al-Bukhari said. I will make The continua- tion of this narration is. This is proof that he was increased in eemaan by making remembrance of Allah. I am not eager for your com- pany. The believer acquires faith and then remains in a con- stant state of renewing his eemaan whenever he contemplates or thinks.
So much so. As proof that actions are a part of eemaan. And that is the correct religion. Allah mentioned actions such as establishing the prayer and giving the zakah as being part of eemaan Chapter. Islam is based on the following five principles: To pay Zakat obligatory charity We commanded you and him Nuh the same deen. To establish the salaat prayer 3. To fast during the month of Ramadan. The answer is that this is comparable to a house built upon five pillars. If it is said that the four 4 pillars mentioned after the shahada are based upon the shahada i.
To perform Hajj. Pilgrimage to Mecca 5. Ibn Majah with a sound chain and also by Muslim. The structure stands as long as the central column exists even if one or more of the supportive pillars fell.
Allah informs the disbelievers that He shall pay no attention concern to them. The fact that there are a number of narrations with fasting mentioned before hajj shows that this wording was narrated by meaning rather than exact wording. Ibn Battal claimed that this narration Islam being built upon five occurred before jihad became an obligation.
There is sub- stantial difference of opinion regarding his real name. Barr said: Those are the ones who have been true. The actions of the heart consist of the beliefs and the intentions and are twenty-four branches including belief in the following. Tech- nically. It was stated in another narration.
Abu Da- wood. What can be summarized from their efforts is that the branches of eemaan are based on the actions of the heart. The answer is that good character can either be natural or it can be learned.
Further explanation of this subject will follow in the chapter titled. It is part of eemaan for this reason and due to what it entails from actions of obedience and avoidance of wrongdoing. This also includes believing that everything other than Allah is created. Sabr patience. Jannah paradise. Sixty-nine branches have been mentioned and it can be considered seventy-nine if the ones that were combined are separated. Another possibility is that it is an encouragement to perfect ones conduct with his lord.
The tongue was specified because it is the outlet to what is in the soul while the hand was speci- fied because most actions are performed with it. The answer would be that the one who possesses this characteristic while complying with the other pillars is a complete Muslim.
The Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe. The mention of Muslims avoids harming Muslims is what applies in most situations because avoiding harming Muslims is strongly affirmed while the disbelievers have various situations. Al-Khattaabe said. It may. The apparent hijrah is the fleeing with ones religion from trials. Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim added an authentic narration from Anas. The hidden hijrah is the abandonment of what the misleading nafs soul and the shaytan satan call to.
Any time a word is generalized it is interpreted to mean the best and most com- plete form of the word. This is the first hadith recorded by Bukhari that was not also recorded by Muslim.
On whose Islam is best. Al-Hasan Bin Sufyan. This same question Whose Islam is best? So due to this. In the narration of Bukhari mentioned here. This understanding is more appropriate than the un- derstanding of some the explainers of hadith who have said the meaning of the hadith is: Which attributes of Islam are best.
After it has been established that some of the Islamic characteristics of the Muslims are better than others. They said In the narration of Muslim. Abu Musa. Which Islam Means which possessor of Islam is best. In the second narration. Hadith In the previous narration the answer the Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand the Muslims are safe may have been directed at a person whose harm was feared..
Al-Karmane said. This counters those who assert that both questions held the same meaning yet received a different answer.
This explanation is further supported by the There is a connection between the two qualities mentioned feeding the people and greeting them with salam as feeding people entails good deeds preformed with the hand.
Each answer was given in light of the situation of the questioner. The answer is that this generality is specified with other proofs. This is further illustrated in another hadith of the Prophet s in which he s said: The Prophet s prayed that Allah would bless him with wealth.
When the believer realises that everything is from Allah swt. A man whom Allah had given wealth and he uses it up for the sake of the Truth and a man whom Allah has given wisdom and he decides by it and uses it accordingly.
Due to his close proximity to the Prophet s.
The only type of jeal- ousy that is permitted is for the sake of theDeen. He embraced Islam while he was very young and his mother brought him to the Prophet s so that he could act as his servant. He there- fore died a wealthy man with over children and grandchildren by the time of his death. If one is envious and jealous. If we are unable to realise this sentiment. He therefore spent ten blessed years living alongside the Prophet s and took part in many with him. The type of society built on love and compassion, in which the believers truly love for one an- other what they love for themselves, was the society built by the Prophet s and his Compan- ions.
They sacrificed for each other, gave of their wealth and sustenance, and in some cases, even gave their loved ones. If we were able to find this level sacrifice amongst ourselves, imagine what type of community we could build. May Allah help us to purify our intentions and actions and make us of those who realise this level of faith. How could that be, when you. Then as for the one who is not please with himself, then how can love that the Muslims should should be like him while being sincere towards them?
Rather he should love for the Muslims to be better than him, and he should love for himself to be better than he currently is. This is due to the later statement: Signifies the permissibility of swearing by Allah to emphasize something of importance or sig- nificance, even without the presence of someone requesting that swearing. He mentioned his father before his children due to the majority, since everyone has a father, while on the other hand many people may not have children.
Either the statement is generally referring to the parents of the child i. This narration used the example of someone who is beloved to a person. The reason the father was mentioned before the son is because he precedes him in age and honor. The per- son who is able to attain conviction.
If he would not let the opportunity to see the prophet pass him by. The parable is not limited to seeing the prophet physically. Oh Umar. Al-Nawawi said it the love mentioned in the narration is an outcome of the nafs self. So he said. Is oneself included in his saying. One measure of this love.
