Praktična hrvatska gramatika čitatelju nudi opis suvremenoga hr vatskoga standardnoga (književnoga) jezika. Ujedno, ona sadrži i elemente objasnidbene i. Nova hrvatska gramatika. Drapprtin RaguZ: gramatika ipak narnijenjena strancima jer. sadrZi jedan veöi broj tikama dmgih jezika ova grarnatika terney.info . gramatika. Vinko Grubi5ii: Croatian Grammar. Hrvatska sveuöili5na naklada. Zagreb Nedavno su se pojavile dvije nove grama- tike hn'atskoga jezika.
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Gramatika. Osnove gramatike hrvatskoga standardnog jezika: FONETIKA I FONOLOGIJA. GLASOVI, FONEMI I ALOFONI · GLASOVI HRVATSKOGA. Gramatika bosanskoga jezika I Dževad Jahić,. Senahid Halilović, Isrnail Palić. - l. izd.- . Tri perioda razvoja bosanskoga govornog jezika. PDF | Dragutin Parčić published, a grammar of Croatian language in Italian, in Zadar, in ˝GRAMMATICA DELLA LINGUA SLAVA (ILLIRICA) ˝. The first part.
Graphical- ly, the prezent is represented as follows. The event, speech and reference time all fall in the same moment, which is present. There is basically no difference between the sentence with the perfekt and the sentence with the prezent. Both of them show the same present state, but the prezent shows simply the present state. On the other hand the perfekt shows the same present state as the result of a past event.
The prezent belongs to the category of the verbal tenses, which are not mar- ked by the perfectivity. The unmarked category contains all non—perfect ten- ses, because in the Croatian verbal system the perfect is the only marked ca- tegory, unlike in English, where along with the perfect, the continuous is also a marked category.
The main function of the imperfekt and the aorist is to denote un- marked past events. It is a classical example of past tense expressed by the aorist. The action is past and it has nothing to do with present. The speech time is the present moment. The event time is the past moment and the reference time stays in the past with the event time, which makes the tense past. In their secondary functions the imperfekt and the aorist can express pre- sent as well as future, but such usage is highly embellished by stylish nature of writing.
Most of the grammar books are not very concrete in defining the imperfekt and the aorist, but they all do agree with the fact that the main function of the imperfekt and the aorist is to express a past action or event. The real nature of the events or the actions expressed by the imperfekt and the aorist can be understood only in relation with the perfect tense, since it expresses non—perfect tense unmarked in past. In the contemporary Croatian the use of the imperfekt and the aorist has become restrained only to the literary texts.
Their use has been almost com- pletely diminished in everyday oral communication, except in some phrases li- ke odoh, rekoh etc. The imperfekt and the aorist in everyday communication are being replaced by the perfekt with corresponding verbal aspect in its secon- dary function — the imperfekt by the imperfective and the aorist by the perfec- tive verbal aspect.
Apart of the main function, that is to express the present perfect tense, the perfekt has a secondary function too, that is to express the past tense, precisely the function of the preterit tenses.
Unlike in the main function, where the perfekt cannot be replaced by any of the past tenses, the aorist or the imperfekt or by the historical present, the perfekt in the secondary function can be repla- ced by all of the above mentioned non—perfect tenses. The semantics of the perfekt in its secondary function appears only when the perfekt loses its perfectivity. In such case, morphologically, the perfekt re- mains the present perfect tense, but semantically it becomes a past tense.
These are the widely accepted English translations for two verbal aspects typical of Slavic languages. The- refore the verbal tense also becomes the past as the event itself is past.
In such case it can be replaced by the imperfekt and the aorist. The stylistic value of the sentence has been erased by the perfekt. The past perfect tense in Croatian is expressed by the pluskvamperfekt plu- perfect. The pluskvamperfekt is formed with the perfect participle and the au- xiliary biti and again perfect participle has nothing to do with the formation of the tense; it is the auxiliary that defines the tense, which is past in this case.