Al-Qurtubi said. The people believers will vary in this regard accord- ing to their level of awareness or negligence of it. The love of the prophet is engrained in their hearts. As for the love that is experienced towards other people.
There are two types of love with the self. As in the parable of a person who is indulged in desires. Each person wishes to have a healthy love for himself throughout his life without problems in this regard. His saying.. Abu Muhammad Ibn Abi Jamra said. This comparison is understood in the parable of two people.
The weaker the health of the indi- vidual. Allah presents an example. The sick person finds honey to have a bitter taste. A certainty is established that everything Allah promised or warned about is definite truth. The believer is then able to visualize these prom- ises as realities. This is similar to a sick person who dislikes tak- ing medicine although his mind recognizes the importance of the medicine.
And Allah does not guide the defi- antly disobedient people. At times. Al-Baydaawi said. Loving Allah is of two types. His mind then leans towards it the Shariah and his habit of fulfilling its orders causes his desires to also incline to it.
The outcome is loving what Al- lah loves. When a person realizes that Allah is the one who gives blessings and has the ability to take them and that his messenger is the one who clarifies the orders he will turn his attention completely towards them. Al-Baydawi continued as summarized. Whoever struggles with himself to establish these characteristics will taste the sweetness of ee- maan.
Sweetness of faith is feeling joy in the obedience of Allah. Some said that it is not permissible for someone other than the Prophet to say. Loving the messenger of Allah can also be divided into the two categories described above with the following additions. Recommended — The love that leads to persistence in performing the voluntary good deeds and avoidance of falling into the doubtful matters.
Very few people meet these criteria. Shaykh Muhyee Ad-Deen said. As Allah says. The answer is that according to the wording of the hadith this would seem to be true. The end result is that only a true believer loves the Ansaar. The answer is that the restriction can be used in the Arabic language as an overstatement to show importance or it may be an actual restriction.
The reason it was mentioned specifically here was to show its particular im- portance.. We may conclude that hating them based upon the fact that they aided and supported the messenger of Allah is definitely hypocrisy.
This caused hostility to build towards them from Arabs and non-Arabs alike. In light of this. These two tribes were previously known as Banee Qayla. The individual merit and virtue of each particular person from the Ansaar is in accordance to that which he put forward.
Those battles were waged during a state of emergency.
The situation of the wars waged falls into the category of one who strives to reach a ruling in the religion. He asked. This is one of the narrations recorded by Bukhari that was not recorded by Muslim. Eemaan and Islam are synonymous in the Shariah and Allah says. When both terms are mentioned together they each have a different meaning.
Islam means surrender and submission to the commands of Allah. Al- Nawawi said. This is reference to the middle of valleys which are the habitat and grounds for the grazing animals. They can be used interchangeably in the context of the Shariah. Then he said. We are not like you. The saying of the Prophet. Allah has forgiven you of your past and future wrongdoings. Allah will not judge him merely based upon his words unless his heart actually disbelieves.
They said. Benefit The imam of the haramain said. And what came in the hadith. The fi- trah inclination of Allah upon which He has created [all] people. This was considered sufficient evidence of their reverting to the recognition of Allah.
Allah says. Imam Nawawi said. He said. As he said in an- other narration. Attaining the fruits and benefits of worship gives a person more reason to remain consistent upon it.
The obligation to have determination to stop at the bounds that Allah set. It is very important to have clear intent during acts of worship and establish consis- tency. This narration is not recorded anywhere with any other chain of narration. I am the most righteous and most God- fearing amongst you. His message began by calling the people to bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship other than Allah. Hating to revert to disbelief as much as hating to be thrown into a fire is part of eemaan.
One should avoid attempting to conceptually perceive matters of the hereafter that have been confirmed by authentic sources i. Muslim recorded this hadith as narrated by Malik. The weight of a mustard seed is in reference to the amount of good performed once tawheed has been established. The people of eemaan are of various levels based upon their deeds. Al-Khattabe said. They will be brought out after having been blackened by it. Allah will say. We say that it increases and decreases and they say that it does not in- crease nor decrease.
We say that we are believers with the acceptance of Allah. Sufyan Ath-Thawri said. He has left eemaan. We say eemaan is sayings and actions and they say that eemaan is sayings without actions. This station between the two stations is an innovation which has no proof in the book of Allah.
Messenger of Allah? It was mentioned that the people were of various levels according the length of shirt they wore. Modesty is part of eemaan. Ibn Qutaiba said. This is dif- ferent from an audacious person who is rarely shy in behavior. Modesty is built upon shyness and chastity. Al- Raghib said. Some said that modesty causes a person to avoid things or situations that he dislikes.
A wise man said. It has also been said that modesty is obligatory regarding matters prohibited by the Shariah. Another correlation between the verse and the hadith is that the re- frainment in the verse i. This is due to On the other hand. If they do that. The prayer referred to is the obligatory prayer and not the prayer in general. The proof for this opinion is in the actions of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq.
This necessitates that once the testimony of faith occurs. Bearing witness to the message includes believing in all that was revealed with it. Imam An-Nawawi said. Al- Kirmani. The answer is that their addition signifies their importance as they are the source of all acts of worship both physical and material. It may also be understood that: If it said. The answer may be considered from a number of different angles. It may be a general statement. It may be that what is meant by fighting was actual fighting.