The auxiliary biti in the past tense takes the form either of the imperfekt or the perfekt.
One must keep in mind the fact that the perfekt in the role of auxiliary is neutralised in its perfectivity, hence shows the past tense, as does the imperfekt, so they can replace each other. The event or action expressed by the pluskvamperfekt in the meaning of past perfect is parallel or equal to the event or action expressed by the perfekt in the meaning of present perfect.
The only difference is that the pluskvamper- fekt tense takes place in past and the perfekt tense in present. The pluskvam- perfekt expresses the event occurred or the action took place prior to the past and keeps the live contact with the past.
To define this situation, another pa- rameter can be added, which helps in understanding the temporal value of the pluskvamperfekt — second event time ET2. The second event helps in explai- ning the pluskvamperfekt, because in relation to the second event the main event becomes past or perfect.
The speech time as usual is present and the event time is in past. The ref- erence time is also in past, but the reference time coincides with the time of 50 S. The perfectivity of the pluskvamperfekt can also be neutralised, as it hap- pens with the perfekt. When the perfectivity of the pluskvamperfekt gets neu- tralised, it loses its live contact with the past ET2 and only the event stays that also occurred in the past ET1 , but it is not the same past.
It is prior to the other past action. Here, unlike the above situation, the reference time stays with the main event time ET1 because of neutralised perfectivity. The main event becomes the past event, but not the same as in case of the imperfekt and the aorist. It is past to another past event ET2.
That is the reason why the pluskvamperfekt is not an independent tense, it always needs a past event or action, according to which it is perfect tense marked or tense denoting an action prior to past event unmarked.
In Croatian the pluskvamperfekt denoting past perfect tense is formed main- ly with perfective verbal aspect, but rarely it is formed with the imperfective aspect too. On the other hand, the pluskvamperfekt, denoting event which oc- curred before another past event non perfect past tense; pluperfect , is formed only with the verbs of perfective aspect. The non—perfect future tense in Croatian is expressed with the futur I, a member of unmarked category.
With non—perfect future there can be two pos- sibilities: first, when the reference time and the event time are at one point somewhere in the future after the speech time. In the second case, when the reference time remains at present moment with the speech time and event time is somewhere in the future. The futur II is formed with the perfect participle and the auxiliary biti in perfective present tense.
It denotes a perfect future action or event, which is past or prior to another future event E2. It can be called pre—future perfect tense. The futur II is not an inde- pendent tense as well. The event depends on another future event, which oc- curs after the main event. The main event is in live contact with the second event. The results of the main event lie at the time of the second event.
As in the pluskvamperfekt, the reference time lies at the same point of time where the second event falls. But, unlike in the pluskvamperfekt, this whole situation happens in future, which is shown by the position of the speech time before the event and reference time. The futur III is formed with the perfect participle and the auxiliary biti in the futur I.
It denotes the future perfect action or event. Later on in the third edition of the same book the term has been changed into preterit—future pre- teritofutur.
His observation of the perfectivity of the futur III is evident in his choice of the term preteritoperfekt, later on the perfekt is replaced by futur just to make sure the term represents the future tense.
Its role will be explained later in the article. Basically the graphic explanation of the futur III does not differ from futur II, but the futur II is an event which took place before the second event and these two events are in live contact, which makes it dependent and pre—future perfect tense. On the other hand, the futur III is an independent tense.
It does need a context to make it perfect, but the context does not make it pre—future perfect tense, but simply the future perfect tense. The rate of Slovenian speech in regards to measurements is mostly 4. Ljubljana: Kat. Ljubljana: Oddelek za slovenistiko Zagreb: Ibis grafika Collins , Beverley - Mees , Inger: Practical phonetics and phonology : a resource book for students.
Malden - Oxford - Carlton: Blackwell Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Chichester; Ames: Wiley-Blackwell Zakaj te imamo radi.
Ljubljana: Modrijan Volume 32, Issue 3, pp. Roach , Peter: English phonetics and phonology. Glossary A little Encyclopaedia of Phonetics.